An Exposition on Imam Zainol Abedin’s Sahifeh Sajjadieh

Shaykh Husayn Ansariyan  Translated byDr. M. Farrokhpey  Associate Professor 

گلچينی از اشعار اسلامی

An Anthology of Islamic Poetry Vol. 1

Compiled by: Dr. Ali Peiravi, Talat June Peiravi, Maryam Peiravi

Edited by: Lisa Zaynab Morgan – M.A.

Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum

First Edition 2004 – 1425 - 1383

ISBN: 964-438-583-7


Ansariyan Publications

P.O. Box 187

22 Shohada Str. Qum

Islamic Republic Of Iran

Tel: ++ 98 251 7741744   Fax: 7742647

Email:  &



Introduction. PAGEREF _Toc64915595 \h 9

Preface. PAGEREF _Toc64915596 \h 12

The Luminous Life of Imam Zainol Abedin (S) PAGEREF _Toc64915597 \h 19

The Birth of Zainol Abedin. PAGEREF _Toc64915598 \h 19

Name, Surname and Nickname of Zainol Abedin. PAGEREF _Toc64915599 \h 19

The worship of Zainol Abedin(s) PAGEREF _Toc64915600 \h 21

The Supplication of Zainol Abedin (s) PAGEREF _Toc64915601 \h 23

The Personality of Zainol Abedin(s) PAGEREF _Toc64915602 \h 27

Zainol Abedin’s manners. PAGEREF _Toc64915603 \h 30

1) His Meeting With a Quick tempered Man. PAGEREF _Toc64915604 \h 30

2) His Behavior Towards the Lepers. PAGEREF _Toc64915605 \h 30

3) Imam’s Speial Pardoning of the Deposed Governor–general PAGEREF _Toc64915606 \h 31

4) I am secure from you. PAGEREF _Toc64915607 \h 31

5) Where is the Source of All of This Kindness. PAGEREF _Toc64915608 \h 32

6) I Will Pay Your Debts. PAGEREF _Toc64915609 \h 32

7) On the Way to the Mosque. PAGEREF _Toc64915610 \h 32

8) Legal Sustenance is God’s Alms to Servants. PAGEREF _Toc64915611 \h 32

9) I Love to Obey Absolutely. PAGEREF _Toc64915612 \h 32

10) A Lovely Story. PAGEREF _Toc64915613 \h 33

11) A Very Strange Story. PAGEREF _Toc64915614 \h 33

12) A Marveous Event. PAGEREF _Toc64915615 \h 33

13) This is the True Kindness and Justice. PAGEREF _Toc64915616 \h 34

14) This is the Extreme Benevolence. PAGEREF _Toc64915617 \h 34

15) Helping the Needy. PAGEREF _Toc64915618 \h 34

16) Disregard for Worldly Ornaments. PAGEREF _Toc64915619 \h 34

17) Beside the Holy Quran. PAGEREF _Toc64915620 \h 35

18) A Huge Miracle Related to Imam Sajjad’s Behavior. PAGEREF _Toc64915621 \h 35

19) A Marvellous Program.. PAGEREF _Toc64915622 \h 37

20) Imam Sajjad’s Devine Character. PAGEREF _Toc64915623 \h 37

21) A Sample of the Greatest Perseverance. PAGEREF _Toc64915624 \h 37

22) The Best sample of Virtues. PAGEREF _Toc64915625 \h 37

23) An Abudance more Peculiar than two Loaves of Bread. PAGEREF _Toc64915626 \h 38

The First Invocation. PAGEREF _Toc64915627 \h 41

On Monotheism and the Praise of Allah. PAGEREF _Toc64915628 \h 41

Invocation as the most powerful panacea. PAGEREF _Toc64915629 \h 43

Truth is evident but some people are impatient. PAGEREF _Toc64915630 \h 48

1) The Nature. PAGEREF _Toc64915631 \h 49

2) Research and Focusing Attention on Creation. PAGEREF _Toc64915632 \h 52

3) The Reasoning and the Rational Philosophy. PAGEREF _Toc64915633 \h 53

In the Praise of Allah and on the Meaning of al hamdolellah (All praise is due to Him) PAGEREF _Toc64915634 \h 56

Praising God with the Language of Gnosticism.. PAGEREF _Toc64915635 \h 57

A Strange Anecdote From God’s Men. PAGEREF _Toc64915636 \h 58

First Be Clean And Then Cast Your Eyes On Allah. PAGEREF _Toc64915637 \h 67

The Faulty Eyes And The Lnefficient Wisdom.. PAGEREF _Toc64915638 \h 68

You Will See Him Through The Eyes Of Your Heart: PAGEREF _Toc64915639 \h 71

Moses And The Issue of Seeing God. PAGEREF _Toc64915640 \h 72

The Amazing Story of The Creation. PAGEREF _Toc64915641 \h 82

But in The Scientific Sources: PAGEREF _Toc64915642 \h 84

Some Angles of the Mighty World of Creation. PAGEREF _Toc64915643 \h 90

The Mysterious Issue of Life. PAGEREF _Toc64915644 \h 92

The Precious Jewel of Time. PAGEREF _Toc64915645 \h 128

The Second Martyr and His Attention Towards The Value of Time: PAGEREF _Toc64915646 \h 135

Seyyed Mahdi Qazvini and His View on Time: PAGEREF _Toc64915647 \h 135

The Value of Time in Ali’s View: PAGEREF _Toc64915648 \h 137

How And When to Spend Time. PAGEREF _Toc64915649 \h 138

The Reward For One’s Deeds. PAGEREF _Toc64915650 \h 142

The Strange Phenomenon of Death. PAGEREF _Toc64915651 \h 145

The Death of The Benefactors From The Viewpoint of The Holy Quran  PAGEREF _Toc64915652 \h 148

The Death of The Evil-Doers From The Viewpoint of The Holy Quran  PAGEREF _Toc64915653 \h 148

The Issues of The Grave And The Barrier: PAGEREF _Toc64915654 \h 151

A Statement by the Martyrd Morteza Motahhari PAGEREF _Toc64915655 \h 153

An Exemplary Story from Salman. PAGEREF _Toc64915656 \h 154

A Strange Story of the Barrier of the Dead: PAGEREF _Toc64915657 \h 155

The Adventure of the Writer of the Present Book Regarding the Barrier  PAGEREF _Toc64915658 \h 156

The Adventure of Mohaddeth Qumi Relating to the Barrier. PAGEREF _Toc64915659 \h 157

The Strange Adventure of Ayatollah Aqa Seyyed Jamaleddin Regarding the Barrier  PAGEREF _Toc64915660 \h 158

The Blowing of the Trumpet or the Interlude to the Doomsday: PAGEREF _Toc64915661 \h 159

The Names of the Doomsday. PAGEREF _Toc64915662 \h 160

The Redeemer Acts on the Doomsday. PAGEREF _Toc64915663 \h 162

The condition for being a monotheist is to confess to Ali’s Velayat  PAGEREF _Toc64915664 \h 164

Injurious Actions on The Doomsday. PAGEREF _Toc64915665 \h 171

The Position of Praising God and its Means and Tools. PAGEREF _Toc64915666 \h 177

The Sublime Status of The Men of Knowledge. PAGEREF _Toc64915667 \h 179

1- The Recognition of God Through His Revelation. PAGEREF _Toc64915668 \h 180

The structure of the leaves. PAGEREF _Toc64915669 \h 189

The Structure of the flowers. PAGEREF _Toc64915670 \h 190

The dissemination and fertilization of the plants. PAGEREF _Toc64915671 \h 191

John Glen, The astronaut, confesses to the existence of an intelligent Being governing over the creation: PAGEREF _Toc64915672 \h 192

Revelation shows us how to thank God. PAGEREF _Toc64915673 \h 196

4. Leading people towards sincerity in Monotheism: PAGEREF _Toc64915674 \h 202

Keeping man away from polytheism and blasphemy. PAGEREF _Toc64915675 \h 204

Endearing the Faith. PAGEREF _Toc64915676 \h 205

Making man abhor unbelief, transgression and disobedience. PAGEREF _Toc64915677 \h 205




By the honorable scholar of Nahjolbalaqa and the instructor of Divine Knowledge, Mohammad Taqi Ja’afari

In The Name of Allah

One of those meaningful and constructive aspects of the positive dimensions of man is invocation and having communication with Allah. The lack of correct interpretation and sufficient explanation on these invocations on the one hand, and the great inclination of interest-centered individuals, on the other hand, has deprived numerous people at all times and in many communities of establishing rapport with the Absolute Perfection.

The only result of the destruction of those meaningful and constructive facts and truths was not merely the deprivation of men of beautiful, useful and desired phenomena; rather the human rational life, any minute of which could taste of eternity, has lost its very genuine Identity. Then there would remain nothing for the human wisdom.

Let us not conceive that the beauty, order and welfare in the so-called progressed countries could satisfy the conscience of humanity. And let us not assume that the inclination of the majority of the world population towards this earthly life is based on clear understanding of the truth behind life.[1] But if we observe carefully we will realize that their satisfaction with their life all depends on their interest in those means and representations of the world in which life is depicted very insignificantly.

Invocation is one of those meaningful concepts which build up human character.

Other such concepts are the following:

1. Right and Truth

7. Protection of self

2. Justice

8. Independence

3. Freedom

9. Prosperity

4. Knowledge

10. True love

5. Genuine Thinking

11. Human sublime character

6. Active Conscience

12. Constructive competition

These are the truths the seeds of which are planted into the depth of human souls by the Great Gardner of creation.

Invocation makes man have direct relation with the center of creation which is God.

We might see the result of invocation in the satisfaction of our material needs; but this limitation is to take away the essence of this great truth which will deprive men of the useful consequences of invocation.

If we observe carefully the invocations and prayers which are taught to people by Holy Quran and if we analyze the invocations presented in Nahjolbalaqa and Sahifeh Sajjadieh and other narration sources, we will vividly see that nothing could satisfy man’s needs for perfection and growth like invocations.

With respect to the above sources, the benefits of the above-mentioned truths will be discussed here:

1) Invocation is the most fundamental factor of the growth in human knowledge about the secrets of the creation. This nature and creation has kept the majority of people in the dark prisons of ignorance. In any invocation we utter, there is a new connection with the creator.

2) Since at the time of invocation, which is the most serious time of our lives, man asks God to connect him with the best kind of virtues we could, therefore, safely say that invocation keeps us in this great temple of the world, which is a place of lust and eating for the ignorant ones, in a state of learning the truth and growth factors. Thus, we should observe that invocation is a great temple and a huge university in which man is taught the best courses on “man as he is” and “man as he should be”.

3) The first construction which invocation brings about is to produce a need in man to like to be in the absorption of perfection. Then invocation puts him there.

4) The one who knowingly engages in worshipping, prior to the inunciation of the first word, especially if that word is God’s name, he will get into a strange mental-spiritual terrance which is not to be named except by the acceptance of God.

5) The constructive aspects of invocation concerning man’s numerous dimensions are many, which are unfortunately not taken care of, however.

With the study of this book and with an entry into its contents, which is rightfully called the country of the lovers, this hope is enlivened in the human lovers of perfection that invocation has got its genuine status in man’s culture and has its place as one of the most fundamental factors in the meaningful attempts in the world of rationalism. In the contents of this valuable book, which is rooted in the active thoughts of the great scholar, Mr. Haj Sheikh Hossein Ansaryan, we could find a clear statement on the interpretation of invocations and how man could be in the absorption of perfection, which is the school of the great prophets. The readers who read the contents of this book, which is an interpretation on Sahifeh Sajjadieh written by Imam Ali Ibn Al-Hussein al-Sajjad (s) will encounter a perfect research which, I hope, will open up the door of spirituality to those who are deprived of this divine asset. I hope they, will get to a shiny, flourishing aspect of life.

Mohammad Taqi Ja’afari




In The Nam of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful

Upon the completion of the Islamic knowledge (Gnosticism)[2], which is a comprehensive and detailed explanation and interpretation, in twelve volumes, on the valuable, ethical-gnostic book called Mesbal Al-Sharia’ah and Meftah Al-Haqiqa, for some time I was contemplating on finding a way to go once again along the path of divine, prospering culture. But I could think of no specific issue. Then due to Allah’s special observation and on the prosperous days of the annual of Glorious Prophet’s birthday and Imam Sadiq’s birthday, during a bright night, I thought about the edition of an explanation and interpretation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh which is the product of heart and spirit, soul and heart, the mental state of the Imam of lovers, the life of Gnostics, The distinguished one among worshippers, The sire of prayers, the expert of Philosophers, the Unique among performers of nocturnal devotion, Imam Zeinol Abedin(s).

In order to get encouraged on this spiritual planning, with a lot of humiliation in the presence of Allah, I referred to the Holy Quran, which has always been my guide at hard times, and the holy verse of The Quran was presented to me:

وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًا.

“And the ever-abiding, the good works, are better with your Lord in reward and better in expectation. 18:46.”

This holy verse took me by surprise. For two days I was pondering on this statement of Allah’s.

The relevance of this verse to my work amazed me greatly and the spirituality of this valuable statement of the Great Friend kindled a strange enthusiasm in me to initiate the interpretation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh.

During those two days, the Holy Quran was open in front of me. Whenever I passed it, I had a look at this precious verse, taking light from it till I heard the caller to prayer’s (muezzin) voice, who with his lovely voice was inviting people to Maqreb prayer. While the Holy Quran was still in front of me, and I was staring at the holy verse, I started this God-asked-for planning, although confessing to my humbleness and lack of sufficient knowledge. My only resort in this feat is His favor and I humbly ask Him up to the last pages of this book not to cut his benevolence from this heart-broken poor writer: Nothing takes place without His consent, this we all know.

The bright-thinking Gnostics refer to Sahifeh, the book of Imam Sajjad (s) as “the Bible of the Infallible”, and the scholars have referred to the sea of knowledge as “Zabur of Mohammad Household”[3]

Sahifeh Sajjadieh is the precious treasure of the king of the earth and the heavens, the prince of the country of magnanimity, the commander of the world of sincerity and love, the head of the Gnostics, the leader of the lovers, the sacred person Imam Sajjad(s).

This Collection contains treasures of knowledge, and we can find there whatever is necessary for human growth and perfection.

Sahifeh is a school, the teacher of which is the fourth Imam(s). This is the teacher who has taught world-dwellers during long centuries and has made it possible for individuals to reach their perfection in accordance with their talents.

Sahifeh is the roaring ocean of God’s favors, whose pearls and corals are innumerable, and whose precious items are not countable.

Sahifeh is a burning and shining sun, the exposure of which will turn the man’s sapling into a clean tree.

Sahifeh is Divine’s hot sun. This sun, i.e., Imam Zainol Abedin(s), has risen in the east to educate and nourish the tree of human nature and will spread rays of light up to the eternity.

Sahifeh is the scale of pure and impure, right and wrong, light and darkness, life and death, the world Here and the Hereafter, and health and disease.

Sahifeh is God’s spring of favors, the saver of darkness and the salvager of man from wrong-doing.

Sahifeh is the teacher of knowledge, a source of learning, the attractor of benevolence, the producer of kindness, the maker of one’s personality, the initiator of miraculous acts, and the promoter of man to higher positions.

Sahifeh is an ingenious physician, the beloved of sincere hearts, comfort for lovers, Vameq for Azra, The describer of the East and west, the discoverer of truths, the remedy for pains, the destroyer of the hypocrites, and in fact the spring of God’s favors.

Sahifeh is the comfort for the devotees, the stimulus for the hearts of the progressive ones, the strength of the young, the love of the lovers, the knowledge of the Gnostics; the resort for the wretched, the secrets of secret-keepers, the pain of the poor at night-time, the prayers of early-risers and the capital for the spirits of the hopeful ones.

Sahifeh is a treasure filled with jewels, which is unfortunately left unknown up to the present time and has not been used as it deserves. There has not been prepared any complete interpretation and description for this shore-less ocean, up to now.

The majority of twelve-Imam Shiites are unaware of both Nahjolbalaqa and Sahifeh.

These people are beside the shore-less sea, but they are thirsty; they are next to the greatest treasure of knowledge, but they are ignorant; they enjoy the richest mine of knowledge and the biggest source of sciences, but they are empty-handed.

These people provide themselves with every thing here, being unaware of the other world. They are careful of their bodies, but ignorant of their own spirits; they provide for their lusts, but they forget meaning and their positions.

Fifteen centuries have passed since the rise of Sahifeh, but the majority of people are still in dark regarding this unique divine investment.

Attention on the invocations of Sahifeh Sajjadieh reveals that it is rationally and religiously compulsory that this collection should be taught in the Shiite schools and in cultural schools and should be included in the curricula of these institutes.

Sahifeh should be used as an important topic of curriculum so that through it in every branch of science, virtuous experts, generous graduates, kind and sumpathetic schoulars and devoted scientist could be trained.

It is necessary that the religion leaders teach some chapters from Sahifeh at the end of each day’s lectures on jurisprudence and principles so that after graduating from jurisprudence and principles, these students will be pious, knowledgeable, expert, strong, sincere, devoted, Gnostics and lovers.

It is compulsory that the religion lecturers spend part of their time, especially during the months of Moharram, Safar and Ramathan on the knowledge of Sahifeh so that the audience could benefit from it. It is also necessary for every congregation Imam to present to the audience some sentences from this precious book after prayer or between the two prayers so that the audience could benefit from this heavenly sustenance.

The knowledgeable scholars, and the capable researchers have to explain and interpret this book so that in this way the facts in this unknown sorce become known and man and mankind could benefit from it.

Those who are affluent should encourage the others and themselves to spend their money in the publication of this work. They should be aware that one of the best ways to donate for God is financial assistance in this domain.

Without doubt, if this book is interpreted by knowledgeable scholars and true experts and if it gets published with the best quality and reach the people, it will have the best educational effects on them and through this thousands of people will know the facts and it may happen that from the sparks of this book the most evil-doers might change into the well- wishers.

Was it not for a Divine spark that the son of Yazid Riahi changed into the Divine Horr! Was it not for a spark from the Holy Quran that the most horrible highwayman became the teacher of Gnosticism! Was it not for a breeze from the heart of Musi Ibn Ja’afar who made a pious man out of a lustful drowned in epicurism!

Why should we still stand idly when we have at our disposal so many reasons and so many narrations and Quranic examples?

Now that it is the year 1367 and ten years have passed since the blood-filled Islamic revolution under the leadership of the son of Ali(s) and Zahra(s), the great Jurisprudent of our time, Imam Khomeini(s) took place and this happened after more than three hundred thousand martyrs on the way of the establishment of the government of the Quran, and after having thousands of prisoners of war and unaccounted- for military men and wounded soldiers, among the God- believing, brave people of Iran, and now that conditions are available for any kind of activities in the light of The Holy Quran, Nahjolbalaqa and Sahifeh Sajjadie, and now that the police special service called savak is not in operation any more and now that the interferences of Russia, Israel and the American- based government do not exist any longer, the idleness of experts, the laziness of the devoted ones, the lack of activity for the scholars, the time- wasting of the clergyman is, by God, a great sin which it seems to be unpardonable.

I, as the writer of these books, am now forty three years old and have spent nearly twenty three years of my life writing nearly twenty books on the propagation of the Islamic knowledge. My encouragement in carrying out this task was the thirst of Iranians for divine and Islamic thought and teachings. This desire for learning the Islamic knowledge was more felt after the Islamic Revolution. This inclination towards the Islamic teachings makes the responsibility of any official of the Islamic Republic even harder.

Here I will address the scientific centers for Shiite knowledge, the ministry of education officials, the learned clergymen, the knowledgeable teachers to make your endeavors to supply people with this treasure of Islamic knowledge in order to train people, especially the honorable young generation, who is the holder of the revolution, and who have shed their dear blood to protect the Islamic revolution. Any negligence of tasks and duties is punished in the divine courts on the day of Resurrection.

After the Islamic Revolution, the Filthy communists, the dirty Zionists and the hypocrite Christians cooperated together to demolish the Holy Quran, to annihilate Islam and to destroy the devoted clergymen and to cut by root the noble Islam of Muhammad(s). In this work they have spared no effort and every minute we witness a dirty crime in the areas of politics and economics.

Beside the political and economic crises which they brought about is a huge crime in the area of thought and culture.

These three hazardous enemies have collaborated to root out Islam. They have even given an impetus to this destruction by the use of universal mass media, seminars, conferences held in the east and west against Islam, especially against shiism;

It is for this reason that the officials of the Islamic government should spend most of its financial resources in the teaching of the Divine knowledge through school books and knowledgeable teachers. If they do not do this, they will have to suffer a severe trial on the Resurrection Day.

And if the mass Media of the Islamic country including television, radio, newspapers, and magazines, do not try to supply the Iranian people as well as other Moslem nations with the Islamic knowledge, they will be accountable.

And if the Friday prayers in all cities of the Islamic country are held without content and teach the mass of people nothing of the Islamic knowledge, the Friday prayer Imam is accountable to God and to the Infallible and to the Prophet(s).

O God! I am a tired servant, I swear to you I am extremely eager to meet you; take my hand because I lack perfection, I am heart-broken; I am feather less; why should I not mourn my departure from you?

O God! I am ashamed, I am ignorant, I am filled with sins; O Protector of the deprived! I am hopeless; what should I do because I am replete with sorrows and cares.

O God! On this path which you revealed to me I badly need your help; the interpretation and description of Sahifeh is beyond my power: because I am deprived of the light of knowledge; I am distant with knowledge: I only resort to you and ask for your benevolence in this great feat. If you bestow success up on me I will bring this huge task to fruitation, but if you do not help me, I am helpless.

قوِّ على خِدمَتِكَ جوارِحِي وَاشدُد على العَزِيمَة جَوَانحي.

“Empower my limbs and organs to serve you and strengthen my internal powers to decide firmly”.

All this asset is of yours. Every occurrence of each truth is the result of your benevolence and blessings. If you did not reflect your love rays on any heart, no body would dare to embark on positive tasks; and if you did not kindle hearts with your favor sparks nobody would go after knowledge and teaching it to others. All facts and truths, in all their manifestations, are the rays of your benevolence. No thinking person has ever doubted this in any areas of human life.

This writer will present first a short biography of the magnificent life of Imam Sajjad(s) and then will describe the fifty four invocations of Sahifeh. The elegant Sahifeh first initiated in the heavenly heart of the fourth Imam(s) in the highest degree of sincerity; then the clean and steady pen of Baqer Al-Olum(s) has taken it on the pages, and then the Imam Sadiq’s spiritual ear has heard it from his generous grand-father Imam Zeinol Abedin, having written in on his heart and finally has submitted it to the men of virtues. And in this way it has remained intact. Now we possess it. And after this generation it will reach the coming generations of the human race. Anybody who wishes to attain human and divine positions should refer to this valuable source.

God’s servant, Hossein Ansarian

15/8/1367; 25, Rabi’ol Awal 1409 AH



The Birth of Zainol Abedin

In accordance with the most reliable narrations, Imam Sajjad(s) was born on Thursday of the significant month of Sha’aban, in the thirty eighth year of Hijraee, two years prior to the martyrdom of Imam Ali(s), in the city of Medina, from a generous father named Hossein(s) and a benevolent mother named Salafeh who was from a noble and deep-rooted household, who was called by Imam Ali(s) as Maryam.

Because of this noble birth and such magnificent roots, Imam Sajjad(s) was nicknamed as “Ibn Al-Kheyratein”.

The leader of the God-believers, the Imam of Gnostics, the pivot of the pious, Imam Ali(s) in praising his wife Salafeh told his son:

وهي اُمُّ الأوصياء الذريّة الطيّبة.

“My son, your mother Salafeh, will be the mother of the Infallible and is the root for a clean generation”

Name, Surname and Nickname of Zainol Abedin

His dearest name is Ali. What is clear from the narrations, Ali was Hossein’s eldest son. Hossein(s) had two other sons by the name of Ali, which were respectively called Ali Akbar, Ali Owsat, And Ali Asghar. [The eldest was Ali Akbar; the middle one was Ali Owsat, and the youngest one was Ali Asghar].

The reason why Hossein(s) gave the name Ali to the three sons of his was his peculiar love towards his honorable father Imam Ali(s). By this selection he wanted to teach his people, the Moslems, a lesson; i.e., to adopt the best and most meaningful names for their children so that when they are called clean, divine features may be associated in the mind of the callers so that through this way a divine spark may strike the caller’s heart.

Due to numerous states, features, characteristics, traits, perfections and ethics, that Imam had a lot of surnames, some of which appears below, and all of which had special meanings and manifestations throughout his life:

Seyyedol Abedin, Zainol Salehin, wareth of Elm Al-Nabiin, Vasiyol Vasiin, Khazen Vasaya Al-Morsalim, Imamol Mo’amenin, Menarol-qanetin wal khashen’in, Motehajjed, Zahid, Ahid, Adl, Sajjad, Bakka’, Zol thafenat,[4] Imamol Ommah, Abol A’emmeh, Habib, Zaki, Amin, and Zainol Abedin.

There are two interesting narrations concerning his nickname “Zainol Abedin”.

1) Omran Ibn Salim says: when zohri narrated a topic from Ali Ibn Hossein, he would say:

“Zainol Abedin narrated that…” Once Sofyan Ibn Oyyaneh asked him, “Why do you call him Zainol Abedin?”

He answered: I heard Sa’eed Ibn Mosayyeb saying that the Prophet said: On the Resurrection Day a caller would call: where is the ornament for the worshippers?”

يُنادي منادٍ: أين زين العابدين؟

“I foresee that my son Ali Ibn Hossein with dignity and prestige will rise among people to reach his special position”.

The same narration is reported in the precious book called Elalol sharaie’ by Saduq who has heard it from Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qommi, from Ibn Abbas, from the God’s Messenger.[5]

2) At the dawn of one morning Imam Zainol Abedin(s) was worshipping God, a love-based invocation, a sincere prayer. Now Satan manifested in a horrifying posture in front of him to disturb the happy moments with his love. That Imam paid no attention to that fearful ghost and continued his bending, standing in worship. Suddenly, he heard a speaker from the invisible world, who cried three times, saying:

you are in fact Zainol Abedin

انت زين العابدين حقّاً.

The worship of Zainol Abedin(s)

When he engaged in the act of ablution, Zainol Abedin’s face turned yellow. Some of his household members asked him why his face color changed at the time of ablution. He answered “Do you know I am standing ready in front of who?”

When he stood praying, his body would tremble. In answer to a question raised concerning this, he answered: “I get this state of body and mind when standing in the presence of my love.”

One day, when he was engaged in prostration (bowing down during prayer), the room was on fire and there was the danger of the spread of the fire. People shouted: Prophet’s son, fire! Fire.

The people put the fire out, but that enchanted lover was still on prostration. When the prayer was over, they asked him: “What caused you to ignore our warning?” He answered:

“The fire of the next world.”

Concerning the worshiper’s prayers, a narration is reported from Imam Zainol Abedin(s):

اِنَّ قوماً عَبَدوا الله رهبة، فّتِلك عِبادةُ العبيد، وآخرين عَبَدُوه رغبةً فتِلك عبادَةُ التجّار، واِنَّ قوماً عَبَدوا الله شكراً، فَتِلكَ عِبادةً الأحرار.

“A group of people worship God out of their fear of chastisement; this is the worship of the slaves and the coward servants. Some worship the Great love in a great zeal to arrive at the heaven; this is the work of the business men; and finally, a group worship Him to thank Him and because He deserves to be worshipped: This is the worship of the free men.”

His worship was free from fear or zeal; rather, he wanted God for his Godship. In neither of his prayers did he expect rewards. He never started a prayer for fear of punishment.

If he missed the day’s Nafeleh due to his too much activities, at night he compensated for it. He used to tell his children; this schedule is not compulsory for you, but I like you carry on with a program you have got used to. You could carry it out some time later if you missed it at the appointed time.

“Kashfol Qamme” says: Every twenty four hours he prayed one thousand raka’ats [Unit of prayer] and when the morning arrived he used to become unconscious. He would forget himself so much that with the breeze of wind he would sway right and left like a wheat stalk.

Imam Khomeini(s), the great gnostic of Divine knowledge in his “Adab Al-Salat” concerning such a prayer has said.”

“Those who are attracted by the beauty of the Beautiful, the ones who are enchanted by the Everlasting Beauty, those who are drunken with the bowl of kindness, those who are in ecstasy, those who are free from both worlds, those who do not consider existence of any value, and those who have associated with Allah, those are the ones who are away from contemplation, observation and Involvement with Allah.

“Those who are the possessors of knowledge, and virtues, who are noble in their selves, who are benevolent in nature, will never prefer anything over prayers and from their invocations in private, they are only looking for God and search for honor, honesty, virtue and knowledge in their prayers.”

“If such people consider the world, both here and there, their look is agnostic. In the world they are after truth and recognize all the creatures as manifestations of God, the Absolute Beauty”.

From the presence of God, they love the mere presence and will see their servitude in complete association with the Absolute Prefect; and their eagerness for worship is of this kind.

“But we wretched ones are entangled by wishes and whims, are tied with the chains of lusts, deep in the prison of nature where we receive ho fragrance of love, no pleasure of knowledge and Gnosticism or from virtues; we are not people of Gnosticism, neither are we the holders of true faith, we consider the divine worships as hard tasks and; invocation with God is considered by us as too much; we are fond of nothing except the world, which is the grazing place for the beasts; we are inclined towards the nature, which is the resort of the tyrants. Our heart’s insight towards the beauty of the Absolute Beauty is blind and our spiritual taste for Gnosticism is distant!”[6]

Imam Baqir(s) says: My father, Imam Sajjad(s) did not refer to any affluence without going on prostration, without reading some verses from the Holy Quran which deal with prostration. When he got rid of a suffering, he would go on prostration. He did not end a prayer without using prostration. When he made two adversaries stop their disagreements, he went on prostration. In all cases his prostration was real; that is why my father was given the nickname Sajjad [A man who engages in may prostrations].[7]

On his divine temper, we read: His happiness with God’s planning was his bed, and his joy in worships was his carpet; the confirmation of truth was his friend, and his avoidance of committing anything un-Godly was his sincerity; his robe was his prayer-rug and his shelter was his grave. His bedcover was his insistence in serving God and his sleep was his bowing towards God. His job it was to burn in the love of God.

Paying pilgrimage to Mecca and the prophet’s heram was his business; his eagerness to serve people was his market; showing kindness was his fragrance; his job it was to worship; honor was his robe, prudence was his weapons, his palfrey was the ground, his capital was his hunger; his wish was a voyage to the Hereafter; and his satisfaction was in meeting with the Great love.[8]

The Supplication of Zainol Abedin (s)

At all phases of his life, Imam Sajjad(s) spent his time in supplication and prayers. His keenness in supplication and prayers was so strange that wherever his sacred name is called, mourning, insistence in worship, invocations and prayers will come to our mind.

The Supplication of Khams Ashar, the supplication of Abu Hamzeh Thomali at the dawn of the month of Ramathan, some portions of the pilgrimage Aminollah, and fifty four invocations of Sahifeh are manifestations of the great soul of that Imam.

It would need God’s special concern and it would take a long time and effort to describe the khams Ashar supplication and Abu Hamze invocation and Imam’s other supplications which appear in Mesbah of Kafa’mi and in Zadol Mia’ad and Baladol Amin and Mafatih by Mohaddes Qommi.

This humble creature, this wretched one, and this miserable disabled writer wishes that God would enable him to describe and interpret all Sajjad’s invocations, which are the source of Imam’s knowledge.

Here we will refer to some portions of his supplications and hope they will save us from the satanic miseries we are entrenched in:

1) Asa’mi, the well-known literary man says: One night I had gone to pay pilgrimage to Mecca when I saw a handsome man hanging from the Mecca cloth, supplicating with the Lord in these words:

“Now the eyes are in deep sleep; and the stars are high in the sky. You are the king of everything. The kings and world-mongers have closed their doors to people and have the police guard their castles and houses so that nobody could bother them at night. But your doors of benevolence are open to the poor. A beggar like me have come here to gain your benevolence and blessings; O sacred being who are the most merciful.” And then he whispered a poem with the following Content: You are the one who answer to the invocations of the poor in the darkness of the night! You are the one who open up a puzzle! Your guests are asleep around your house, but you are the keeper of all creation and are awake. I have risen to stand to the supplication which you have ordered. Please show me your blessings for the prestige of your house. Who else should a sinner resort to except you”?

I went after the suppliant. I found him to be Imam Sajjad, Imam Zainol Abedin(s).[9]

2) Tavus, The jurisprudent says: I saw Ali Ibn Al-Hussein, Imam Sajjad(s) in God’s house praying all night long. When he saw no body around, he stared at the sky, supplicating with the greatest of all loves, the most well-known of Gnostics, the Beloved of the lovers:

“O God, the stars of the sky have disappeared, eyes are asleep, your presence is ready for the arrival of beggars. A beggar like me has come to seek your benevolence. I hope you will let me meet the Great Prophet on the resurrection day”

Then he started weeping like the spring clouds, saying to the Great Friend:

“O God! I did not oppose you when I committed sins and at that time there was no doubt in my heart towards you; I was not ignorant towards your chastisement and I did not shun your punishment. This misguiding self of mine deceived me and it was my hope to be forgiven by you which made me to stumble. Now who is it to save me from your punishment? Which strong chord shall I put my hands on if you disassociate with me? I tremble the moment when you summon me for trial, when you let the sin-free people easily pass by and let the sinful ones fall in the Hell. On that day, I will either be among sin-free people to get salvage or I will be under the heavy load of sins to be punished by you. Woe to me that I added to my sins as my life progressed. I did not try to repent either.” Then he cried, saying:

“Will you burn me on Hell fire? O the end-point of my desires! Then what is going to happen to my love towards you?”

“O my sire, I have resorted to you while I am replete with sins, and I confess there is no one more sinful than me among your servants.”

Then he burst into tears, saying:

“You are free from any defects. People get themselves so involved in committing sins as if they were away from your observation and you are so patient towards them as if they had not committed sins. You show kindess to people in such a manner as if you needed their help, while your sacred being is needless of all.”

Then, he fell on the ground, passionately going on prostration. I went up to him. I took his head on my knees.

I started crying so strongly that some of my tears fell on his clean face. He then sat down, asking me: who is it that took me away from my Lord and made me busy paying attention to something else?

I replied: I am Tavus O son of the God’s prophet; what is the reason for this mourning and emotionalism? it is us the wrong _ doors who should cry in the presence of our Lord, why you? Your father was Hussein, your mother was Fatima, and your grand - father was the prophet.

He looked at me, saying: ah, ah, Tavus, leave the talking about father, mother, and grand - father aside. God has created the paradise for the obedient servant of his, whether he is a black person from Ethiopia or someone else. Have you not heard not heard the following verse from the Holy Quran:

فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ.

“So when the trumpet is blown, there shall be no ties of relationship between them on that day, nor shall they ask of each other. Quran 23: 101”

I may swear to God that on the day of Resurrection nothing can help you except those good acts which you have sent in advance.

3) Tavus, the jurisprudent says: I saw Imam Sajjad praying in Hejr Ismael, chanting:

عُبَيْدُكَ ببابِكَ اسيرُكَ بفنائكَ مسكينُكَ بفنائِكَ، سائِلُكَ بفنائِكَ يشكوُ اليْكَ ماَلا يَخْفي عليْكَ، لا تَرُدَّني عنْ بابَكَ.

Here is a small servant at your presence, a mortal prisoner, a mortal bedridden, a mortal beggar at your presence. He has come here to complain on something which you already know; be kind and do not throw him out of your home. [10]

4) Imam Sadiq (s) says: One day Imam Mohammad Baqir(s) arrived at the home of his father, Imam Sajjad(s). Imam Sajjad was engaged in a prayer in an unprecedented manner. He looked yellow due to the lack of sleep. It seemed his eyes had burned because of excessive weeping; his forehead was wounded because of the repeated prostrations. His legs were hurt because of much standing position. Imam Baqir(s), seeing this condition, could not stop crying.

Imam Sajjad(s) was contemplating and turned to his son, saying: bring me the paper on which there are records of Ali’s prayers. He read some of it and then put it down, saying: who can go on worshipping like Ali Ibn Abi Talib?[11]

5) One night he was engaged in supplication and worship. One of his children fell and broke his hand. The members of family shouted; the neighbors gathered; they brought a physician and he wrapped bandage around the child’s hand. In the morning, he saw his son’s hand hanging from his neck. He asked for the reason. They told him it happened when he was absorbed in his prayers.[12]

6) when Imam Sajjad(s) stood praying, his face changed colors and his posture at the time of prayer was like that of a poor servant standing in front of his Lord. His limbs trembled due to the reverie he was under. He acted in each prayer as if it were his last prayer.[13]

All this was because of his clean and heavenly heart and his vast knowledge of the great creator.

The Personality of Zainol Abedin(s)

He was elected by God as the fourth shining star in the sky of Imamate to be used as a sample for prosperity both here and in the hereafter by people from all stands of life.

His nephew says: I was encouraged by Fatima, daughter of Imam Hussein(s), to serve Imam Sajjad(s). Whenever I sat next to him, a door to goodness opened up to me. I got awe and reverie towards God inside me because of his reverie towards God inside me because of his reverie towards Allah. I learned a piece of useful knowledge from my association with him.1

Ibn Shahab Zohri says: the best member of Bani Hashem was Imam Zainol Abedin(s).

Saeed Ibn Kolthum says: I was at the presence of Imam Sadiq(s). We talked about Imam Ali(s). The sixth Imam praised Imam Ali(s) in such a way as he deserved it.

Then, he said: He never ate a haram (unlawful, Islamically prohibited ) food up to his last day of life. And he chose the more difficult plan of any two plans for God. Whenever the Prophet met with an accident, he was asked to help him out. Nobody except him could engage in prayers such as the Prophet (s). At the time of action, he looked like a person who was between the paradise and the hell. He hoped for God’s reward and was frightened of His punishment. To satisfy God, he freed one thousand slaves through his hard works. The food of his family members was a mixture of oil, vinegar and dates. His dress was made of canvas. If his clothes sleeves were long he would ask for a pair of scissors to cut them. Among his Household he was unique in dress and jurisprudence.1

A cursory look at the narrations on that Imam and attention to the depth of the invocation received from him will depict the sublime personality and the Godly–based human features of this sample of virtues, truths and genuine prosperity.

Zohri says: when I was with Imam Sajjad (s), we met Abdol Malik Ibn Marvan. The effects of worship on the face of Imam Sajjad (s) caused Marvan’s great surprise.

Marvan told Imam Sajjad (s): From your countenance I can observe the effects of heavy worship. While you have a good record with God and you are part of the body of the Prophet (s) and you enjoy a great amount of virtues, you still engage in worship no less than Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hossein (s).

Marvan was engaged in praising Imam Sajjad (s) while the fourth Imam, said: “What you ascribed to me is not mine; rather, it belongs to the mercy and benevolence of God. It is just a manifestation of the great friend’s confirmation. Tell me with what sort of power should I compensate for all this asset? The Prophet continued with his prayers so excessively that his legs used to swell. He engaged so much in fasting that he used to have dried mouth. They asked the Prophet: is it not the case that according to Holy Quran you are pardoned? Then, why so much prayers?

The great Prophet (s) replied: Don’t you want me to be a thankful servant of God? I should thank God for selecting me for worship and he let me come out successful from a difficult exam. I only will thank Him. I swear to God I am not able to thank him for one tenth of all his sustenance and assets he has bestowed upon me even if my limbs go apart and my eyes pop out. I swear to God I will not quit praying him so much so that he may see me day and night like this.

If I did not have to carry the compulsory tasks towards my Household and people in general, I would gaze at the creation all my life so that the Great Allah may know that He is the best commander”. Then Imam Sajjad (s) burst into tears and Abdol Malik too started crying. Then Imam said, “How far is the distance between a Hereafter–seeker and his trial to get at it and the man who concentrates on the world, but lacks everything in the Hereafter”.

Abdollh Mobarik Says: I was going to Mecca when I saw a boy of seven or eight years of age going steadily towards the Harem (Mecca). I asked my self how it was possible for such a young child to cross the deserts to reach to Mecca. I went up to him asking where he was coming from. He said: from God. I asked him where he was headed for, He replied: towards God. I asked him: with whom did you pass this horrible desert? He answered: with the Benevolent God. I asked him where his camel was. He replied: My sustenance is virtue, my camel is my leg, and my objective is the Great Friend. I asked him which tribe he was from. He replied: Motallabi. I asked him who his father was. He replied: I am Hashemid. I told him to be more clear; He answered. I am Alavi, Fatemi. I asked him if he had written a poem. His answer was positive. I asked him to read. He read something with the following content:

“It is us who gather around the Kouthar Spring. We let the qualified thirsty ones drink from it and we will protect them on the Doomsday. Nobody could get to prosperity without our help. Anybody who has connection with us becomes prosperous. One who, through his faith and actions, makes us happy will become delighted. And any one who rose against us in enmity had some problems in his roots. Any one who confiscated our rights would be accountable to God in the Hereafter”.

When he finshed reading this poem, he disappeared. I went to Mecca. I carried out the rituals. On the way back, I saw a group of people sitting on a big circle. I suddenly saw that young man among them. I asked people: who is this ellegant young man? They replied: It is Ali Ibn Hossein (s).


Zainol Abedin’s manners

Like his descent father, Zainol Abedin enjoyed all ethical virtues and was flawless in the areas of mannerism and ethics.

No event could stop him from manifesting God’s traits. No sin was performed by him.

This poor writer referred to all books on narrations and history to find references to this Imam. I will present some of them here. I hope they will help us. These points could be seen in Beharol Anver, A’alamol Din, Kashfol Qemma, Managib of Ibn Shaher Ashub, E’lamol Vera, and Mostadrak Safineh.

1) His Meeting With a Quick tempered Man

A man called that Imam names. The Imam did not answer him. Then the man went away. Imam returned to his friends asking them: Did you hear what he told me? Come with me, I will tell you what. I told him in reply.

The crowd said: we will come with you: the Imam started walking, reading this verse:

وَالْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ وَالْعَافِينَ عَنْ النَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.

“And those who restrain their anger and pardon me; and Allah loves the doers of good to others. Quran 3:134”

It became clear to us that Imam did not want to have anything to do with the abuser. Upon arriving at the door of the man, Imam wanted to see him. He said: Tell the house – owner I am Ali Ibn Hossein. The house – owner who was worried about revenge came to the door. Imam said: Some minutes ago you said something regarding me. If I deserve it, I ask God to pardon me. if I do not deserve it, I ask God to pardon you.

The home owner kissed the Imam’s forehead, saying: O son of Prophet (s). What I said can not be found in you. It is me who should be pardoned by Allah.

2) His Behavior Towards the Lepers

He was riding and passed a group of people suffering from Lepresy. Nobody wanted to associate with them.

They were eating lunch, when they saw the Imam, they invited him to their food.

He said: If I were not fasting, I would come and eat with you. When he arrived at home, however he ordered special food for them and then invited all of them and sat beside them, eating the food.

Let us like the Sire of believers, the Pride of the Devotees, help those helpless ones, treat amicably towards those deprived of any kindness and the needy ones. Let us be knowledgeable in the school of these lovers of the absolute Beauty for the rest of our lives.

3) Imam’s Speial Pardoning of the Deposed Governor–general

Hesham Ibn Ismaeel was appointed as the governor general of Medina by Abdol Malik Marvan.

This position led him to excessive pride, and tyranny.

And injustice. He committed unlawful crimes. One of the people who was hurt by him most was Imam Zainol Abedin (s).

When he was deposed, the new governor general called, Valid, got duty of fastening the previous governor to a column so that every person could retaliate him.

People heard him say that he was worried of Imam Zainol Abedin because he had suffered the most.

Imam ordered his followers not to trouble him. Then he went to see Hesham, telling him, I am worried about you, my cousin. What ever you need tell me. I will make it ready. Hesham shouted:

اَلله ُاَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَهُ.

“God knows where to put his message”.

4) I am secure from you

Once he called one of his servants twice. He refused to answer. At the third calling he answered; Imam asked the reason for not answering the first two calls. He said:

O son of Prophet: I was safe from your punishment. The fourth Imam started thanking Allah: O God! I thank you that my servants feel safe with me.


5) Where is the Source of All of This Kindness

There were many poor families in Medina who were supplied with their needs, but did not know what the source was. When Zainol Abedin(s) got martyred, all those plans were out of order. Then these families understood the source of their food and clothing.

6) I Will Pay Your Debts

Zaid Ibn Osame Ibn Zaid started crying at his death - bed. Imam Zainol Abedin(s) was watching him and asked him for the reason. He answered: I owe people fifteen thousand Derhames. What I possess will not cover my debts however. Imam replied: I will pay all of your debts. Stop weeping because now you owe nobody anything. Then he paid the man’s debts and rescued him in this way.

7) On the Way to the Mosque

On a cold night one of his slaves saw him on the way to the mosque while having new dress and a fur turban on and having used fragrance. He asked: master, where are you going at this time of the night? He answered: I am going to the mosque of my grand – father to marry Hurol ‘Ein.

How elegant it is for Moslems to go to Mosque with the best of their dresses and best kind of fragrance. They will become delighted in this way and the cleanliness of the mosque will be observed as well.

8) Legal Sustenance is God’s Alms to Servants

To earn his sustenance, he used to leave home early every morning. When they asked him where he was going so early in the morning, he used to answer: I am going to give alms to my wives. They surprisingly would ask him: alms? He would answer: yes, what is earned through legal means is God’s alms to servants.

9) I Love to Obey Absolutely

Imam Sajjad(s) says: I severely got sick. My father, Hossein (s) told me: what do you need? I answered: I wish not to put any duty on to God for myself. He will do for me anything that He deems advisable. I love to obey Him absolutely. My father said, well done, now you are like Ibrahim Khalil. When he was going to be put on fire, Jibrael asked him what he wanted. He answered: I will not appoint any task for God. I am happy with Allah. He is my best protector all my life.


10) A Lovely Story

One day his woman servant was pouring water from a pitcher on his hands to perform his ablution. Due to her lack of attention, the pitcher fell from her hands and hurt Imam’s forehead.

Imam rose his head. The servant said: God says:

وَالْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ.

“Those who restrain their anger” Imam said, “I restrained my angers”

The servant said:

وَالْعَافِينَ عَنْ النَّاسِ.

“and pardon men”. Imam said, “I pardoned you. “The servant said,

 اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.

“And Allah loves the doers of good to others” Imam said, “you are free for God’s sake.3:134”

11) A Very Strange Story

Imam Sadiq (s) says: There was a dissolute, wandering man in Medina who made people laugh with his strange and funny behaviors.

One day when Ali Ibn Hossein (s) with two of his servants were walking, the man followed the Imam to perform a joke. He took away the Imam’s cloak in front of people, and ran away. Then he come back giving the cloak back to Imam. Taking no notice of him, Imam asked his servant who he was. They told him: He is a joker who makes people laugh. Imam said: Tell him: There is a day for God in which the wrongdoers are at loss.

12) A Marveous Event

Imam Sadig (s) says: Imam Sajjad (s) in his journeys tried to remain unknown and used to carry out some tasks like other passengers.

Once, he went on a journey with a caravan. He helped them and did his job. Somebody among the travellers recognized him. He asked others whether they know that gentleman. They said “no”.

The man said; he is Ali Ibn Hossein (s). They gathered around him, kissing his hands and feet. They told him: “Did you want us to be punished by God? What could we do if we had accidentally hurt you? We would badly suffer, then”.

Imam Sajjad (s) said: Once I traveled with a caravan. They recognized me.

For the Prophet’s sake they went to extremes in treating me, which I did not deserve. Then, I was deprived of the right to help them. This time, I did not want to repeat the last time’s event. I like this trip, better.

13) This is the True Kindness and Justice

Zainol Abedin (s) at the time of his death told his son, Imam Baqir (s): I went to hajj twenty times with my camel. Never did I strike it with the whip once. When it dies, bury it in a place so that the savage beasts will not tear it up. This is because the Prophet (s) has announced: A camel which arrives at the station Arafat, is of the heaven’s assets and God will give abundance to its breed. When the camel died, Imam Baqir (s) carried out what he had been told.

14) This is the Extreme Benevolence

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: When Imam Zainol Abedin (s) went on fasting on a day, he used to ask his servants to slaughter a sheep and put it in a big pot. He used to enjoy the smell of the baking sheep. When it was near the breaking time of the fast (Iftar), he used to order for some trays to be ready. Then he used to send each portion of it to different houses. He used to break his fasting with a loaf of bread and some dates, however.

15) Helping the Needy

Imam Baqir (s) says: When dark covered every where, my father, Imam Sajjad (s), used to carry a leather bag filled with supplies of food and distributed it among the needy proportionate with their needs. But he used to cover his face so that he would remain unknown.

When he was given Qosl at his death, the black traces of that big leather bag were seen on the skin of his shoulders.

16) Disregard for Worldly Ornaments

Imam Sadiq (s) says: He had woolen dress but when he wanted to engage in prayers, he used to put on rough dresses. He would not deliver it on rugs or on special prayer – cloth. His prostration was on the ground. He used to go to the Jabban Mountain, near Medina, and would sit on a burning stone. In his lovely and Gold – ly – based prostration he used to weep so much that when he rose from it, it looked as if his face was droned in the water.

17) Beside the Holy Quran

Imam Sajjad (s) has said:

لَوْ ماتَ مَنْ بَيْنَ المَشْرق وَ المَغْرب لَمَا اَسْتَوْحَشْتُ بَعْدَ اَنْ يَكونَ الْقرآنُ مَعي.

“If all people died in the East and West, and if I were alone on the Earth, I would not fear anything since I am fond of Qoran and I am familiar with this huge source benevolence.”[14]

18) A Huge Miracle Related to Imam Sajjad’s Behavior

Iqbal, which is the best book on supplication and invocation by Seyyed Ibn Tavus reports from Imam Sadiq (s):

When the holy month of Ramathan arrived, Imam Sajjad(s) would never punish any of his man–slaves or woman–slaves. If one of them committed a wrong action, there was a note book on which these wrong actions or short–comings got recorded. He would never show disrespect to his servants during this month.

When the last night of Ramathan arrived, Imam would gather all of them around him – self and opened up the book on which the wrong – doings were recorded. Then he called each servant with his or her special wrong – doing. He would tell each of them: you have committed this wrong – doing and you were not punished for it. Do you remember? They would say: yes, the son of the Prophet (s).

When he had the confession of all, he would ask them to repeat after him:

“O son of Hossein Ibn Ali: your God has recorded every action of yours as you have written our mistakes and short–comings in this book. The book which is with God tells the truth. Every big and small sin is written there and you will see justice on that special day as we see the record of our activities here in this book, now!

“O son of Hossein Ibn Ali, frogive us and pardon us as you wish God might forgive and pardon you. As you are the lover of God’s pardon and are looking for that source of benevolence, please let us enjoy your pardon and blessing.

“O son of Hossein Ibn Ali! Remember your misery in front of the Great Love, that Sacred Being who is wise and knowing and will not do the weight of seed of injustice to anybody. He will weigh the actions of the servants and will witness that they have been done. Come and forgive us at a night like this and disregard our wrong–doings because God has said:

وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ.

“They should pardon and run away. 24: 22”

Do you not love that Allah should forgive you?

He used to express words and inculcated his man–servants and woman – servants and used to shed tears, and cried, telling Allah:

“O God! you ordered me to forgive those who did us wrong; we pardoned them. Therefore, you forgive us, too, since in pardoning you are the first.

“O God! you commanded us not to turn away the beggars from our homes. Now we ourselves have come begging to your home. We are looking for your blessing and benevolence. Please do not send us away hopeless.”

He used to supplicate with God in this manner and continued weeping. Then he turned to his servants, telling them:

“I forgave you. Will you forgive me? I was not a good Lord for you. You saw my bad behaviors. I am not a good Lord”.

They would reply: “Our sire, although we saw nothing bad of you, we will forgive you.”

Then Imam Sajjad(s) would ask them to chant the following invocation:

“O God! Please forgive Hossein’s son, as he has forgiven us. Save him from the Hell fire, as he has made us free.” The man-servants and woman- servants used to chant this invocation and Imam (s) would say: “All of you are free. I set you free to reach God’s pardon and freedom from chastisement”. Then, he would summon them on the festival day of Fiter and helped them each so much as not to be in need.

Each year he did the same, freeing about twenty of his servants and would say: “God at Ramathan at the time of breaking the fasting (Iftar) pardons seventy thousand wrong–doers and when the last night of Ramathan comes, He sets free from the fire equal to the month of Ramathan. I like God to put me on this schedule so that I may get free.”

Of course, it did not make any difference for him at that time he had bought the slaves. What was important for him was to set them free at the last night of Ramathan, although the time of their service to Imam was rather short.

He would carry out this magnificent program each year, and continued till he reached the Great Friend.

19) A Marvellous Program

One of Zainol Abedin’s cousins was financially in trouble. Imam Abedin(s) would take him money at night without being recognized. The cousins would spread the rumor that Ali Ibn Hossein does not have any family relation with me and does not observe the family ties. He would curse him. Imam used to hear but preferred to remain silent. When Imam (s) passed away, the cousin found out the truth. He would sit by the Imam’s grave, crying for hours, from then on.

20) Imam Sajjad’s Devine Character

One day he was walking with some of his servants. A man called him names. The servants rushed at him, but Imam stopped them. The Imam came up to the man, saying: if you need any thing, let me know. The man got ashamed. Imam gave him his own clock and ordered his servants to pay him one thousand Derhams. The man was then, saying: “I witness you are from the Prophets’ house hold.”

21) A Sample of the Greatest Perseverance

A guest arrived at Zainol Abedin’s home. When a servant was taking hot meal in a tray and hurried downstairs, the tray went off his hand pouring the hot meal on one of the Imam’s children, killing him at once. The slave was in a terrible state of mind but Imam said: “You did not do it on purpose; you are free for God”.

22) The Best sample of Virtues

Imam Baqir (s) says: my father sent his servant for a job. But he delayed. Imam whipped him once. The servant said “O son of Hossein, you appoint me work and then hit me”. Imam burst into tears, saying: “O Mohammad Ibn Ali, my dear son, go to the Prophet’s tomb and pray and say: O God, please forgive Ali Ibn Hossein on the Doomsday”. Then he freed the slave for God. Abu Basir says: I asked Imam: “Is freedom the punishment for whipping only once?” Imam did not answere, however.

23) An Abudance more Peculiar than two Loaves of Bread

“Kemaloddin and Tamamol Ne’ma” are two of Saduq’s books. He reports from Zohri: I was at Imam’s presence when one of Imam’s friends arrived. Imam asked him: “What is the news?” He replied: “Let me first tell you about myself. I owe somebody four hundred Dinars. I have nothing to pay him back. I have a big family; I can not support them”. Imam burst into tears. I said to the Imam: crying is for great sorrows. Everybody else said the same thing.

Imam (s) answered: “Is there any thing more disasterous than seeing your brother in need and not being able to fix it up?” The session was over. The hypocrites, hearing the news, started backbiting, saying: “How strange it is! These Imams claim that the sky and the earth are obedient to them and God will Satisfy their needs. Now they confess that they can not solve their brother’s problems!”

The wretched man heard these non-senses and went to meet the Imam, saying: “The sarcasm of the enemy hurts me more than my poverty”. Imam (s) said: “God has opened up a way for your difficulty”. Then he called one of his servants; telling him: “Go fetch my food for the breaking of the fast”. The servant brought him two loaves of barley bread too hard to eat. Imam said: “Take these two loaves of bread. God has put abundance in these loaves for you.” The man took the loaves telling himself: “What have these got to do with my condition?” Satan was tempting him to cast doubt over the whole business. He was thinking hard when he arrived at the market. He exchanged one loaf with a pale and stale fish and another loaf with some salt. He went home, then. When he opened up the fish, he found two pearls there. He and his children thanked God for this great asset. At that time both the fisher and the salt–seller came up to his house, telling him the loaves of bread were impossible to eat. They told him: “Let your family enjoy the fish and the salt.”

When the fisher and salt–seller went, Zainol Abedin’s servant came up to the man, telling him: “O man! God opened up your puzzle but Imam Sajjad has ordered us to take back the two loaves of bread since no body except us could eat them.

The man sold the pearls and could pay off his debts. Now people started telling nonsense once again: “At one occasion he can not solve the man’s problem; at another occasion he has made this man so needless.” When this was heard by Imam, he answered: “People used to utter such nonsense’s behind the back of the Prophet (s), as well. People said how the Prophet could have gone from Mecca to Jerusalem in one night, while the distance between Mecca and Medina was twelve days, let alone the distance between Mecca and Jerusalem”. Imam, then, said: “People are ignorant about us. They do not know that this position is given to us because of our absolute obedience to God. The God’s men are so patient in the face of misery that nobody can excel them. There fore, God, the Almighty, has opened up all doors of abundance to them”. He continued: “Lovers of God do not wish for anything except the things which God wants.”

I had the desire to refer to some sections of Imam Sajjad’s distinguished and highly valuable remarks and statements. However any section of his speeches which I referred to in Behar, vol.78, Kashfol Qomme, second volume, A’alamol Din of Deylami, and Tohafol Oqul and Mohajjatol Beiza’, and Mostadrak Safineh, and the precious book called wesa’el, Khesal, by Sheikh Saduq and Tafsir Borhan and Tafsir Nurossaqalein and other books on narrations, I found out that narrating those heavenly statements with no description or interpretation would be of no use. This is because our readers will not get anything out of these sentences on their own. Then, I thought, I could describe the invocations of Sahifeh Sajjedieh and make use of Imam’s Statements there. This would be, I am sure, of more benefit to our readers. At the end of this topic, I have to readers. At the end of this topic, I have to refer to the story of Farzadaq, the poet, who in his confrontation with Hesham, the cruel man, revealed the heavenly personality of Imam.

The Forty sixth volume of Behar, narrates from twenty two famous sources that Hesham Ibn Abdol–Malik came to Mecca for pilgriinage. The crowd was so dense he could not touch the Stone. He stood on a high place, letting those wretched mercenaries go around him as if they went around great stone. At this time Zainol Abedin(s) arrived on the scene. When people saw him they gave him way to cross to get near the Stone. Somebody from Syria asked Hesham who he was. He said he did not know. Farzadaq shouted that he knew him. The Syrian asked “who is it?” Farzadaq wrote a beautiful elegy spontaneously in praise of Imam Sajjad on the spot. The content of this beautiful piece of poetry is reserved by Jami, the great Iranian poet.

Hesham become very angry over this praise on Imam Sajjad (s). And upon insulting Farzadaq, he imprisoned him at a place between Mecca and Medina and cut off his salary. Imam Sajjad (s), sent him twelve thousand Derhams to compensate for it and even apologized that it was not sufficient. The poet, being a greedless and free man, refused to accept it, saying: “I respect you a lot, and I believe in you. I wrote this poem out of my love for you, not for money”. But, Imam Sajjad (s) convinced him that he should receive the gift.

Molla Mohammad Taghi Majlessi, the writer of Behar, in the description of Man la Yahzor tells us a sweet story concerning this poem by Jami.

A person in one of Jami’s sessions said: “A woman saw Farzadaq, the poet, in her dream. She asked him about his condition. Farzadaq replied that God had forgiven him for the elegy that he had written”. Jami, them, said: “All human beings deserve to be forgiven by God because of this elegy”.[15]



On Monotheism and the Praise of Allah

أَلْحَمْدُ للهِ الاوَّلِ بِلا أَوَّل كَانَ قَبْلَهُ، وَ الاخِر بِلاَ آخِر يَكُونُ بَعْدَهُ . الَّذِي قَصُرَتْ عَنْ رُؤْيَتِهِ أَبْصَارُ النَّاظِرِينَ، وَ عَجَزَتْ عَنْ نَعْتِهِ أَوهامُ اَلْوَاصِفِينَ . ابْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الْخَلْقَ اَبتِدَاعَاً، وَ اخْتَرَعَهُمْ عَلَى مَشِيَّتِهِ اخترَاعاً، ثُمَّ سَلَكَ بِهِمْ طَرِيقَ إرَادَتِهِ، وَبَعَثَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ مَحَبَّتِهِ. لا يَمْلِكُونَ تَأخِيراً عَمَا قَدَّمَهُمْ إليْهِ، وَلا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ تَقَدُّماً إلَى مَا أَخَّرَهُمْ عَنْهُ، وَ جَعَلَ لِكُلِّ رُوْح مِنْهُمْ قُوتَاً مَعْلُوماً مَقْسُوماً مِنْ رِزْقِهِ لاَ يَنْقُصُ مَنْ زادَهُ نَاقِصٌ، وَلاَ يَزِيدُ مَنْ نَقَصَ منْهُمْ زَائِدٌ. ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ لَهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ أَجَلاً مَوْقُوتاً، وَ نَصَبَ لَهُ أَمَداً مَحْدُوداً، يَتَخَطَّأُ إلَيهِ بِأَيَّامِ عُمُرِهِ، وَيَرْهَقُهُ بِأَعْوَامِ دَهْرِهِ، حَتَّى إذَا بَلَغَ أَقْصَى أَثَرِهِ، وَ اسْتَوْعَبَ حِسابَ عُمُرِهِ، قَبَضهُ إلَى ما نَدَبَهُ إلَيْهِ مِنْ مَوْفُورِ ثَوَابِهِ أَوْ مَحْذُورِ عِقَابِهِ، لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَساءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا، وَ يَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى عَدْلاً مِنْهُ تَقَدَّسَتْ أَسْمَآؤُهُ، وَتَظَاهَرَتْ ألاؤُهُ، لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ. وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي لَوْ حَبَسَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ مَعْرِفَةَ حَمْدِهِ عَلَى مَا أَبْلاَهُمْ مِنْ مِنَنِهِ الْمُتَتَابِعَةِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ نِعَمِهِ الْمُتَظَاهِرَةِ لَتَصرَّفُوا فِي مِنَنِهِ فَلَمْ يَحْمَدُوهُ وَتَوَسَّعُوا فِي رِزْقِهِ فَلَمْ يَشْكُرُوهُ، وَلَوْ كَانُوا كَذلِكَ لَخَرَجُوا مِنْ حُدُودِ الانْسَانِيَّةِ إلَى حَدِّ الْبَهِيمِيَّةِ، فَكَـانُوا كَمَا وَصَفَ فِي مُحْكَم كِتَابِهِ : (إنْ هُمْ إلا كَالانْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلا) وَالْحَمْدُ لله عَلَى مَا عَرَّفَنا مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَأَلْهَمَنَا مِنْ شُكْرِهِ وَفَتَحَ لَنَا من أبوَابِ الْعِلْمِ بِرُبُوبِيّته وَدَلَّنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الاِخْلاَصِ لَهُ فِي تَوْحِيدِهِ وَجَنَّبَنا مِنَ الالْحَادِ وَالشَّكِّ فِي أَمْرِهِ، حَمْداً نُعَمَّرُ بِهِ فِيمَنْ حَمِدَهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ ، وَنَسْبِقُ بِـهِ مَنْ سَبَقَ إلَى رِضَاهُ وَعَفْوِهِ حَمْداً يُضِيءُ لَنَا بِهِ ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرْزَخِ وَيُسَهِّلُ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ سَبِيلَ الْمَبْعَثِ وَيُشَرِّفُ بِهِ مَنَازِلَنَا عِنْدَ مَوَاقِفِ الاشْهَادِ يَوْمَ تُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْس بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ (يَوْمَ لاَ يُغْنِي مَوْلىً عَنْ مَوْلىً شَيْئاً وَلاَ هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ)، حَمْداً يَرْتَفِعُ مِنَّا إلَى أَعْلَى عِلِّيِّينَ فِي كِتَاب مَرْقُوم يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ، حَمْداً تَقَرُّ بِهِ عُيُونُنَا إذَا بَرِقَت الابْصَارُ وَتَبْيَضُّ بِهِ وُجُوهُنَا إذَا اسْوَدَّتِ الابْشَارُ، حَمْداً نُعْتَقُ بِهِ مِنْ أَلِيمِ نَارِ اللهِ إلَى كَرِيمِ جِوَارِ اللهِ، حَمْداً نُزَاحِمُ بِهِ مَلاَئِكَتَهُ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ وَنُضَامُّ بِـهِ أَنْبِيآءَهُ الْمُـرْسَلِيْنَ فِي دَارِ الْمُقَامَةِ الَّتِي لا تَزُولُ وَمَحَلِّ كَرَامَتِهِ الَّتِي لاَ تَحُولُ ، وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي اخْتَارَ لَنَا مَحَاسِنَ الْخَلْقِ ، وَأَجرى عَلَيْنَا طَيِّبَاتِ الرِّزْقِ وَجَعَلَ لَنَا الفَضِيلَةَ بِالْمَلَكَةِ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الْخَلْقِ، فَكُلُّ خَلِيقَتِهِ مُنْقَادَةٌ لَنَا بِقُدْرَتِهِ، وَصَآئِرَةٌ إلَى طَاعَتِنَا بِعِزَّتِهِ. وَالْحَمْدُ لله الَّذِي أَغْلَقَ عَنَّا بَابَ الْحَّاجَةِ إلاّ إلَيْهِ فَكَيْفَ نُطِيقُ حَمْدَهُ أَمْ مَتَى نُؤَدِّي شُكْرَهُ؟!، لا، مَتى؟ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي رَكَّبَ فِينَا آلاَتِ الْبَسْطِ، وَجَعَلَ لَنَا أدَوَاتِ الْقَبْضِ، وَمَتَّعَنا بِاَرْواحِ الْحَياةِ ، وَأثْبَتَ فِينَا جَوَارِحَ الاعْمَال ، وَغَذَّانَا بِطَيِّبَاتِ الرِّزْقِ ، وَأغْنانَا بِفَضْلِهِ ، وَأقْنانَا بِمَنِّهِ ، ثُمّ أَمَرَنَا لِيَخْتَبِرَ طاعَتَنَا، وَنَهَانَا لِيَبْتَلِيَ شُكْرَنَا فَخَالَفْنَا عَنْ طَرِيْقِ أمْرِهِ وَرَكِبْنا مُتُونَ زَجْرهِ فَلَم يَبْتَدِرْنا بِعُقُوبَتِهِ ، وَلَمْ يُعَاجِلْنَا بِنِقْمَتِهِ بَلْ تَانَّانا بِرَحْمَتِهِ تَكَرُّماً، وَانْتَظَرَ مُراجَعَتَنَا بِرَأفَتِهِ حِلْماً. وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي دَلَّنَا عَلَى التَّوْبَةِ الَّتِي لَمْ نُفِدْهَا إلاّ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ، فَلَوْ لَمْ نَعْتَدِدْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إلاّ بِهَا لَقَدْ حَسُنَ بَلاؤُهُ عِنْدَنَا، وَ جَلَّ إحْسَانُهُ إلَيْنَا وَ جَسُمَ فَضْلُهُ عَلَيْنَا، فَمَا هكذا كَانَتْ سُنَّتُهُ فِي التَّوْبَةِ لِمَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَنَا لَقَدْ وَضَعَ عَنَّا مَا لا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ، وَلَمْ يُكَلِّفْنَا إلاّ وُسْعاً، وَ لَمْ يُجَشِّمْنَا إلاّ يُسْراً وَلَمْ يَدَعْ لاَحَـد مِنَّا حُجَّةً وَلاَ عُذْراً، فَالْهَالِكُ مِنَّا مَنْ هَلَكَ عَلَيْهِ وَ السَّعِيدُ مِنَّا مَنْ رَغِبَ إلَيْهِ . وَ الْحَمْد للهِ بِكُلِّ مَا حَمِدَهُ بِهِ أدْنَى مَلائِكَتِهِ إلَيْهِ وَ أَكْرَمُ خَلِيقَتِهِ عَلَيْهِ، وَأرْضَى حَامِدِيْهِ لَدَيْهِ، حَمْداً يَفْضُلُ سَآئِرَ الْحَمْدِ كَفَضْلِ رَبِّنا عَلَى جَمِيعِ خَلْقِهِ . ثُمَّ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ مَكَانَ كُلِّ نِعْمَة لَهُ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلى جَمِيعِ عِبَادِهِ الْمَاضِينَ وَالْبَاقِينَ عَدَدَ مَا أَحَاطَ بِهِ عِلْمُهُ مِنْ جَمِيعِ الاشْيَآءِ، وَ مَكَانَ كُلِّ وَاحِدَة مِنْهَا عَدَدُهَا أَضْعافَاً مُضَاعَفَةً أَبَداً سَرْمَداً إلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، حَمْداً لاَ مُنْتَهَى لِحَدِّهِ وَ لا حِسَابَ لِعَدَدِهِ وَ لاَ مَبْلَغَ لِغَايَتِهِ وَ لا انْقِطَاعَ لاَمَدِهِ، حَمْدَاً يَكُونُ وُصْلَةً إلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَعَفْوِهِ، وَسَبَباً إلَى رِضْوَانِهِ وَذَرِيعَةً إلَى مَغْفِرَتِهِ وَ طَرِيقاً إلَى جَنَّتِهِ، وَخَفِيْراً مِنْ نَقِمَتِهِ، وَ أَمْناً مِنْ غَضَبِهِ، وَظَهِيْراً عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ، وَ حَاجِزاً عَنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِ وَ عَوْناً عَلَى تَأدِيَةِ حَقِّهِ وَ وَظائِفِهِ، حَمْداً نَسْعَدُ بِهِ فِي السُّعَدَاءِ مِنْ أَوْلِيَآئِهِ وَنَصِيرُ بِهِ فِي نَظْمِ الشُّهَدَآءِ بِسُيُوفِ أَعْدَائِهِ إنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ .

Invocation as the most powerful panacea

Sahifeh Sajjadien contains the most precious and useful invocations and supplications under fifty four titles.

Sahifeh has created these lively and beautiful works of art following the Holy Quran, and the other heavenly books revealed to the Prophets.

Sahifeh has given extra strength to the constructions of invocations and supplications already laid down by Prophets, God’s men, lovers, and Gnostics.

Not only does Sahifeh make zealous suppliants, sympathetic lovers and perplexed Gnostics out of men, it provides us with a complete course in highly Divine issues, Godly knowledge, principles, prospering rules and healthy programs.

An invocation is a truth which can be traced in Divine books, invocation books and in the collections of narrations.

An invocation is a truth which dominates over all particles of thing, elements and the creatures of this world. From this channel all beings are nourished both spiritually and physically.

If invocations did not exist, the life of the earth dwellers would be impossible. The very root of all creatures relies on invocations.

Invocation is the cause for the descent of all assets from the source of Benevolence and Abundance.

Some say: invocation can be regarded as the adoption of tasks for God and anybody who gets involved in this program has shown aggression towards God and it is considered as an act of insolence.

The same group of people contend that Allah is a sacred Being who is aware of all the internal and external needs of human beings and other creatures and He is able to carry out these on His own. He would not need us to tell Him what to do.

It seems this group of people are unaware of the commands issued in Quran, regarding invocation as a compulsory act:

وقالَ رَبُكُمْ ادعوني اسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ اِنّ الذينَ يَسْتكبِرونَ عن عبادتي سَيَدخُلُونَ جهنم دِاخرَين.

“And your Lord says: Call up on Me, I will answer you; surely those who are too proud for My service shall soon enter hell abased. 40: 60”

In this sacred verse, Allah has ordered invocation and has promised to answer it and has doomed any tyrant who refuses to get involved in invocations.

These people are not aware of the context of invocations, however. An invocation is not a command from an inferior to a superior; rather, an invocation is the request of a beggar from the Great Rich, from the Benevolent and the Merciful. This is not definitely against wisdom, logic or common sense.

Another group is of the belief that Allah has predetermined the fate of man and it is impossible to change this course of action. What ever He has decided for us to happen will occur and invocations are irrelevant and of no value.

We should, however, let these people know that the issue of invocations is not outside the frame of the predetermined fate. And the consequences and results of this positive and rational movement are registered on his fate.

In other word, most of the servant’s planning which are of benefit to him are related directly with invocations. It is then up to man to carry out God’s commands in asking God for the expansion of his spiritual and physical sustenance.

Didn’t all Prophets, men of God, lovers, and Gnostics spend their happiest moments of their sweet lives in supplications and invocations and didn’t they reach what was to their advantage both physically and spiritually?

Most of the factors of growth and perfection of the servants of God are dependent upon Allah’s will which will materialize only through invocations. That is why the issue of invocations is insisted upon in Islamic texts; and invocation is considered as a palfrey for the applicant to reach the table – cloth of God’s spiritual and physical assets. Thus, if anybody engages in invocations, supplications and prayers to ask for his needs, he will get most of his needs. If a servant of God shows doubt or indifference towards invocations and if he is too proud to engage himself in invocations, he will suffer greatly by being deprived of God’s graces.

It is strange that these skeptics believe in the cause and effect relations in the world, but are ignorant of the fact that invocations are among the most significant causes to let man reach his goals. Which part of this reasoning is in contradiction with fate, or Divine affairs or Allah’s planning for us?

Invocation is, in fact, the same as the pre-determined fate and is in harmony with God’s planning and administration. It is a firm principle, a Divine truth and fact. It is included in the framework of existence together with the principles of cause and effect and special conditions.

It is said in the Islamic narrations: the Merciful God loved the servant’s supplications, invocations and begging. When the suppliant makes his forehead touch the ground in obedience, when he sheds tears, the clouds of benevolence will move, and the doors of the Unknown treasures will open up to him with the key of invocations, sooner or later this beggar of God’s mercy will reach his goals.

Those who assume that mental ease, heart comfort and the remedy for problems could be earned through material means are at fault. Because man’s tens of thousands of years have shown this to be untrue. What, in fact, is the key to these hard problems is our connection with the origin of existence and our praying him.

Through his prayers towards the Great love, i. e., the wise, Just, kind, Beneficent, Almighty, Dear, and Delicate, man could overcome his anxieties, pains, and hardships.

The flashy things on which people in this world rely could not be considered as pivots for us. If one day these glittering articles stop to exist, what would the material–oriented man do? What is he going to rely on then?

The materialistic people have shown in history that when they are entangled in the abyss of despair, sorrow, fright, and absurdity, they have no way but to resort to mental diseases.

The flashy and ornamental aspects of life, if used in the obedience of Allah, will not create a problem; rather, they will serve us to get our satisfaction and ease of mind. If it were not for this, why are the Prophets, God’s men, and God lovers reported to have chanted the fallowing all their lives?

الهي رِضاً بقضائكَ، اَصْبراَ على بلائك تسليماَ لِامْرِكَ.

“O God! I am satisfied with the fate you have appointed for me; I am patient towards the disasters you have sent to me; and I am obedient toward your commands.”

The materialistic frame of life by itself and without spiritual aspects will result in nothing but mental disturbance, anxieties and worries. Man’s sciences have found ways to heal material wounds, but they are unable to produce anything to ease our mental and spiritual calamities. The medicines for our internal wounds can be found in God’s pharmacy. The Divine envoys keep the door of this pharmacy open to people where everybody may satisfy his spiritual needs.

The issues of faith and reliance on God and invocations, supplications, and prayers are so important that they could, even in the opinion of non–Islamic scholars, solve all our problems.

These scholars hold that the only means which could solve our mental problems is the belief in God and the Resurrection.

In fact, the factor of man’s victory over pains, and worries is the establishment of connection with the Great Love.

But the mental conditions of those who are away from this spiritual sphere and do not involve themselves in supplication and invocations and show pride in shunning prayers altogether, will suffer greatly.

William James, who is among pragmatic philosophers, explains the role of faith and the dangers of not having faith in the following words:

“Faith is among the powers through which man can survive and its complete lack equals man’s fall”[16]

The above issues are referred to in the Holy Quran in the following manner:

وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنْ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ.

“And whoever associates others with Allah, it is as though he had fallen from on high, then the birds snatch him away or the wind carries him off to a far distant place. 22:31”

He who has left the sphere of monotheism, and has put the real love aside, and has disconnected with the Great Truth, and has shunned the spiritual world and has, in fact, deprived himself of reliable strongholds, has fallen from a high position. During this descent, the vultures will get hold of him between the earth and the sky or he will be at the mercy of hazardous tornados.

In the precious interpretation of Nemuneh under this verse, we will read:

“The word skyin the above verse refers to monotheism and the adoption of any god except Allah causes man to fall from this sky. It is natural for stars and moon and sun to shine in this sky.

Lucky is the person who is at least a shining star in this sky, if he can not be the sun or the moon. But if a man falls from this lofty place, he will face one of the following two situations: either, in the middle of the way, before he reaches the ground, he is captured by vultures; in other words, with losing the reliable stronghold of faith he falls prey to uncontrollable wishes or whims, each of which can destroy his life completely; or he will be carried away by a deadly torrent which takes him away, smashing him to pieces. This issue refers to Satan, of course.

Without doubt, one who falls from the sky loses his determination power and is headed towards destruction with unexpected speed, and finally vanishes.

Ali (s) in Hekmat 138 (Nahjolbalaqa) says:

وادْفعوا أمواج البلاءِ بالدعاء.

“Let continuaus hardships be away through invocations”.

Now after one thousand and five hundred years, this wise statement shows its value when the world scientists claim that continuous emotionalism leads to metal sickness.

The clinical and experimental observations have shown that the repeated stimulation of emotions can lead to body impairment in prone persons.

Thus, supplication, invocation and prayers are significant factors which can prevent numerous diseases and are considered as strong medicines for mental disturbances.

Imam Zainol Abedin(s) spent fifty seven years of his precious life encountering disasters, hazards, hardships and pains. He observed the last two years of Ali’s government which was replete with the Saffein, and Nahravan wars and Bani Ommayeh’s numerous crimes. Then Imam Zainol Abedin(s) was caught among the innumerable problems during his uncle’s last ten years of life. Then he faced many calamities during his father’s last ten years of life. And then, after the Karbala Event and the captivity of his household members, he spent thirty five years in numerous hardships which Marvani’s cruel governors had created for him. But within those hard and alarming years due to his engagement in prayers, supplications and invocations he was immune against emotional turmoils and bodily ailments. He could defeat the waves of disasters with the help of his prayers at the dawn. Facing all those misfortunes, he used to tell God, “Please let me live longer and through your benevolence postpone my death”

Truth is evident but some people are impatient

The topic for the fifty four sections of Sahifeh Sajjadieh is invocation. Since the issue in the first invocation concerns the praise of Allah, and due to the fact that during history a group of people, for some unknown reasons, were negligent of God, it was deemed crucial to have a discussion on the recognition of God and to show that that realization of Allah is not a difficult thing, at all. We want also to mention the fact that all the teachers of monotheism and theology including prophets, Imams, God’s men, Gnostics, and philosophers have all concentrated their energies to correct man’s opinion on God, the Creator, and not to reason for the existence of God. During the entire history, you could not find anybody who has doubted the existence of the Creator. Rather, those who are counted as skeptics, have never questioned the existence of God. In fact, they would say the pivot of the world is the nature or accident. Now, if you ask these people if nature has determination or not, they would give you one of the two possible options. If they give positive answer, then they have accepted the existence of God. If they choose the other option, i.e., that nature lacks determination and wisdom, while every order in nature confirms the opposite, we could say they are just ignorant of the powers at work in the nature. In any case, as it is shown in the long and delicate narration reported by kafi, Imam Sadiq (s) says: those who are ignorant have to confess to the existence of God[17] anyhow.

All scholars who have made researches on this issue, say: the recognition of God, the Almighty, is possible through three ways:

1) The nature;

2) Research on creatures;

3) Reasoning and rational thinking;

1) The Nature

The feeling of theism (the recognition of God) and looking for God, like other instincts is innate in the nature of man. It is an undeniable truth.

Suppose we left a child in nature, away from social life and community. After a while, he will understand that he could not have created himself, became he did not previously exist and then came into being. It is not rational for something which did not exist to create it self. He would then generalize this thinking to other creatures such as the sun, moon, stars, trees, earth, vegetable and all other things that he can think about or touch.

He will then conclude that above all this delicate order in nature there should be a supreme power which he can not name, of course. He has to learn it later from God’s Prophets. This is man’s innate nature and Abraham’s monotheism, which exists in each heart.

The conclusion that I and every creature have a Creator does not include the Creator, however. This is because firstly the Creator is above all reasoning’s in creation and is the Creator of these reasonings.

Secondly, those nature attributes and the names of the sacred being which is the topic of the following verse:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ.

“Nothing is like a likeness of Him. 42:11”

Refer to He who is eternal and will eternally dominate the whole creation and will be described by the following verse of the Holy Quran:

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ، اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ، لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ.

“Say: He, Allah, is one; Allah is He on whom all depend; He begets not, nor is He begotten; and none is like Him. 112:1-4”

Anyway, this very precious sense of theism and looking – for – God is laid by Allah in every heart. As Motahhari says: it is some sort of spiritual attraction between the heart center and human sensation, on one hand, and the creation center, i.e., the supreme Initiator and the Absolute perfection, on the other hand. It is like the attraction between things and masses. Man has been under this mysterious power without knowing it himself. It seems as if there were an “I” inside “I”.

The issue of innate nature has always been the focus of attention in both religion – based texts and in texts on human knowledge in general. These scholars unanimously contend that the same Creator who has taught the plants the obsorption of useful material from the ground, and has let birds know haw or when to migrate from the cold localities to warmer ones and has given the child the reflex to suck its mother’s breast when born,[18] has laid the instinct of monotheism and God-loving deep inside human nature.

The topic is so clear that in the present century, which is the century of sins and opposition to truth carried out by the world imperialism, the scientists and psychologists and psychotherapists have officially announced that:

Man, behind his overt intelligence, has a hidden intelligence or instinct. They, thus, believe in the validity of the hidden or natural instinct.

These scholars recognize the ethical instinct, artistic instinct, scientific instinct, and the religious instinct of the human soul.

Regarding this topic, the knowledgeable Gnostics, the complete lovers have stated delicate topics relating instinct to the soul of man.

The point of departure between the philosophers and Gnostics starts here. Since Gnostics believe in natural love, they try to strengthen it and contend that the center of the supreme, divine, heartfelt and genuine feelings and sensations should be fortified and the obstacles on the way of its progress should be removed. In other words, they believe the heart should get purified and then through the strong palfrey of love we should fly to heaven. But the philosophers wish to arrive at their objectives through wisdom, thought, and reasoning’s. The Gnostic wants to fly; the philosopher wishes to ponder. The Gnostic wants to watch; the philosopher wishes to know.[19]

Scientists like Carl, William James, Pascal the well–known mathematician, Bregson and, Jung, Freud’s student, all confess to the power and effects of nature and have accepted it as genuine sensation in human being. From a cursory look at their articles and books, it becomes clear that belief in truth, and concentration on the creation is a natural action. The Holy Quran brings this topic up so elegantly:

فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ.

“Then set your face upright for religion in the right state __ the nature made by Allah in which he has made men; there is no, altering of Allah’s creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know. 30:30”

Imam Sajjad (s), as well, in the beginning sentences of the first invocation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh refers to the issue of nature:

ابْتدَعَ بقُدرَتهِ الخلق ابتدعاً، و اَخْتَرعَهُمْ على مَشيّتِهِ اختراعاً، ثمَ سَلَك بهم طريق ارادتِهِ، وبَعَثهمْ في سبيلِ مَحَبّتِهِ.

He created creatures through His power; and with His own determination dressed them the dress of existence and let them go as He wished and He enticed them towards His own love.

In the precious book called “Islam and man’s ideas”, we will read: without doubt, if we ask those believers in God what their strongest reason is for their belief, they will definitely refer to their “natural sensation” as the most reliable source of their conviction. The effects of this natural, internal sensation are so great that they changed the direction of those who have always been under the material or philosophers ideology towards Allah.

Here, we will present the confessions of some of the most staunch materialistic philosophers who strongly believe in blasphemy; they are called the repentant philosophers:

Reign, the famous German philosopher, who was one of the serious followers of Darwin, under the continuous pressure of his internal nature, wrote a book called “The world is created”, and has humbly confessed that there exists a Creator.

Rumen, another English philosopher, who first considered God as the result of material factors and who was a staunch follower of the foundation of materialism, was finally under the mysterious power of his internal nature and had to confess:

“All the scientific and philosophical foundations I have used to prove that the world is the result of unconscious matters is null and void. The world has a Creator as my internal nature forces me to admit and as the creation wisdom leads me to verify. The Creator is a fact.”

Michael Faradeh, the English philosopher and researcher of natural sciences, physics and chemistry, who believed the whole world as the result of accidental combination and did not believe in any Creator, and who spent all his life in research in physics and chemistry, on one of the days of the year 1867 when he was on his bed, suffering from illness, and was asked what theory he was thinking on then, he answered:

I thank God that I am not thinking on any theory now. I humbly worship God and sincerely confess before Him. Now I am thinking only on Him whose existence my instinct, internal nature and all scientific foundations attest to. I recognize my God and I am sure that He will pardon all my nonsenses, shortcomings and sins.

2) Research and Focusing Attention on Creation

Since the inappropriate environmental factors, the wrong judgment of our wisdom, our thought, deviations, the aggression of books on blasphemy, the torrent of our lusts and instincts may all cover the beautiful features of internal, natural sensations and our instincts and deprive us of the divine agent called human nature, Islam has invited our external senses to identify and comprehend the world sensations and has asked our wisdom, as well to judiciously verify the foundations of existence so that through this way we may recognize the Great Love and remove the curtains of doubt over human nature.

3) The Reasoning and the Rational Philosophy

Although tough and at times puzzling, reasoning is the safest way to recognize God.

The Holy Quran and the Islamic precious knowledge not only have not rejected reasoning as the feeble–minded individuals have erroneously assumed but also have encouraged this way of the recognition of God and have laid the groundwork on this kind of research.

The verses which are concerned with monotheism and the Resurrection, both those which are God’s own words and the ones which are the Prophet’s statements narrated by the Almighty God, sometimes refer to man’s nature, or attract our attention towards God’s works in the arena of creation. And sometimes they are pure reasoning to verify the existence of Allah and the issue of resurrection.

The reasonings and the discussions narrated in the best books on narrations concerning the issue of monotheism from the great Prophet and the Infallible ones include the method of reasoning.

I wished to refer to the different facets of reasoning as used in the Holy Quran and the Divine knowledge and in books on gnostism and philosophy. But for two valid reasons, I decided not to do this:

The first reason is that these forms of reasoning are dealt with in many books accessible to the public. For instance, you may refer to the following:

The Holy Qoran, Nahjolbalaqe, kafi principles, vol one, Beharol Anvar, volumes 3 and 4, Tabarssi Reasoning, Kefayatol Mowahedin: in this last source God’s verses and the knowledge of the Infallible ones are recorded.

The scientific books which deal with reasoning are: Avicenna’s Esharat, Mirdamad’s Qabsat, Molla Sadra’s Asfar and sublime knowledge, Shavahedol Robubieh, Arshieh, Khaje Tusi’s Description on Tajrid Description on Esharat, Feiz Kashani’s Osulol Ma’aref, Farabi’s Fosus, Molla Mehdi Naraqi’s Elama’ٍta Elahia, Ibn Torkeh’s Tamhidol Qava’ed, Molla Abdollah Zonuzi’s Lama’at Elahieyeh Haji Sabzevari’s the collection of treatises, Molla Na’ima Taleqani’s Aslel Osul, and other sources such as the five volumes of the principles of philosophy and the Method of Realism by the Allameh Tabatabaee with the footnotes by the great Islamic philosopher, Sheikh Morteza Motaheri.

The second reason why I did not mention all kinds of reasoning here in this book is that I am writing this book for the lay – man, for general public. I avoid referring to the complicated philosophical issues for fear that the reader might get bored and put the book aside completely and deprive himself of God’s blessings. The experts may read those technical books on their own.

The understanding of deductive reasoning for the recognition of God is difficult for layman, especially when the major, the minor or the intermediate is absent: look at the following:

يا منْ دلَّ على ذاته بذاته.

“O God who have referred to your existence through your existence”

وبكَ عرفتكَ و انتَ دللتني عليك.

I recognized you through you yourself and you led me to yourself.

و اَعْرِفوا الله تعالى بِالله.

And know Allah, the almighty, through Allah himself.

This kind of reasoning is hard for general people to grasp. And general people are not the followers of this kind of research. Rather, the revelation of monotheism in their heart is possible and easier through nature.

Akhund Molla Mohammad Na’ima Taleqani, the great Islamic researcher, one of the great teachers of Shiite Islamic centers in the twelfth century, and a great hero in philosophy, Gnosticism, logics, and narrations, in his book called Aslolosul, on page 103, in chapter 3 on the issue of Touhidol Wajib Ta’ala, Wa Ahadiyyata Wa Vahediyyeh, Concerning the use of reasoning for the recognition of Allah, says:

“Know that this high topic, i.e., the realization of monotheism and the understanding of God is the highest degree of perfection and the most sublime of goal of worshippers, and it is the desired objective for the thirsty souls for knowledge and the last wish of the well - wishers.

“But the comprehension of these sublime topics and high stages is only possible through the following factors:

Skill, habit, shrewd mind, special training, possessing the mental facts of the pious, being special among God – believers, observing Islamic codes at all times, holding the chord of sunnah, heavy self – disciplines, difficult trials, shinning worldly ornamentations, full attention towards God being free from layman’s customs, being clean from a filthy nature, the denial of bodily desires, the rooting out of satanic manners and through other means which God has provided for us.”

After these sentences, Akhund Molla Na’ima continues with the following words: “what, however, is said about this significant topic, is of no benefit for those who did not have the prerequisites; in fact, they were drawn far from the truth by being exposed to these topics. Thus, those students who started to listen to these reasoning’s without previous backgrounds were lost completely.”

We have to repeat once again that we did not refer to strong logical reasoning, although it is the best way through which we could recognize Allah, simply because our readers could resort to the other two ways available: i.e., through their nature or through attention to the creature of the great Creator.

O my Lord! O Creator, O God of the two worlds, O beloved of all lovers, O the objective of the knowers, if only the hands of the misled, and the slaves to their lusts, did not interfere in man’s life and if these dangerous thieves would let the inhabitants of the earth free during man’s history, your recognition would not have been so difficult, especially when they have put so many curtains between you and us. You have told us in the Holy Quran that you are very near to us, even nearer than our veins: you have, as well, said:

وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ.

“He is with you wherever you are. 57: 4”

وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا.

You have also said:

“And everyone has a direction to which he should turn. 2: 148”

O my Lord! let us be attracted by the attraction of your blessings. In order for us to know you, let us enjoy your benevolence. Enlighten our wisdom, heart, and soul with your lights. Let us dwell in the paradise of your knowledge and love. Please accept from me this description and interpretation which I want to offer with the help of the verses of Holy Quran, narrations, scholar’s words and the grosticism of the knowers. Please help this disabled and ignorant writer.

الحمد لله الاول بلا اول كان قبله و الاخر بلا آخر يكون بعده الذي قصرت عن رؤيته أبصار الناظرين و عجزت عن نعته أوهام الواصفين.

All praises are for the Sacred Being who possess all the attributes of perfection. His existence is free from all defects. He is the origin of every creature. There was no one before Him. He is the reference and Resurrection of the creation. There is nothing after Him. The eyes are unable to see Him and the thoughts of the describers are incapable in describing Him.

In the Praise of Allah and on the Meaning of al hamdolellah (All praise is due to Him)

Hammd [حمد]: To praise the good attributes and it is optional. Madh [مدح]: To commend the good attributes; it is both optional and compulsory; Shokr [شكر]: To thank for His graces and favors.

Considering the difference among these three words and regarding the article {al} in front the word Alhamad [الحمد], we will realize that all praises are for that Sacred Being who is the Creator of all creatures and who is free to create. He is the beauty – creator, developer of all aspects of existence, and a guide to all objectives and inclinations. Anybody who praises some body else for his good work, is in fact indirectly praising Allah, since He is the Creator and anything good, and any proper adjective and good act is a drop of that Ocean, a reflect of that Light and a Ray from that Center.

In fact, by the use of the word Alhamdo lellah [الحمد لله] which we utter, and which is a comprehensive word we praise Allah.

The word “Alhamdo lellah” is a phrase filled whith light which is uttered by the lovers in the world, which is the first life and by the paradise dwellers, in the Hereafter, which is the second and eternal life.

Imam Sadiq (s) says: One of the mules of Imam Baqir (s), my father, was lost. He said: I will praise it if I find it. When the mule was found and Imam was satisfied, he put on his dress and staring at sky, he said الحمد لله, adding nothing to it. Then he said: this word includes all the praises. I may not add anything to it.[20]

God has taught His servants to use this expression to worship and praise Him. If this training had not been done, all the tongues would have been dumb to utter anything.

Praising God with the Language of Gnosticism

In Tafsir Kabir, volume one, in the description of الحمد لله it is narrated from the Prophet (s):

اِنّهُ قال: اِذا أنْعَمَ اللهُ على عبدهِ نِعْمَهَ، فيقول العْبدُ: الحمدُ لله؛ فَيَقُولُ الله تعالى: انْظُُروا إلى عَبْدي أعطيتُه ما لا قدر لَهُ، فاعطاني ما لا قيمَةَ لَهُ.

When God bestows a favor and grace upon His servant and he says الحمد لله, God will say: look at my servant, I gave him a cheap thing but he gave Me as a gift something of utmost value.[21]

The explanation for this excellent narration is the following: when God performs a favor towards us, it is not strange for Him; rather, He has done it out of His Generosity, such as to feed a hungry man, to dress a naked one, to give water to the thirsty one and other assets which are given us out of His Benevolence.

But when a servant of God says الحمد لله it means: any praise which is uttered anywhere belongs to God, and all the possible praise which are not even uttered belongs to God as well. In the expression الحمد لله there are all the praises done by earth and the skies dwellers and by the residents of the paradise.

But the word الحمد لله also includes all the praises which will be used to worship God by all men and other creatures for ever and ever.

There is a delicate point here to discuss. The assets and affluence given by God to us are finite, but the content of the expression الحمد لله is infinite.

It is clear that when a finite amount is deduced from infinite, the infinite will continue to be infinite. The content of this narration is in fact the following: it is as if God wanted to say: My servant, when you say الحمد لله for a favor by Me, what you have done is an eternal worship; and an eternal worship inevitably deserves an eternal range of favors. Thus the servant deserves an eternal prosperity. Therefore, any God – believer who utters the expression الحمد لله will deserve eternal prosperity.

A Strange Anecdote From God’s Men

Fakhr Razi writes in his Description: The expression الحمد لله is a noble one which should be used in its proper time and place. If you use it properly, you will get your objectives; but, if you don’t, you will not get what you want.

Sarri Saqati was asked: How should we praise Allah? He replied: It is thirty years since I have been repenting the use of الحمد لله out of its proper place.

People asked him: How? He replied: There was a horrible fire in Baqdad. All shops and houses were on fire. I was told my shop was immune from fire. When I heard this, I said الحمد لله . Then, when I thought about the content of this expression, I realized that I was happy for the immunity of my shop with no regards for people’s property which were completely destroyed. It is thirty tears since I have been asking for God’s forgiveness.

To praise God is carried out due to the greatness of the Creator. This action is done through your heart, your tongue, and your eyes, ears, and hands and feet.

What God wants from us is to hear correctly, to say the truth, to carry out good action with our hands, and to walk for God. These are among the divine actions of our limbs.

The right thing for our hearts to carry out is to have faith in God and to realize that God possesses all the attributes of perfection, beauty and magnanimity. Of course, to attain this, we will need great endeavors on our parts.

The right thing for our tongues to do is to utter through our tongues what our hearts feel deep inside concerning God’s attributes of benevolence and greatness and the expression الحمد لله is the most appropriate methods to confess to such a reality.

The right thing for our other limbs is that they should coordinate themselves with God’s wishes so that they could represent God’s attributes and sacred names. If you complete these three stages, you have been involved in the act of praising God for the infinite range of His blessings and favors.

Thus, all God’s believers are given a chance to thank and praise God and no excuse can be accepted in this regard.

God through getting our wisdom involved with all aspects of creation shows Himself free from all defects and short-comings and makes us realize that He is the King, the Sacred and the Wise.

يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ.

“Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth declares the glory Allah, the king, the Holy, the Mighty, the Wise. 62:1”

The Holy Quran emphasizes that man should realize God’s perfection and beauty through his creation; it is become the language of works and traces is more eloquent than the language of news.

If a thousand people say there is fire at a certain place, but one crazy one says “there is no fire”, due to the fool’s expression there might be some doubts and confusion in our belief. But if a person observes smoke, which is the sign of fire, and says “fire”, everybody believes him even though a thousand people say they can not observe any fire. Thus, we see that signs and traces can not be ignored. So, the creation as a whole can be taken as signs which indicate the existence of that great Being, that sacred Entity and that Great Wise: the same Dear Being who is wise and who has sent us the most virtuous being, the Prophet Mohammad (s) and the most precious thing, the Quran to be read by us and to be used for our education. By reading this Glorious trace of God we will discern God’s perfection, glamour, and beauty. The Great Prophet tries to change us through his trainings: تَخَلَّقُوا بأخْلاق اللهِ

“Equip yourself with Godly mannerism”

And having learned the book, we will get aquatinted with rightfulness, Islamically legal and illegal actions. Then the ground is set for theoretical and practical knowledge. Upon completing these high stages of growth and perfection, we may get at the stage where we could get involved in true worshipping and not in a superficial one. This is because the genuine worship is only possible for a believer if he possesses insight, truth, knowledge, love, faith and mannerism.

The sire of Gnostics, the head of the lovers, Imam Ali (s) has a lot of significant saying on Hamd praising God. Some sentences are given here as samples

اَلْحَمْدُ لله الَّذي جَعَلَ الْحَمْدَ عَلى عِبادِهِ مِنْ غَيْر حاجَهٍ مِنْهُ إلى حامِديهِ، وَطريقاً مِنْ طُرُق مِنْ الاعْتِرافِ بلاهُوتيَّتِهِ وَصَمَدانِيَّتِهِ ورَبّانِيَّتِهِ وَفرْدانِيَّتِهِ، وَسَبَباً إلَى الْمَزيدِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ، وَمَحَجَّهً لِلطّالِبِ مِنْ فضْلِهِ؛ وَكَمَّنَ في إبْطان اللَّفْظِ حَقيقَهَ الاعْتِرافِ لَهُ بِاَنَّهُ الْمُنْعِمُ عَلى كُلِّ حَمْدٍ...

Praise be upon Allah, who gave the honor to his servants to engage in Hamd (praising God) without needing their praise. He Who put this word, which should be uttered from the very depth of one’s heart, for us to confess to His Great Position and kingdom. He Who put Hamd as a means for his abundance over his servant. He who put it as a light on His servants.[22]

Imam Sadiq (s) has employed the following way of Hamd:

الحَمْدُ لله بمَحامِدِهِ كُلها عَلى نِعَمِهِ كُلها حَتى يَنْتهيَ الحَمْدَ اِلى ما يُحِبُّ ربّي وَيَرْضى.

Praise be upon Allah for all his abundance which He has given to us.

Imam Sadiq (s) narrates from his father: a Prophet among Prophets said to Allah:

الحَمْدُ لله كثيراً حمداً طيباً مُباركاً فيهِ كَما يَنْبَغي لِكَرَمَ وجْهكَ وعِزَّ جَلالِكَ.

Praise be upon Allah, a blessed praise of the form which fits His benevolence, glamour, and dignity.[23]

God, then, revealed on him: Due to the rewards that this praise entailed, you have made a laborious job for the reward – registrars.

عَنْ عَلّي بْنِ الحُسَيْنِ عليها السلّام اِنّهُ قالَ: مَنْ قالَ: اَلحَمْد لله فقدْ ادَى شُكر كلَّ نعمَه لله عَزّوَجَل عَليْه.

Imam Sajjad (s) has said: anybody who utters (al hamdolellah) الحَمْدُ لله, he has in fact thanked Allah for all his abundance.[24]

عَنْ النّبي صّلى الله عليه و آله قال: لا اِله اِلا الله نِصْفُ الميزان وَالحَمْدُ لله يَمْلأهُ.

The Allah’s Messenger said, “the expression لا اِله اِلا الله will satisfy half of our tasks towards Allah, but “الحَمْدُ لله” will complete our duties.”

In the above sentences the fact was stressed that Hamd in its genuine sense should be uttered by the suppliant’s heart, tongue and all his limbs, i.e., when the heart confesses to the creator and when the tongue utters the word الحَمْدُ لله, and when our limbs do not participate in sins then the conditions for the utterance of Hamd are met, or else using the word only through the tongue will not help since this word could be taught to some birds (such as parrots and minas) as well. In fact, Hamd consists of three facts: internal, by tongue and physical. This is the sense which is used in most precious narrations. You may pay attention to the following:

عَنْ ابْنِ نَباتَةَ قالَ: كُنْتُ أرْكَعُ عِنْدَ بابِ أميرِ المُؤمِنِينَ عَليه السلام وَأنا أدْعُو اللهَ، إذْ خَرَجَ أميرُ المُؤمِنِينَ عليه السلام فَقَالَ: يا أصْبَغُ، قُلْتُ: لَبَّيْكَ، قالَ: أيَّ شيئٍ كُنْتَ تَصْنَعُ؟ قُلْتُ: رَكَعْتُ وَأنَا أدْعُو، قالَ: اَفَلا أعَلِّمُكَ دُعَاءً سَمِعتُهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه وآله؟ قُلْتُ: بَلى، قالَ: قُلْ: (اَلحَمْدُ للهِ عَلى ما كانَ، وَالحَمْدُ للهِ عَلى كُلِّ حالٍ). ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ بِيَدِهِ اليُمْنى عَلى مَنْكَبيَ الأيسَرِ وَقالَ: يا أصْبَغُ لَئِنْ ثَبَتَتْ قَدَمُكَ، وَتَمَّتْ وِلايتُكَ، وَانْبَسَطَتْ يّدُكَ، اللهُ أرحَمُ بِكَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ!

Athbaq Ibn Nobata says: I was praying next to Imam Ali’s house when he came out of his house. He called me and asked what I was doing. I answered: I was engaged in worshipping. Imam Ali (s) then asked: Do you want me to teach you the invocation which I learned from the Prophet(s). I answered: yes, please.

الحَمْدُ لله عَلى ما كانَ وَ الحَمْدُ لله عَلى كُل حالٍ.

“Praise be upon Allah for all His abundance, and praise be upon Him at any moment”

Then he touched my left shoulder with his right hand, saying: If you are steady towards Allah, and if you wholeheartedly believe in His leadership, and if you are generous towards people as far as financial matters are the issue, the kind Allah will be kinder to you than yourself.

Senan Ibn Tarif says: I said to Imam Sadiq (s): “I fear to be dominated by negligence towards Allah when He has given us such an abundance” Imam asked for the reason. He gave it to me. Then I asked him for a thousand Derhams, and I received it. Then I begged Him to give me a servant. I received one, as well”.

Imam then asked me what words I offered upon receiving what I needed. I said I used الحمد لله (Praise is due to Allah).

Imam Sadiq (s), then, said: What you gave God was better than what you received from Him.[25]

عن جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام عن ابيه، عن جابر بن عبدالله، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله: “لو أنَّ الدنيا كلها لقمة واحدة فأكلها العبد المسلم ثم قال: الحمد لله لكان قوله ذلك خيراً له من الدنيا و ما فيها”.

Imam Sadiq (s) reports from Imam Baqir (s) who reported from Jabir Ibn Abdollah who narrates from the Prophet (s) who has said: If the whole world were a morsel and then a Moslem ate it and then uttered (الحمد لله) this statement of his would be better for him than the world and what it contained.

In senenteen verses from the Holy Quran, Allah has called Himself (حميد) [Hamid], i.e. praiseworthy: Baqarah 267: Hud 73; Ibrahim 1,8; Hajj 24,64; Luqman 12, 26; Saba 6; Fatir 15; Ha Mim 42; Shura 28; Hadid 24; Mumtahene 6; Taghabun 6; Buruj 8; and Nisa 131.

In the Holy Quran the word (الحمد لله) is used seventeen times: Anam 1; Araf 43; Ibrahim 39; Nahl 75; Bani-Israel 111; Kahf 1; Moaminun 28; Naml 15,59,93; Ankabut 63; Luqman 25; Saba 1; Fatir 1,34; and Zumar 29, 47.

The sacred sentence (الحمدُ للهِ رَبِّ العْالَمِينَ) is used in six verses from the Holy Quran: Fateha 2; Anam 45; Yunus 10; Saffat 182; Zumar 75; and Moamin [Qafir] 65.

The explanation of each verse of the above verses needs philosophical, and Gnostic expertise which this poor, needy and ignorant writer lacks. It is better for you to refer to the relevant books and sources so that you may equip yourself with the light contained in these verses and reach to the stages of Gnosticism and true love.

In the interpretation of Kashfol Asrar, in the first volume, in the third edition for the translation of Hamd, we will read:

“The expression (الحمدُ للهِ) is to praise Allah, the Abundance Giver, the Unique, One who is available without research, and is recognizable without being watched, and the One who is loved without being seen. He is Almighty; He is immune of Annihilation; He is Almighty; He is ascribed by the attributes Glorious, the Beautiful; He observed the worshippers’ weakness in the recognition of Him; and knew that however hard the believers tried, they would never reach it; and however hard they tried, they would not recognize Him. And the Holy Quran witnessed to the worshippers’ inabilities:

وَ ما قَدَرُوا اللهَ حَقَّ قَدرِهِ.

“And they have not honored Allah with the honor that is due to Him” [The Companies 67].

Allah praised Himself and taught His servants how to praise Him or else who would be able to use the expression الحمد لله.

Be aware that Hamd [Praise on Allah] has two phases: One is due when you confront the asset; the other is due to the Giver. What is due when you see the asset is for you to thank Him upon receiving it to-day and let you enter the paradise tomorrow. The Prophet (s) has said regarding this:

اَوَّلُ من يُدعى اِلى الجَنَّة الحَمَّادُون للهِ على كُلِّ حالٍ.

“The first who will enter the paradise are those whose job it was to praise Allah”

This is the case of those who praise Allah for His abundance. But there are those who praise Allah irrespective of the assets they receive or not: They would say: “O love! We have not come here to see the world only”.

الأوَّلُ بِلا أوَّلٍ قبلَهُ، و الآخِرُ بِلا آخِرَ يَكُونُ بَعْدَهُ.

The words (اول) [The first], and (آخر) [The last] in this great invocation which is as wavy and stormy as the ocean, are taken from the third verse of the sacred surah Hadid from the Holy Quran and are, in fact, meaningful but short interpretations of that verse.

As it is evident from the famous narrations available to us, every verse of the Holy Quran, which has seventy deep structures and every deep structure has seventy deep structures of its own, was revealed to the clean heart of the Prophet (s) and then was transferred to the Infallible (s); regarding this topic, there is a description of the forty second invocation of Shifeh Sajjadieh in the coming pages.

The Infallible ones (s) who possessed the first and last Divine knowledge, and who were complete human beings and each had at their disposal a stormy ocean of earthly and heavenly knowledge, started to describe the verses of the Quran through their invocations, narrations, good manners and holy actions and left a complete and all-inclusive school behind which could satisfy any believer’s questions on the worldly affairs and those of the Hereafter.

In the holy Surah of Hadid [The Iron], the content of the verses of which is marvelous, and intoxicating, and the issues of which are heart stimulants and spirit polishers and is the builder of the world Here and then, we will read:

هُوَ الأوَّلُ و الآخِرُ و الظاهِرُ و الباِطنُ وَ هوَ بكلِّ شيئ عليم.

“He is the First and the last and the Ascendant over all and the Knower of the hidden things, and He is Cognizant of all things. 57:3”

To describe the words “اول و آخر”, the first and the last, I will present the readers the results of our study of the verses of the Quran, invocations, narrations, the discussions of great Divine scholars and God lovers:

Before delving into the matter, let me discuss on two issues: one is time, the other one is place. Time is a phenomenon which came into being with the first creature. It is nothing except the movement of power into action, the change of a truth into truer; and a progression which has an end to it.

Place is location and a container, in which all elements rest or from which they change place. The two words “the first”, and “the last” are beyond the concepts of time and place.

The first and the last, like the expressions “Ascendent over all” and “the Knower of the hidden things”, and like all other attributes of Allah refer to the Being of Allah, the Being which contains all features of perfection. In fact, these attributes are the same as the Being Himself. In Allah the being is the Attributes and the Attributes are the same as the Being.

The attribute of each thing is different from its other attributes. For instance, the attribute knowledgeable is different from a person’s other attributes such as “strong”, “Just”, or “generous”. But in Allah, the Almighty, there exists only unity. Regarding this issue, Imam Ali (s) says:

وَكَمالُ الاخلاصِ لَهُ نَفيُ الصِفاتِ عَنهُ.

“To show perfect sincerity towards Him is to negate all his other extra attributes”

To explain more, Allah’s attributes are not like the adjectives given to things; i.e., where adjectives are different from the things described. Allah’s Being is the first, the last, Cognizant, Wise, Hearer, Seer, Witness, Creator, Giver, and … all of which refer to the Unique truth.

The expression نَفيُ الصِّفاتِ عَنهُ means not to separate Allah’s Attributes from His Being. It is because there the adjectives and “things described” do not exist separately and side by side, because in Allah each attribute is Allah Himself, not an added adjective.

Allah is the First, but not the first that we imagine; He is the Last, but not the last which we conceive. The states of being First and Last are not bound by Time and Place and by other factors which are used in relation with other creatures. He is the First; it means He is the Origin of all works, hidden or apparent. He is the Goal of all hidden or apparent things. While he is the First, He is eternal; He is the Last; it means He is perpetual; not the first which has an origin, nor the last which rests on an end.

Somebody asked Imam Sadiq (s) the meaning of the holy verse: هُوَ الأوَّلُ و الآخِرُ, he answered:

الأوَّلُ لا عَن أوّل قَبْلَهُ، ولا عَنْ بَدءٍ سَبَقَهُ و آخِرٌ لا عَنْ نِِهايَةٍ كَما يُعقَلُ مِن صِفاتِ المَخْلُوقينَ، وَ لكِن قَديمٌ أوَّلٌ وآخِرٌ لَم يَزَل وَ لا يَزالُ بِلا بَدءٍ وَ لا نِهايَةٍ، لا يَقَعُ عَلَيهِ الحُدُوثُ، وَ لا يَحولُ مِن حالٍ إلى حالٍ، خالِقُ كُلِّ شَئٍ.

He is the First, not from a first prior to Himself and not from a precedent before Him. He is the Last, not from any end, as assumed in the case of creatures. He is the First, the Last, without any reference to any beginning or end. There is no place there for changing from one state into another. He is the Creator of all things.[26]

The Prophet (s) used to say to Him:

اللّهُمَّ اَنتَ الأوَّلُ فَلَيسَ قَبْلَكَ شَيئٌ وَ اَنتَ الآخِرُ فَلَيسَ بَعْدَكَ شَيئٌ.

O God, you are the First prior to whom there was nothing; and you are the Last after whom nothing exists.

Imam Ali (s), the sire of believers, has said:

لَيسَ لِأوَّليّتِهِ ابْتداءٌ وَلا لِأزَلِيّتِهِ اِنقِضاءٌ هُوَ الأوّلُ لَمْ يَزَل و البَاقي بِلا اَجَلٍٍ.

For His being First, there is no first; and for His being Last, there is no end, either. He is the First who has always been and is an Eternal for Whom there is no ene.

Imam Mojtaba (s) has said:

اَلحَمْدُ للهِ الّذي لَمْ يَكُن فيهِ أوّلٌ مَعْلُومٌ ولا آخِرٌ مُتَناهٍ.

Praise be upon the Being who has always been. He is the one for Whom there is no end, he is Everlasting. Our wisdom may not understand Him. Imam Ali (s) says in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa, which is a miracle by itself:

“Pious men when sincerely confessed to the Allah’s uniqueness, will see Him so clean that He will not need any attribute.

Never will He be attributed by any attribute; this is because when we describe, we think the adjectives with which the thing is described are different identities.

Thus, in describing Allah, it seems as though He had an associate; such an individual is far from reality, however.

Allah is a Being to whom non – existence will not apply. There is no beginning for His existence.

He is the factory for the warm life, but He will not receive any light or heat except from the Eternal Determination and the Power of Perpetuality”.[27]

I do not think that without the necessary requirements, to which we have already referred, an understanding of the science of the unknown world, two significant factors of which are monotheism and the recognition of Allah, would be feasible.

To reach the Divine truths, especially to grasp the depth of the supreme Divine concepts above all, an understanding of Allah’s names and attributes, would be impossible without requiring the plans which believers have raised in their essays. Up to the point when the obstacles are not removed from their hearts and souls, Individuals would not succeed in observing the Love’s beauty.

Many people of the world, even Moslems, are fond of the non – sense of this world: they spend most of their time satisfying their lusts and applying to their homes, shops, wealth, eating, and sleeping. They are exchanging their dear life with some schemes which are of no use to them. They would not go after truth; and even if they went after truths, since they could not enjoy it, they would become tired and would quit the endeavor. This all happens because some obstacles, either financial, ethical or practical, have engulfed their hearts and souls. This is the case not only of some scholars, but of general public. This kind of people can not reach the sublime position since when they gather wealth, they wish to become Qarun, Firon (pharaoh), and Bala’am.

First Be Clean And Then Cast Your Eyes On Allah

The writer of Asol Osul, who is among the well – known Gnostics and great philosophers of Islam, says at the end of his precious book:

“It is compulsory for every believer to research for the knowledge of the nunknown.

This kind of knowledge is used to equip the inner life with virtues and purify it against evils. The requirements for this movement, of course are being familiar with the fundamentals and the practical laws of Islam and the cleanliness of all limbs against the Islamic forbidden affairs”.

The basis of this knowledge is to obtain ethics, virtues and features from the news and narrations and the life patterns of the Infallible ones (s). Although wisdom is an important factor in obtaining Islamic knowledge, it can not be the only factor. In order to succeed, we should enlighten our wisdom with the light of the Infallible ones, since in their methods no errors may enter. For this purpose, you may refer to the chapter on Faith and blasphemy of the precious book called kafi since there we might find all that is good and all that is bad.

The other bases for this knowledge are the legitimate self – discipline (ascetism), and the worshipping God at the dawn and dusk.

Only through these conditions does the Gnostic attain the lofty positions and avoids the degenerating ones. Under such circumstances does he come near to the Great love. He loses his interest in the worldly possessions, concentrating on the kingdom of Heaven, and employing his wisdom for the preparation for the other world, rather than wasting it here.

Such a man loses his interest in the debased and mean matters of this world.

With his endeavors he will get rid of the wishes and whim, paying attention to the kingdom of Heaven.

He humbly asks the Almighty Allah to open up to him all His doors of blessings and abundance and to light his heart with special light of guidance so that he could observe the signs of Allah’s magnanimity.

After these requirements, the Gnostic will arrive at this blessed discovery and under Allah’s guidance he will discover wisdom, then he discovers his heart and later he discovers his spirit and soul. At this position, he is then ready to grasp the content of Allah’s Names and Attributes and to watch the Great Beauty. At this Juncture, he will understand the Quran, narrations and the Islamic knowledge and will get to the Great truth which is the desired goal for every lover and gnostic.

الّذي قَصُرَت عَنْ رُؤيَتِهِ اَبصْارُ النّاظِرين، وَ عَجَزَتْ عَنْ نَعْتِهِ اَوْهامُ الوَاصِفِينَ.

“The sacred Being whom our ordinary eyes can not see and the describer’s thoughts and ideas are unable to describe”.

The Faulty Eyes And The Lnefficient Wisdom

By “Sight” we mean encountering objects under specific conditions.

What are visible are the things and elements which are delimited by time, place and other physical properties. When conditions are absent, vision will become non-existent.

It is clear to every body that our limbs and body organs are limited in their functions. Our bodily and spiritual strength is limited, so is our power range of hearing, sight and wisdom.

Our sighet is so limited that we may not see many material beings.

Our spirits, Jinns, angels, air pain, neutron, electron, some microbes and viruses are not visible to us, at all.

The Sacred Being of Allah, which is not similar to anything in this world, is beyond our power to see or observe.

Thus, our eyes are limited and finite, and the Being of Allah is infinite; therefore, we may not observe Him directly.

Abdollah Senan narrates from Imam Sadiq (s):

Allah is Great and High – ranking. Allah’s servants are incapable to describe Him and may not observe Him. He is Delicate and Knowing. You may not describe him through quality, place and time. How could I quantitatively describe Him since He made the quantity what it is. I recognized quality through His giving quality to what possesses quality. How could I describe Him with place terms when He created the concept of place; and I recognized place because He gave me the concept. He is both in and out of things. Eyes may never see Him, but He sees our eyes. There is no god except Him; He is the Mighty, the Wise, the Knowing.[28]

Some of the Sunni scholars have misunderstood some of the verses of the Holy Quran and have presented some narrations dealing with the watching of God in the other world. But these narrations are fake.

They contend that it is possible for us at the Doomsday to see Allah directly. But the Infallible Ones (s), who are our salvage ship left from the time of the Prophet (s), contend that this would be impossible. In order to stand firm, they used the verses from the Quran and negated those narrations.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُوْلُوا الْأَلْبَابِ.

“He it is who has revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive, they are the basis of the Book, and others are allegorical; then as for those in whose hearts there is perversity, they follow the part of it which is allegorical, seeking to mislead, and seeking to give it (their own) interpretation, but none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: we believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except those having understanding.( 3:7)

The following verses are referred to as the decisive ones:

يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ.

“The Hand of Allah is above their hands. 48:10”

الرَّحْمَانُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى.

The Beneficent God is firm in power. 20:5”

إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ.

“Looking to their Lord. 75:23”

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ.

“And your Lord comes.89:22”

إِنَّهُمْ مُلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ.

“Surely they shall meet their Lord.11:29”

The above verses and other similar ones in the Holy Quran have some interpretations which are in harmony with the decisive concepts. This kind of interpretation may only be carried out by the genuine scholars. And these scholars are in reality the prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones(s).

The magnificent Nurol Thaqalein, in volume one, pages 260-265 deals with twenty five narrations, all of which contend that by genuine scholars is meant the Prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones(s). Borhan in its first volume, and Alamizan in its third volume, page 69 deal with this delicate issue:

Imam Ali (s) has said in Nahjolbalaqa:

أيْنَ الّذينَ زَعَمُوا أنَّهُمُ الرّاسِخُونَ في العِلمِ دُونَنا كِذْباً عَلَيْنا، أنْ رَفَعَنَا اللهُ وَ وَضَعَهُم، وَ أعْطانا وَ حَرَمَهُم، وَ أدْخَلَنا وَ أخْرَجَهُمْ ...

“Where are those who deceptively consider themselves like us the decisive ones in science and knowledge. These are the wretched ones who have transgressed over our rights. It is God who made our scientific positions lofty and their positions mean and low. It was Allah Who gave us from His knowledge reserves and deprived them of such blessings. It was He who let us enter His secrets, but rejected them”.[29]

Thus, those scholars from sunni sect who rely on the surface of some verses of the Holy Quran and on some narrations and claim that they will see God either here or in the Here after, are in error and their claims are in contradiction with the decisive verses of the Holy Quran which are the source for the interpretation of the allegorical ones, and with the interpretations of the Prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones (s).

You Will See Him Through The Eyes Of Your Heart:

If our appearance is equipped with Shariah and our inner self is lighted with the light of cognizance, and good mannerism and with complete faith, the eyes of our hearts are ready to see the truth and every heart, proportional with its capacity, may observe Allah’s Glamour, Glory, Beauty, and Magnanimity.

Another interpretation for meeting and seeing Allah is conviction. This means man could reach such a lofty place as the doors of doubt are closed to him and his heart attains such a degree of perfection as to make it possible for man’s eyes to see the secrets beyond the things.

Regarding this, let us read two narrations which Saduq narrates in his great book called Touhid.

عَنْ عَبْدِاللهِ بنِ سِنان، عَنْ أبيه، قالَ: حَضَرتُ آبا جَعْفَرٍ عليه السلام فَدَخَلَ عَلَيهِ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الخَوارجِ فَقَالَ لَهُ: يَا أبا جَعْفَر أيَّ شيئٍ تَعْبُدُ؟ قالَ: الله، قاَلَ: رَأيْتَهُ؟ قَالَ: لَمْ تَرَهْ العُيُونُ بِمُشاهَدَةِ العَيانِ، وَ لكِن رَأتْهُ القُلُوبُ بِِحَقائِقِ الإيمانِ، لا يُعْرَفُ بِالقِياسِ، وَلا يُدْرَكُ بِالحَواسِّ، وَلا يُشَبَّهُ بِالنَّاسِ، مَوْصُوفٌ بِالآياتِ، مَعْرُوفٌ بَالعَلاماتِ، لا يَجُورُ في حُكْمِهِ، ذلِكَ اللهُ لا إلهَ إلا هُوَ. قالَ: فَخَرَجَ الرَّجُلُ وَ هوَ يَقُولُ: اللهُ أعلَمُ حَيْثًُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَهُ.

Abdollah Ibn Senan narrates from his father: I went to see Imam Baqir (s). A man from Khavarej came to that Imam and asked him: what are you worshipping? Imam Baqir (s) replied: Allah. He asked Imam “have you seen Him?” Imam answered: the head’s eyes may not see Him. Seeing Him is only possible through one’s heart, the heart which is equipped with religion facts. You may not recognize Him through a comparison with other creatures. He is to be recognized only through His signs. The signs which are spread everywhere and are observable in what is called collectively as creation. He is not hejemonistic in His domination. He is unique.[30] When the Khareji was leaving Imam’s home, he was reciting the following verse:

اللهُ أعلَمُ حَيثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ.

“Allah best knows where He places His message. 16:124

عَن أبي عَبْدِالله عَلَيهِ السَّلام قَالَ: جاءَ حِبْرُ إلى أميرِ المُؤمِنينَ عليه السّلامُ فَقالَ: يا أميرَ المُؤمِنينَ هَلْ رَأيتَ رَبَّكَ حِينَ عَبَدْتَهُ؟ فَقالَ: وَيْلَكَ مَا كُنْتُ أعْبُدُ رَبّاً لَمْ أرَهُ. قالَ: وَكَيفَ رَأيْتَهُ؟ قالَ: وَيلَكَ لا تُدْرِكُهُ العُيُونُ في مُشاهَدَةِ الابْصَارِ، وَلكِنْ رَاتْهُ الْقُلُوبْ بِحَقايقِ الإيمانِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said, one of the Jewish scholars asked Imam Ali (s) whether he had seen his God at his prayers. Imam Ali (s) replied: Woe to you. I did not worship a God whom I could not see. He asked Imam Ali (s): How did you see Him? Imam Ali (s) answered: what do you think? God may not be seen through the head’s eyes. It is the clean heart which, with the power of his faith, could observe that Sacred Being.

There is a delicate point we should consider here: Every heart has a special capacity to appreciate religious facts. When the worshipper asks Allah for more, his request will not be answered. If it were answered, it would destroy the suppliant. This fact is shown in the verse 143 of the sacred Surah Araf [The Elevated Places]. Regarding this, there is an interpretation supplied by the interpreter of Almizan:

Moses And The Issue of Seeing God

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَى لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ قَالَ لَنْ تَرَانِي وَلَكِنْ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنْ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّى رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَى صَعِقًا فَلَمَّا أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ.

“And when Musa came at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said: My Lord! Show me (Thyself), so that I may look upon Thee. He replied: you can not bear to see Me, but look at the mountain, if it remains firm in its place, then will you see Me; but when his Lord manifested His Glory to the mountain He made it crumble and Musa fell down in swoon; then when he recovered, he said: Glory be to Thee, I turn to Thee, and I am the first of the believers.”

In summary, the act which we call seeing is a natural phenomenon and needs a material substance to be seen. But what we learn from the Holy Quran is that no creature has any similarity to Allah, the Almighty; no Time or Place may contain Him. And no from of Him may be observed.

Thus the objective of Musa Ibn Imran was not really to see Allah, because such a request was not becoming of him, who was one of the great five prophets. This request that Allah who is free from time and place should show Himself to man is more of a joke than reality.

Wherever Allah talks about Him being seen and observed, there are mentioned certain conditions. For instance, in the verse:

أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ؟ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِنْ لِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ أَلَا إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُحِيطٌ.

“Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things? Now surely they are in doubt as to the meeting of their Lord; now surely He encompasses all things, ( 41:53-54) we will observe such conditions.

Prior to the confirmation of the meeting with God, He has reasoned that Allah is everywhere and His presence does not rely on specific Time or Place or Direction. He is present everywhere and He encompasses all things.

This is the true meaning of meeting with God, and not seeing him through ordinary eyes and through limited Time and Place.

What Allah has confirmed in the Holy Quran concerning meeting with Him is not to be taken as ordinary observing with one’s eyes; rather what is meant is through one’s conscience and heart without our eyes being involved. Man could easily conceive God through his heart. If he is not able to conceive Him the reason might be that he is too much involved in the material things. But this knowing of God will never vanish in man. Nowhere in Quran is there any mention of the disappearance of this knowledge. Everywhere in the Quran this ignorance is interpreted as “negligence”.

Of course, as it is understood from the Holy Quran, this knowledge which is interpreted as meeting with Allah, is only for true believers. As the Holy Quran says:

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَاضِرَةٌ إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ.

“Some faces on that day shall be bright, looking to their Lord. 75:22-23”

The Resurrection Day is the place and time of such meeting and it will not take place in this world in which man has to satisfy his material needs.

This world is the place where we may set the stage to meet with Allah and to get to know the knowledge to comprehend His verses.

Thus, Moses (s) in his sentence:

رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ.

“My Lord! Show me Thyself so that I may look upon Thee”

has, in reality, asked Allah to provide him with the sufficient knowledge to be able to see Him mentally. Allah had previously given Moses hypothetical knowledge through which he could delve into Allah’s signs.

Furthermore, he was appointed to the position of prophethood by Allah. Moses wished to have the knowledge to know Him better.

Naturally, meeting with God with the meaning intended and elaborated in the above lines, is confirmed in several places of the Holy Quran. And its negation as used in لَنْ تَرانِي “You can not bear to see Me” refers to this world only. It simply means so far as man is primarily concerned with his material needs, he will never attain such knowledge of his God. This meeting would only be possible when man dies and disconnects himself from this world. God, in the above verse, tells Moses that he is unable to meet with Him in this world through material eyes. He should first die, then he would get that knowledge of seeing Allah.

Thus, the sentence: وَلَكِنْ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ “But look at the mountain,” is not to be taken as the negation of meeting with Allah; rather, Allah wants to show Moses that he has not the power to observe God in the usual sense of the word. God’s manifestation to Moses would disintegrate Moses on the spot.[31]

To describe anything, we have to conceive the truth and a concept of that thing. In the case of God, we may refer to His signs and creatures.

The issue of Allah’s names and attributes is a puzzle for earth - dwellers. If we wish to describe Allah we should say: I will describe you as you described yourself. And this description is the result of begging from Him. We have to describe Him with the terminology that He has employed to describe Himself. When we arrive at the other world, then we will be honored to meet with Him.

When we study the descriptions made by the describers and the Islamic knowledge which are recorded in precious books, and then compare this knowledge with the Holy Quran, we will get the point which Imam Sajjad (s) has referred to in the sentence:

عَجَزَت عَنْ نَعْتِهِ اَوْهامُ الواصِفينَ.

The imagination of scholars, philosophers, lovers, and those whose hearts are the base for your love, is unable to describe you. How could a poor, weak, limited entity like us describe the infinite. The best description of God is what he has described Himself.

If anybody wishes to recognize Him, he should refer to the Holy Quran and the invocations from the Infallible Ones (s) and spend years of research and get himself involved in hard endeavors and avoid doing unlawful acts and observe the principles of the faith.

However, this inability of the describers should not hinder us from thinking deeply on the issue of monotheism. They have not been successful to describe God properly, but this is not a valid excuse for us not to put forward our best trial. Such a program is rejected in the Holy Quran. In the introduction to the fifth volume of Realism, Motahhari, the distinguished philosopher, writes, “They say: According to the Holy Quran the only way to recognize God is to study the nature with our senses. No doubt, the Holy Quran invites us to do so, but does Quran consider the study of nature enough by itself to solve all other problems which it has raised?”

The following problems are raised in the Holy Quran:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ.

“There is nothing like Him. 42:11”

وَلِلَّهِ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَى.

“And Allah is the loftiest attribute. 16: 60”

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى.

“And Allah’s are the best names. 7:180”

الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ.

“The king, the Holy, the Quiver of peace the Granter of security the Guardian over all, the Almighty the supreme, the possessor of every greatness. 59:23”

فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ.

“[Allah’s is the East and the west], therefore, wither you turn, thither is Allah’s purpose. 2: 115”

وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ.

“And He is with you wherever you are. 57:4”

These are problems concerning the other side of our borders. How is it possible to know these issues through the study of nature. The tudy of nature will definitely familiarize us with the Might, Power and the Knowledge of the Creator, and permits us to know that He is aware of everything going around us. But the Holy Quran expects more from us: we should know, as well, that He is unexceptionally aware of every thing. How would it be possible for a finite being to know about the infinite?

The truth is that the study of nature leads us up to the border of super–natural. The study of nature will reveal to us that the nature is controlled or guided by the conscious Power and Might. But has this Power come from anywhere? Is it Eternal? Is it single or plural? Does it have all the attributes of perfection? Is it finite or infinite? Is it Holy and without fault? Do we meet with Him anywhere we go? Is He First and the Last? And the like…

The answers to these questions which are at issue in the Holy Quran could not be dealt with in the study of the nature. Thus, we come to the conclusion that man could never comprehend these problems and he has to believe blindly. Or if there is a way, it is not attainable through the study of nature, anyhow.

But we should be aware of the fact that all the above issues are indoctrinated to us by the Holy Quran as a series of lessons. And the study of nature is not enough by itself. Rather, there should be another way to know the truth which is confirmed by the Holy Quran.

That way, which is approved by the Holy Quran is through wisdom, reasoning and philosophy, which is more complete than the way based on heart or science. In other words, it is more comprehensive than the natural way”.

The content of Imam Sajjad’s statement is this: However hard the describers try to know God through the ways based on heart, science and wisdom, and gain something in this regard, and taste the monotheism which is discussed in the Holy Quran, but since their wisdom and heart are limited, they may not describe the Sacred Being who is Eternal, Apparent, Hidden, Knowing, Aware and Seeing.

Most scholars of religion, however, have used the above three techniques and have been inspired by the Holy Quran, the Prophet and the Infallible Ones (s) and have in this way understood the content of the above verses and have given us good books on monotheism. However, all these scholars have, in their lofty books, confessed to their inability to recognize God, fully.

Tabarsi, in his Ehtejaj, reports from Imam Ali (s):

دَليلُهُ آياتُهُ، و وُجُودُهُ إثباتُهُ، وَ مَعْرِفَتُهُ تَوْحيدُهُ، وَ تَوْحِيدُهُ تَمْييزُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، وَ حُكْمُ التَّمْييزِ بَيْنُونَهُ صِِفَة لا بَيْنُونَهُ عُزْلَةٍ، إنَّهُ رَبٌّ خَالِقٌ، غَيْرُ مَرْبُوبٍ مَخْلُوقٍ، كُلُّ ما تُصُوِّرَ فَهُوَ بِخِلافِهِ.

His indicator is his verses; His Existence is His existence. His recognition is to consider Him Unique. When we say He is Unique, we say He is separate from His creatures; this separation rests on the separation of Attributes and not in Entity so that His Being would be finite. This is because He is the Creator, not the created. Whatever you conceive of God, it is not God.

When we consider the last sentence we will realize how weak the describers are in describing Allah. Sentences like the above are frequently found in the statements of the prophets and the Infallible Ones (s), especially in those of Imam Ali (s), statements which no philosopher has ever uttered. The Sacred Being of Allah is loftier than could be described in words.

The great philosopher, Allameh Tabatabaee, adds at the end of this sermon: The signs which indicate the Existence of the Creator are nothing compared with the Creator.

Imam Ali (s), seven day after the demise of the prophet (s), uttered a sermon on the first part of which he talked on monotheism:

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذي أعْجَزَ الأوهَامَ أنْ تَنْالَ إلا وُجُودَهُ، وَ حَجَبَ العُقُولَ عَنْ أنْ تَتَخَيَّلَ ذاتَهُ في امْتِناعِها مِنَ الشَّبَهِ وَ الشَّكْلِ، بَلْ هُوَ الَّذي لَمْ يَتَفاوَتْ في ذاتِهِ، وَ لَمْ يَتَبَعَّضْ بِتَجْزِئَةِ الْعَدَدِ في كَمالِهِ، فارَقَ الأشْياءَ لا عَلَى اخْتِلافِ الأماكِنِ، وَ تَمَكَّنَ مِنْها لا عَلَى الْمُمَازَجَةِ، وَ عَلِمَها لا بِأداةٍ لا يَكُونُ العِلْمُ إلا بِها، وَ لَيسَ بَيْنَهُ وَ بَينَ مَعْلُومِهِ عِلْمٌ غَيْرُهُ. إن قِيلَ: (كانَ) فَعَلى أزَلِيِّةِ الوُجُودِ، وَ إنْ قِيلَ: (لَمْ يَزَلْ) فَعَلى تَأويلِ نَفْي العَدَمِ، فَسُبحانَهُ وَ تَعالى عَنْ قَولِ مَنْ عَبَدَ سِواهُ، وَ اتَّخَذَ إلهاً غَيْرَهُ عُلُوّاً كَبيراً.

The whole topic is on Divine philosophy, on reasoning. It is on the path of monotheism with the help of thought and wisdom. A clean heart and a bright thought may grasp the content angle of Allah’s Magnanimity. These sentences are a wavy ocean of knowledge, a treasure of knowledge and insight, and a lamp towards God. In the first and second sentences, Imam Ali (s) says: man’s thought can not reach the depth of the matter.

“Praise be upon the Sacred Being of Allah who has deprived our imagination and wisdom of realizing the truth of Him. This is because He does not fit any shape or associate. He is separate from things not because of the material distance, and has dominated over things. He is the science and knowledge about Himself. If we say God was, the antecedent is eternal, and if we say He will never vanquish, we have negated the non – existence of Him. Therefore, He is loftier than the one they have worshipped.”[32]

Allameh Tabatabaee, in describing the above sentences, says: in these sentences three philosophical issues are discussed:

Firstly, in understanding and knowing Allah our mental images are not at work and He is independent of our miages:

عَجَزَتْ عَنْ نَعْتِهِ أوْهامُ الوَاصِفينَ.

It is because our mind and images can not deal with Him. There is nothing for us except humbleness to offer.

Secondly, His knowledge on things is based on the entity of things, not on their images.

Thirdly, His antecedence and priority over things is not Time priority; rather, it is Absolute.

The first issue is based on the Absolute Uniqueness of Allah and the second issue is based on the Absolute Existence of Allah and the third issue is based on the Absolute infinity of God.

Ze’leb of Yemen said to Imam Ali (s): Have you seen your God?

Imam Ali (s) answered: Woe be on you. It would be impossible for me to worship Him if I had not seen Him. He asked: How? Imam Ali (s) answered: O Ze’leb, Allah may not be seen through sense eyes, but hearts have seen Him through Faith.

My God has got the most delicate meaning of delicacy; therefore He is not to be described through the ordinary meaning of kindness. He is the Greatest, but He can not be described whith the ordinary meaning of “great” as we conceive it. He is the most Glorious, but he may not be defined by our concept of glory.

Although it is necessary to make use of Nature, observing His signs and sciences and paying attention to the Islamic knowledge, He may not be described through our limited concepts and percepts. The finite concept may not describe an infinite Being.

Now that we have explained the sentence وَعَجَزَت عَنْ نَعْتِهِ أوْهَامُ الوَاصِفِينَ we may refer to a magnificent narration from Saduq’s excellent book called Touhid:

Mohammad Ibn Abi Omayr, one of the well-known narratorw, says: I went to see Musa Ibn ja’afar (s) and asked him to teach me monotheism. Imam replied: O Aba Ahmad! Concerning monotheism, do not go outside the border which the Holy Quran has set: it will cause your destruction. Be aware that He is Unique; Allah is He on Whom all depends. He begets nobody so He does not have any heirs; nor is He begotten to have associates. He did not select any companion, associate or children. He is alive, not to be dead; He is strong and Mighty, not to lose any of His Might. He is victorious, not to be defeated. He is most Patient, not to be in a hurry. He is Everlasting, not to have any end. He is so Steady as not to get destroyed. He is Constant, not to have any decay. He is Needless, not to require anything. He is Dearest, not to experience any wretchedness. He is Knowing, not to suffer from ignorance. He is Just, not to use tyranny. He is Generous, not to suffer from misery. He is the Being Whom our wisdom may not grasp, Whom our imaginations fail to comprehend. No Place may contain Him. Eyes can not see Him, but He looks all the time at our eyes. He is most Delicate and Knowing. Nothing resembles Him. He is Hearing and Seeing. When three people whisper, He is the fourth one; when fire people whisper, He is the sixth one; this is taken to mean that He is Omnipresent: He is present every where. More or less than this does not make any difference. All the existence is His Presence. He is the First, not to have any antecedenct; He is the Last, nothing coming after Him. He is Old. He will not need the attributes given Him by His creatures.[33]

In describing Him, even if we used what descriptions He, prophets, and the Infallible ones (s) have used, we would still be unable to describe Him as He deserves it. Rather, we should say: O God! You are the One You Have introduced Yourself in the Holy Quran; You are the One Whom the genuine invocations have described. But these are just a small portion of Your Attributes. What we understand from our Islamic knowledge and Heritage is in proportion to our own understanding of You; it does not fit Your Dignity. Since the beginning of our life we have tried through our knowledge, science, wisdom, divine knowledge to describe you as you deserve it, but we have failed. It is because what You possess we lack; what You are, we are not. We have to be content with worshipping You, to be Your humble servants. In this way we may prosper and we may stone the devel of tyranny and adversity away from us.

اِبْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الْخَلْقَ ابتِداعاً، وَاخْتَرَعَهُم على مِشِيَّتِهِ اخْتِراعاً.

He created the creatures without any previous samples; He made them as He wished, them to be.

In the Holy Quran, the word بديع “Wonderful Originator” has been used twice:

1) In the sacred surah Baqarah (The Cow), the verse 117:

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ.

“Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth, and when He decrees an affair, He only says to it, Be, so there it is.”

2) And in the sacred surah Anam[The Cattle], the verse lol:

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ صَاحِبَةٌ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ.

“Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the Earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort, and He himself created everything, and He is the Knower of all things.”

In the Commentaries of the Holy Quran and narration and in the book on philosophy and lexicon, the word badi’a’ بديع is defined in the following manner bada’: بَدْع means to initiate something with no antecedent. It does not imply bringing forth out of nothing because non-existence is not the base for existence. It simply means: the entity did not exist and the sacred Being who possesses all the Attributes of Perfection created it with no previous sample.

In other words, this marvelous and wonderful drawing of creation is not the same as the painter’s painting in which colors and brushes are used; rather, it is the creator’s Determination which has produced so many strange manifestations of His Glamor.

Osul kafi and the preciouse Commentary of Nur al-Thaqelein report from Imam Baqir (s) who has said:

اِنَّ الله عَزَّوجَلَّ ابْتَدَعَ الأشياءَ كُلَّها بِعِلْمِهِ على غير مِثالٍ كانَ قَبْلَهُ، فَابتَدَعَ السّماوات وَالأرضَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ قَبلَهُنَّ سماوات ولا أرضُونَ.

The Almighty God created everything with no previous sample; He created these with His Knowledge. He created all the skies and the earths with no precedence.[34]

Sadorl Motea’llehin, whose philosophical reasoning is unique in his well-known Asfar, writes:

وَلَيسَ الإبْداعُ وَالاِنْشاءُ تَرْكِيباً وَلا تأليفاً بَلْ تأسيساً واِخْراجاً مِنَ العَدَم إلى الوجُود.

God’s Creation is not the combining and composing of some existing things; rather, it is the creating of creatures without resort to any previous precedence. In fact, it is the creation of some entity which did not previously exist.

Mirdamad, one of the distinguished Shiite philosophers, says: “By ebdaa’ ابداع is meant the charge out of the definite non-existence into the text of being and steadiness in the eternal world.” Elsewhere he says: “By ebdaa’ ابداع is meant to originate the entity with no precedence based on matter or on Time.”[35]

The Amazing Story of The Creation

The phenomenon of creation, its start and, in Imam Sajjad’s words, its initiation and the invention of the world, is among the mysteries which are not resolved up to this juncture of time; that is why we hear different views on this issue from scholars.

What is unanimously agreed upon is the fact that there should be a beginning for this gigantic and vast arena of mysteries which is termed creation. There was a time when nothing of this mysterious event called “creation” was known. There was only God. It was He Who with His Determination decided to create the creatures. There was no precedent or sample around for creation. There was only God. How did creation occur? Nobody knows.

مَا أَشْهَدْتُهُمْ خَلْقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَا خَلْقَ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمَا كُنتُ مُتَّخِذَ الْمُضِلِّينَ عَضُدًا.

“I did not make them witnesses of the creation of the heavens and the earth, not of the creation of their own souls. 18:51”

In the book called “The Beginning and the Death of the Sun,” we will read “The issue of the appearance of matter is beyond the scope of useful research. We should assume the presence of matter and then start delving into the matters of creation.”

What we get from the Holy Quran and strong narrations and from the statements of the scholars is the following: the world was composed of the particles of gas. But how did gases come into being. God knows. Nobody know its secrets.

But in the Holy Quran, we will read:

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ.

“Then He directed Himself to the heaven and it is a vapor, so He said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said: we come willingly. 41:11”

But in the narrations, we will read: Imam Ali (s) in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa says:

فَرَفَعَهُ في هَواءٍ مُنْفَتِقٍ، وَجَوٍّ مُنْفَهِقٍ، فَسَوّى مِنْهُ سَبْعَ سَماواتٍ...

“Then that foam raised the steam into the immense space and after purifying it, He created the seven skies.”

Imam Ali (s) in the sermon 90 says:

وَناداها بَعدَ إذْ هِيَ دُخانٌ فَالتَحَمَتْ عُرى أشراجها

“Then He ordered the skies whose substance were steam and smoke to put together their split portions”

Beharol Anvar reports in the books called Elalol Sharaye’ and Oyun Akhbar Reza and Khesal that a Syrian man asked Imam Ali (s) about the original matter of the sky of the world. Imam answered: The original matters were gases and water.[36]

The Commentators of Nahjolbalaqa and Imam Ali’s expression have said: without doubt, what Imam Ali (s) meant by “water”, was not the usual water with which we are familiar. It was a liquid substance out of which the heavenly and earthly materials could have been produced.

عَن حَبّةَ العُرنى قالَ: سمعت علياً عليه السلام ذات يَومٍ يْحلِفْ: والذي خَلَقَ السّماء مِنْ دْخانٍ وماء.

Habba Orni says: I heard once Imam Ali (s) was swearing in this way: I swear to God Who created the sky out of gases and water.[37]

Abdollah Ibn Salam asked the Prophet (s): What is the sky created of? He answered: From the foamed wave. He asked: what is the foamed wave? He answered: It is a still, stagnant water which was previously steam and vapor. He replied: you are right, O Mohammad (s).[38]

In the Commentary of Qommi, it is written:

“Then the smoke became frozen by God’s command.”

But in The Scientific Sources:

The matter started from gases which were spread in the space. Then from the concentration of these gases, sodium (or thin fog) was produced.[39]

Dr Gamoff, the professor of Natural sciences of the Washington University, writes: the universe at its beginning was filled with gases in the space. The concentration and the temperature of these gases are beyond our imagination.[40]

The world is filled with Helium, Hydrogen, nitrogen, Argon, CO2. neon, Krypton, and kezenon gases, all of which are ready to serve God.[41]

The astronomical documents indicate the fact that the infinite numbers of stars and the sky and our sun, as well, could not have been permanent. But most probably two milliard years ago they were created out of burning gases which were spread all over the Universe.[42]

The stars at the beginning of their genesis, were globes of thin and cold gases, but later on, due to their concentration they became warmer.

At the dawn of the genesis of the universe the density of stars must have been so thin that they could fill all the space around them. In this way, they produced concentrated gases.[43]

Fifteen centuries ago, in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa Imam Ali (s) referred to the movement of the smoke and gases and to their change into the seven skies, in accordance with the latest scientific in formation we have today:

“Then the Almighty God with His new initiation opened up the dark and gloomy atmospheres gradually into bright and thin gases.”

George Gamoff, in his precious book called “One, two, three, the infinite”, writes: Whites Ziker has shown that the particles of the thin dusts which were spread at the places where the planets occupy to day within one hundred million years came together (concentrated) and produced the limited planets we know today.[44]

Sibork in the book “The Elements of the Universe” writes: Our solar system is composed of the gas concentration with which wind movement and the rotation of the planets and the sun is the remnant of the initial spinning movement.[45]

George Gamoff in last chapter of “The Appearance and the Death of the sun”, says: The story of the evolution of the universe starts from the space which was filled with a matter the heat and density of which were unbelievable. And in this matter the change of the nucli of the elements was as easy as the boiling of an egg in the hot water. In this pre-historic kitchen of the universe, the amount of the different elements and their proportion was determined. That is why there are abundant sources of Iron and oxygen and very little amount of gold and silver.

Under immense pressures this concentrated hot gas contracted into matters of heavy density, losing its heat gradually.

At specific phases of this expansion, the gas was cut into regular shapes and sizes, changing into the globe-like substances now present i.e., the stars of today.[46]

On the basis of both Islamic documents and the scientic records which rely on experimentation, we have learned that the original matter of the Universe was a mass of gas or dusts or in the terminology of the Holy Quran “smokes”.

According to the Holy Quran and in accordance with the first sentence of the first invocation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh,

اِبْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الخَلْقَ اِبْتِداعاً واخْتَرَعَهُم على مَشِتَّتِهِ اِخْتِراعاً.

And also based on reliable scientific views, this matter was dependant upon the Determination of the Almighty God whose power and might on everything is evident and the beautiful word الله represents him elegantly.

The wise scientists and the conscientious scholars who have carefully studied cosmology, advanced mathematics, physics and astronomy are all humble in the presence of Allah and knowingly admit His Existence. Since these scholars have realized that the whole universe is run through mathematical and scientific formulas and rules; they naturally conclude that these pieces of the existence are put next to one another through a wise One, that is Allah. He is the one who has put together the pieces of existence:

ابتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الخَلْقَ ابْتِداعاً ...

For this reason Einstein said:

“There would not exist any foundations or science if we did not believe in the power which manages the universe. This conviction leads us to the scientific discoveries.”

He continues to say: “Without any doubt any precise scientific discussions is based on a religion-like opinion. That convictions is this: the universe is created on the basis of wisdom and this wisdom is understandable by us.”

He used to say, as well:

“The Gnostic sensation is the most elegant and the deepest of all sensations. It is He who implants the seeds of genuine sciences in our hearts. One who is unaware of this sensation, the one who may not get excited by great surprises, and the one who can not get amazed, is a dead person. We should know that there exists something the depth of which is unknown to us. He manifests Himself in the form of the loftiest virtues and in the most amazing elegance. While our senses and skills are limited to comprehend only the simplest forms of these shapes and forms, we should go after this sensation and knowledge in our genuine faith.[47]

In these profound sentences of Einstein, there are three fundamental issues:

1. This Universe is created on the basis of wisdom;

2. Man with all his rational capacities is just bewildered in front of the grandeur of Allah;

3. It would be impossible for anybody to comprehend the deep side of that sacred Being.

It seems as if Einstein had deeply studied the Islamic texts since what he has got through his searches in physics and mathematics and due to his thinking we have them explicit reported in the Holy Quran, in the narrations and in the invocations:

In nearly one thousand occasions, the Holy Quran has invited our wisdom to pay heed to the amazing process of creation so that we may reach the truth that the creation of the Universe is firmly based upon the Determination of the Absolute wisdom and on the Infinite Knowledge.

At the beginning of the second part of Aminollah Invocation, which consists of the most delicate issues, we will read:

اللّهُمَّ اِنَّ قُلُوبَ المُخْبِتِينَ إلَيكَ وَالِهَةٌ.

O God! The hearts of those who are humble in front of Your Grandeur are filled with awe and reverie towards You.

It is written in the Islamic distinguished sources and narrations that it is not advisable to think too much about God’s Entity and Depth since this will only lead to our amazement, awe, reverie and bewilderment.

We should recognize that Clean and Majestic one only through His sacred Names, and Attributes. This will lead us to prosperity both Here and in the Hereafter.

John Alder, one of the great authors of the twentieth century writes in his valuable book called “Believing in God in the Twentieth century”:

“Not only will the principle of the truth of the creation, but also the details of creation, if they are studied carefully, lead us towards the belief in Allah.

For instance, look at the phenomenon of life on the Earth. Where did it come from, and where did it start?

The findings of numerous geologists have shown, beyond doubt, that there had not been any sign of life on the earth for long historical time. The deep layers of the archeological remnants lacked any signs of life. Only upon the upper layers, which have been studied in some centuries ago, did the investigators find the remnants of life. On the other hand, the volcanoes were active and their lava used to cover the surface of the earth, letting the surface of the earth be too hot for life to begin. That extreme heat made life impossible. It took the earth millions of years to cool down and to let creatures come into being. But where did these living creatures come from, anyhow?

To answer the above question, there are three hypotheses: According to the first hypothesis, the origin of life was the earth.

The second hypothesis says that life started automatically, without any external agent.

According to a third hypothesis life was created by the Eternal Initiator or Allah.

The first hypothesis is rejected on the basis of the fact that it is against all criteria and principles of nature. At every phase of the world of creation, an entity could create something, but that something may not create the originator. For instance, a carpenter creates a table, a man brings about a child, or a bird can create a nest; but the reverse is not true: A table may not create a carpenter, a child may not create a man, nor does a nest create a bird. Although the creation of life by a super might is in accordance with the laws and principles of nature, the creation of higher layers of life by materials which lack action and reaction power such as earth and stones is completely irrational. Furthermore, the features of the things which lacked the power of action and interaction have been studied by researchers. In none of them could the investigators find any sign of life.

This will lead us to the second hypothesis according to which life came into being automatically. Well-known researchers have concluded that life could not have been existent in this manner. Life could bring about life.

Then we will come to the third and the last hypothesis: Where did life come from and who is the creator? We mentioned above that life could not have been created automatically; neither was it created by material items. There is only one hypothesis in front of us: life was brought about by a Higher, and Invisible Creator Who is all around us and everywhere. This Initiator is called Allah.

When we observe that life as such is invisible, it will not be hard to imagine that the creator or initiator of life is Invisible, as well.

We could see living thing, but not their life. In the same way, when a person is dying we can not see his soul coming out of his body. His body, five minutes before death, is like his body five minutes after his death. Nevertheless, we are aware that his life has left. We are aware that his life has left him. So this is a right assumption: as the life itself is invisible, so is its creator.”[48]

It would be needless to explain more than this. We are aware that the Islamic sources, especially the Holy Quran, say that the initial substance of creation was an immense mass of gases and millions of years of changes in these gases led to the creation of this mysterious and bewildering act of creation, which took place in accordance with the principles of logic and most systematically, was the sacred Being of Allah, the Almighty, who is well introduced through the endeavors of the Prophets, the Infallible ones (s), the great Islamic Gnostics and the heavenly bibles, especially the Holy Quran. They all have revealed Allah’s commands which will make man to prosper.


Some Angles of the Mighty World of Creation

Man lives on the third planet of a small star located in a galaxy called the Inner Galaxy.

Man is so intelligent that he wishes to comprehend the amazing nature of the grandeur of the whole universe. The following statistics show how successful he has been in this regard:

The distances given here are based on the light year. To calculate this, let us know that light travels 186.000 miles or 300.000 kilometers each second. Then a light year equals 365x24x60x186.000 miles, or six trillion miles.

The distances among the stars in the Universe are so great that each space layer is considered a spot compared with other layers. For instance, the solar system which is called the first layer is considered a spot in the layer 2; the same applies to 2 compared with the layer 3 and so on.

The first layer or the solar system or the sun is 8 light minutes or 93 million miles away from the Earth.

The second layer or the nearest star: this star which is called Alfa century is 4.3 light years from the Earth. If a space-ship starts from the earth with the velocity of one million miles per hour, it will take three thousand years to reach to this very near star, very near indeed!

The third layer or the inner Galaxy: the galaxy which contains the Earth is similar to a bowl filled with stars, gases and dust which is 100.000 light year from us. Among its 100 million stars, the sun and the Alfa century are only a spot on the outer border of this spiral galaxy.

The fourth layer or the nearest galaxy: this galaxy is called Andromeda and is 2.2 light years away from the internal galaxy. In spite of this huge distance, astronomers consider it so close to us that they will call it a sister galaxy and assume it as a part of the internal galaxies.

Andromeda is spiral as well, on the borders of which young stars are dwelling and the old burned stars occupy inside it.

The fifth layer or the farthest galaxies: the kazars have been among the topics of the most astrological researches lately, the nearest one of which is indicated with the sign 3C-273 and is two million light years away from us.

Their farthest galaxy, which is shown by the sign 3C-147, is six billion light years from us.

Up to this point, astronomers contend that they have searched only half of the visible parts of the world and there are still more work to be done and more galaxies to be discovered.[49]

The galaxy which contains the solar system and the neighboring planets has a circumference of 950 katrillion meters. In this galaxy, which contains our solar system, there are many kinds of stars some of which called the blue suns, have light 50.000 times stronger than those of our sun. This galaxy is filled with stars, gases and dusts.

The galaxies, and systems and constellations rotate around other bigger galaxies, as the Earth, the Mars and the Venus go around our sun.

Some of these galaxies rotate around themselves or other infinite spaces with the speed of 200 kilometers in a second.

The number of the galaxies counted so far exceeds one milliard. Each one of these galaxies possesses some stars which are thousand times larger than our sun. The galaxy which contains the Earth contains one hundred thousand million stars.

Thus after different epochs of marvelous actions and reactions, the systematic and rule-governed creation occurred and in one corner of this gigantic universe life was created-in Imam sajjad’s words: these creatures included the things, the plants, the animals and man.

Of course, how sea and ocean water come into being and how the soil became ready for cultivation, and how the mines were constructed and finally how the earth became a place for life, are the topics of different books.

Upon its release from the sun, the earth gradually cooled down during centuries. On its outside first appeared a thin crust, and little by little it thickened. This outside layer became a curtain between the molten material inside the earth and the atmosphere.

Upon losing outward heat, the earth became contracted. The core of the earth, too, gradually lost its first gigantic volume; on the external portions of the earth there were huge ups and downs, creating the mountains and valleys.

In this way, lands and continents came into being. The gases in the earth atmosphere, upon losing their heat, liquefied and turned into rains, pouring down on the ground, and filling the holes of the earth, creating oceans, seas and lakes.

A comparision of the heights of the mountains with the depths of the oceans will reveal that the latter is longer than the former; the former being 8884 and the latter is 11521 meters, respectively.

God, the capable creator and the Great Prudent, prepared the soil for nurturing plants and for the preparation of food for beast and man alike. Inside the earth there were laid mines for his use. To use all this properly, God gave man wisdom.

He created rotation and movement for the earth; He created the air, the sun, the moon, the day and the night, the seasons, the mines the plants, the springs, the rivers, the deserts, the gardens, the nightingales and any pre-requisits of life and put man on this table of assets. God sent His Prophets and His Quran to man to educate him. He ordered man to use Divine laws in using these assets and abundance so that there would be justice on the face of the earth, and in order that corruption will not find the chance to originate.

The Mysterious Issue of Life

With the accumulation of means and factor for the creation of life on the earth, God decided to bring about a mysterious entity, the fact of which will never be revealed to anybody. Life, which is a ray of His commands and a reflection of His Being, caused the hustles and bustles of the living things.

Corsi Morrison, a well-known scientist of the western world, whose book called the “secrets of man’s creation” is actually based on the Islamic knowledge, has concisely put together the findings of the world’s famous scientists together with his own views conceming the creation of life:

Life is eternal. Countless centuries have gone by, different geological epochs are over, but life still goes on.[50]

The continents have come out of the depth of the ocean water and have submerged once again, but life still goes on. Life is everywhere: in the ocean depth, on the sea waves, and on the sands beside the oceans.[51]

Any time that the Ice Age was over and freed some lands, life appeared there immediately.

Whenever there was an Ice Age again, once again life started once more.

Mountains have erupted from the surface of the Earth; earthquakes have had their role in the destruction of the earth. Some continents have been washed away into the ocean and the earthly remnants are to be observed at the bottom of the oceans: but life still goes on.

The white rocks of Doover, which is composed of the layers of chalk, lime and flintstone, are a living history of the marine creatures, plants in the preceding centuries. The green forests, oil, and gas are the result of the activities of the earth centuries ago and are kept for our use today.

These precious heritages have progressed man beyond his imagination. Fuel and oil are the very bases of human civilization. All these marvelous accidents happened only because life absorbed the sun rays and then kept them.[52]

Life has defeated the changing conditions of water, earth and the air and has produced plants and animals in every corner of the earth.

In its different shapes, from the one-celled creatures to fishes, insects mammals, birds and from microbes and parasites and microscopic creatures up to plants, animals, mamutes, and man, life has defeated the natural elements and has forced them to take on new shapes.

Life creates animals of various forms on their ancestoral samples and gives them such a power as to reproduce off springs of their own, forever.

Life is over-productive to the point which consumes its own extra production. But it severely controls its reproduction so that not to let populations of creatures go out of the limits. For instance, if the reproduction of locusts were not controlled, they would devastate all plants within a short time, leaving the animal life demolished altogether.

Life is a skilful sculptor which designs the shapes and the forms of the living things; it is an artist which draws the format of each green leaf or tree stem and decorates the flowers, fruits, forests and the bird’s wings with wonderful colors.

Life is a musician which has taught the birds to sing for love and has put something in the feeble songs of insects so that they can communicate with one another.

All these songs and sounds which are produced by the larynx of life, from the sounds of frogs in the spring, to the cackles of the hens, to the roaring of the lions, and to the horn of the elephants, are its manifestations. Above all it is the human voice which is more charming than that of other creatures.

Life has made man capable of producing all sorts of sounds and pitches of sounds and using them properly.

Life is a skillful engineer which has designed the leg of the locust and fly and man’s muscles and joints and the automatic heart and the nervous systems of all animals and their blood circulations and lungs.

The same engineer has desined the lily of the valley and has scattered its seeds with the wind. This engineer has drawn the forms of the flowers and causes insects to carry their reproductive cells from one bush to the other to fertilize them.

Life is an amazing alchemist which provides fruits with flavor, spices with odor, and flowers with fragrance.

Life provides the butterflies and glowworms with a light and radiation which help them in their night love-making. The alchemy of life entails the prosperity of the world of being. It not only changes carbonic acid and water into wood and sugar with the help of the sunshine but also, during this process, provides man and other creatures with the life-giving element called oxygen.

Life is a wise historian who has written down for us every page of its evolution during the long periods of time and has told us its story in the heart of the granite. Only the smart eyes and hearts are needed to read it and interpret it.

Life has provided the beings with the excitement and eagerness to be alive.

The young lamb moves about happily and runs energetically without knowing why it is doing so.

The alchemist of life has colored the child’s cheeks, has made its eyes to glow and his thin lips to smile. Matter, however, will never smile without life.

In order to nourish its creatures, life stores nutrient substances in the reproducing cells of the creatures. It has provided the mothers, breasts to feed their young. Life begets life. It satisfies new-borns with milk and anticipates their future needs. Life gives mother-love to mothers and love for family and their home land to men. This love makes men ready to fight for their country.

Life has provided all creatures with special means to defend themselves. Disguising by camouflage is one of these defense mechanisms. Feathers, horns and teeth, and claws are other mechanisms for the birds’ animal’s defense. Life strengthens their senses of smell, and sight to be used by animals at the moments of danger. Life sometimes gives the most innocent insect the ugliest form so that it would not be attacked by other creatures and thus may remain safe.

Matter would not do anything outside its specific laws. Particles and atoms are under the influence of such factors as the earth gravity, electricity, and the air actions and reactions. Matter has no initiative of its own; it is life only which brings about new forms of life at any moment. Without life the earth is nothing but a dead sea and an arid land and a desert. Matter with no life is motionless and stagnant. Matter houses life. That is the only function it may perform.

Man has been unable to understand the essence of life. Life has no weight, no dimension; neither does it have any geometrical form. But life has immense power. It gives the roots of the trees to burst the stones and go through them and protect the stem of the tree.

Life makes the tree roots to absorb tons of water daily and to change it into leaves and fruits. The oldest living thing on earth is a five-thousand year old tree. This length of time is only an instant compared with the life on the earth, however.

With a constant and infallible trial, life enlivens the corpse of the matter and in doing this it is impartial, showing no sympathy towards anything, and not feeling any satisfaction whatsoever. Yet, life is the very basis of any kind of thinking apparatus. It is only through life that we are able to realize the creation of God, the Almighty, and to worship Him. Life is a means to materialize the intentions of the Complete Wisdom. Life is eternal.[53]

Imam Zainol Abedin (s) states:

اِبتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الْخَلقَ ابْتِدَاعاً، وَاخْتَرَعَهْم على مَشِيَتِهِ اخْتِراعاً.

God’s inventions and novelties are innumerable. There is no power, except Him, who can perceive the qualities and quantities of all creatures. All the books written on the issue of creation are but one drop of God’s grandeur. Just look at yourself and see the strange aspects of His creation within yourself.

On the basis of the researches done, any normal person is able to keep ten million memories in his brain. In other words, if we were to publish the whole memories of a single person, we would need a whole library in which there are several million volumes of books.

The number of the recorded memories of a huge electronic calculator is round one upto four millions. For each one of these memories there is used a thin magnetic circular wire.

The most recent machine of this sort invented so far, is a machine which through adding some auxiliary units to its central section, can house up to sixteen million news-units.

This recent electronic brain has a volume of twenty five cubic meters; and compared with the earlier brand which was produced in 1946 and which could memorize only 600 units, is far more advanced. However, man’s capacity to memorize is not comparable with these electronic man-made devices. This is because one piece of man’s brain as large as the end of a pin could process more information than these devices. There are ten millard nerve cells in man’s brain, on the average, each one of which can process a thousand news-units.

Prior to the entry in the world of the foetus, did the womb, or zygote, or blood know what would the foetus, which for the time-being sat in a dark location, need in order to survive? Were they aware of the laws of light and sound so that they could provide the foetus with the strange mechanisms of sight and hearing?

Were the womb, the zygote and blood aware of the fact that the foetus could only survive through the blood circulation for which hundred big and small veins are scattered throughout the body with delicate length and diameter.

Did the womb, the zygote and blood know the significance of the brain and the heart so as to put the brain in the skull made up of hard bones, and to locate the heart in the chest encompassed with the ribs?

Had the womb, the zygote and blood recognized hundreds of bones equipped with all sorts of muscles and related nerves? Even eyes were equipped with eyelashes and hands were equipped with nails.

The blood circulation is one of the world’s most amazing ways of transportation. The length of the veins is longer than all the rail ways put together, which is estimated to be between one hundred and one hundred and fifty thousand kilometers.

This automatic apparatus works twenty four hours a day continually.

The blood circulation prepares the required blood for the dody tissues. This system feeds the body cells the number of which is more than hundred milliards. It rectifies the cell damages, builds up white and red globules. Each second, it provides one million red globules for the lost ones.

When the veins get hurt, the blood circulation repairs them. And if a needle sticks in the finger and makes a hole in the small veins, it quickly repairs the damage.

If there is a small cut on the skin, coagulation takes place immediately surrounding the red globules. If this process did not occur, the wound and bleeding would cause one’s death.

The blood circulation distributes five liters of blood every minute. It distributes more than seven thousand liters of blood every day and night.

Blood vessels are not ordinary pipes; rather they are live veins which are flexible and cause pulses.

The heart secretes blood piecemeal and sends it into the blood circulation. Then the veins make the blood flow regular so that a constant flow occurs in the blood vessels. At one’s death, the veins become empty of blood.

The blood circulation carries out two functions: the arteries carry amino acids for the repairment of the body cells and sugar, which is the source of the body power. They also carry vitamins, hormones, and oxygen.

The blood which returns back to the heart through veins carry with it the CO2, water and the decomposed cells and proteins.

Now let us see what happens to a piece of meat that we eat. The digestive system changes the proteins into amino acids. The walls of the small intestine are covered with hairy projections, the number of which exceeds five millions.

Each hairy projection rests on a blood vessel. The walls of the blood-vessels are porous. These pores refine the amino acids.

The kidneys control the amount of sugar required for the use of the muscles and amino acids which are required for the reconstruction of the cells.

A meal which contains lots of meat will include a lot of amino acides. The kidneys, however, store some of them and let the rest go out of the system. Blood, then, is ready to feed all cells proportional to their individual needs.

The sugar which we take with our tea, as well as the starch contained in bread and potato go the same way and change into glucose in the small intestine and then enter the liver. If the amount of sugar exceeds certain degree, the liver changes it into glicogene and stores it. When the muscles need fuels, the stored glicogene once again changes into glucose (the sugar contained in the grapes) and gradually leaves the liver. During heavy sports, the liver will make use of the stored glucose which will last between 12 to 24 hours.

The fats, too, are among the fuels of the body and upon passing the intestine walls change into fatty acids and enter the digestive system. If the storage of glicogene in the liver is finished, the liver may use its stores and provide us with fuels for a few weeks.

As it was mentioned earlier, the contents of the blood are significant: for instance, one of the proteins contains ioda which is good for the thyroid glands, a second one contains phosphorus which is good for the bones and a third contains calcium which is good for the strength of the bones and the teeth.

One liter of oxygen is also solved in the blood. This life-giving gas mixes with hemoglobine in the blood and prepares the good-looking red color of the blood. Although this action takes place in the lungs, the reverse action takes place in the cells, i.e., hemoglobine gives oxygen to the blood and receives CO2 from it.

The most fascinating part of the blood circulation is the capillary system through which the veins and arteries are connected. The capillaries are so narrow that the red globules have to pass through it in a queue. It is here that the blood system does its main job, giving the sells the necessary materials and taking away the decayed cells.

Each cell rests in a saline solution and multiplies constantly. That solution acts as a care-taker to nourish the cells which are floating in it.

The vein blood contains different sediments such as CO2, water, and the decayed proteins. The blood system carries these wastes into the kidneys and liver.

The kidneys are the refinery system which consist of very narrow pipes, the length of which is one hundred kilometers. They resemble two opposing beans and every 24 hours they purify and refine 200 liters of blood. The kidneys change the waste material, especially urea, ammonia and food wastes into urine which is then sent out from the body and they send back the 178 liters of the refined liquid into the blood system.

The liver controls the amino acids and sugar in the blood; the kidneys modify the amount of the mineral content of the blood.

The blood which enters the kidneys may contain great quantity of sodium, magnesium and phosphate. The kidneys control these minerals and modify the amount of each. When blood leaves the kidneys, it contains the exact amount of the necessary mineral for the function of the body.

Besides red globules, there are white globules the task of which is to defend the body against infection and blood decay. Some of these globules attack the microbes, eating them up.

There is a substance for the coagulation of the blood, the nature of which is still unknown to the chemists, however.

As we have already observed, the blood system and circulation and its web of arteries, veins and capillaries as well as the complicated structure of blood itself are all amazing phenomena, indeed. If we delve into the issue of creation, we will have to bend our heads in front of the Great Creator and we have to worship Him constantly.[54]

The world is amazing; the world of skies, of plants, of animals, of men all depend on the determination of Allah.

اِبْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الْخَلْقَ ابْتِداعاً، وَاخْتَرَعَهُم على مِشِيّتِهِ اخْتِراعاً.

It is advisable for the Moslem nations to refer to the Holy Quran, Nahjolbalaqa, Sahifeh Sajjadieh and other sources on the Islamic knowledge in order to recognize Him and His commands. The recognition of Him causes prosperity both here and Hereafter and makes the man’s capabilities to blossom and permits justice reign all over the world.

In the narrations on the Prophet (s), we will read:

أعْرَفَكُم باللهِ أعْلَمَكُم بِكِتابِهِ.

“The most cognizant of you of Allah are the most cognizant of you of His book.”

In order to recognize the Great Creator, there are three ways:

The cognizance of God’s Nature;

2) The cognizance of His Attributes; and

3) The cognizance of His Actions.

God’s Book, the Holy Quran talks about God’s Nature, His Attributes and Names and His actions.

Nahjolbalaqa, Sahifeh, Invocations and the Islamic knowledge are all interpretations on the Holy Quran. These, together with the signs of God in the creation, will help us to recognize Him. All these sources will guide man to go through His path to reach Him.

But unfortunately today ninety percent of Moslems are ignorant of the Divine facts. Instead of preparing themselves for a journey towards Him, they are after their lusts. They are away from the world of light. All are proud and drunken. They do not realize that the source of these wars, struggles, and corruption all rests in our separation from Allah.

ثْمَّ سَلَكَ بِهِمْ طَرِيقَ إرادَتِهِ، وَبَعَثَهُم في سَبيلِ مَحَبَّتِهِ لا يَمْلِكُونَ تأخيراً عَمّا قَدَّمَهُم إلَيهِ، وَلا يَسْتَطِعُونَ تَقَدُّماً إلى ما أخَّرَهُم عنْهُ.

“When He created creatures, He guided them in the direction of His determination. He put them on the way of His Love and Affection. This is done in such a way that creatures will not procrastinate, nor can they advance beyond what is predetermined”.

The elements of universe and creatures, including the galaxies, stars, the suns and moons were put in the specific paths. Their exact movements and their actions and reactions over one another, so meticulously predetermined, has produced such an amazing and awesome system of creation. The Holy Quran says:

قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِي أَعْطَى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَى.

“Our Lord is He Who gave to everything its creation, then guided it to its goal. 20:50”

The creation of all mines which have a crucial role in man’s life is based on the determination and the judicial decision of that unique Allah.

The issue of plants should also be under our scrutiny: what is the relation between seeds, soil and weather? What sort of energy changes the seed into a tree, flowers and plants? What is the source of all these vitamins contained in the fruits?

The answer to all these questions rests on one word: His Kindness and Benevolence.

Researchers, scientists and scholars have done a lot of work concerning plants, and trees. All these findings lead us to His guidance.

The following topics are among the researches of botanists: the structure of plants, the functions of the plant organs, the entry of material into the body of the plant, the mechanism of water entry into the plant, the mechanism of the absorption of materials by the plant, the mechanism of the absorption of liquids and gases by the plant, the movement of liquids and materials within the plant, the consumption of the soul-less material by the plant in its construction, the structure of glucides, the production of protides, lipids, the movement of the material produced by the plant metabolism, light energy, chemical energy, mechanical energy, and finally the electric and heat energies.[55]

Fifteen centuries ago, Imam Zainol Abedin (s) refered to these topics when he praised the Almighty God:

ثُمَّ سَلَكَ بِهِم طَرِقَ إرادَتِهِ وَبَعَثَهُم في سَبِيلِ مَحَبَّتِهِ...

With the guidance of Allah and with the cooperation of the sun, soil, weather and water, plants are decorated green so that the world will look charming and desireable.

Walking on the grass obliterates sadness; why? It is because plants are green. If they were red, they would be hazardous to our nerves.

If the plants were black, would they cause our depression or happiness?

If the plants were not green, would man have a place for excursion; wouldn’t man’s depression be continuous? What would man do if all the plants were yellow, and if it were fall for ever? Would the eyes be safe if plants were all white? If you look for a long time at a plain full of snow, your eyes would get hurt; that is why opticians recommend special eye-glasses for snow.

Isn’t the selection of green for plants a sign of the creator’s wisdom and knowledge?

If a machine worked automatically and not a thinker interfered with it, it would not produce various products, its products would be the same.

A driver-less car will go in the direction which the slope of the ground determines.

The variety of products in a factory leads us to think that there should be a manager for it. The movement of a car in its desirable direction indicates the existence of a wise driver.

Now let us look at the amazing factory of creation and its wonderful products. Let us look at man, at the plants with green leaves, every one of which has a different color of its own.

Even the green color is not the same in all these green plants.

The enumeration of the kinds of fruits is just an impossible task. The number of the types of flowers seems infinite, too.

Fruits, too, are different in kind. They say there are three hundred different types of mangoes in India.

An agricultural engineer used to say that in Paris grapes gardens there are five thousand types of grapes which are called by numbers: For instance, the grape No 1752.

Is anybody able to count all types of apples?

Isn’t this variety of produce and products a sign for the existence of a great thinker behind it?[56]

The story of the guidance of animals is one of the mysterious actions of Him: The Holy Quran says regarding this:

مَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَا إِنَّ رَبِّي عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ.

“There is no living creature but He holds it by its forelock; surely my Lord is on the right path. 11:56”

Corsi Morrison, in his book “The secret of Man’s creation”, has devoted one chapter on the intelligence of animals and reports the results of the researches of thousands of scientists:

Birds have an instinct for building nests: the swallow which builds up a nest in the root of your balcony goes to its winter resort in winter time and returns home when spring arrives.

Due to the cold weather, many birds, in the month of January, migrate to the warm locations in the southern part of Iran. They often travel hundreds of kilometers away from their nests; however, they will never lose their way.

Take a dove and put it in a sealed cage, taking it away for a long distance; then open up the cage. It will first circle the sky, but then moves towards its home.

The bee can find the direction of its nest even if it is caught in severe winds which easily root out trees.

Insects possess magnifying eyes, the power of which is not known to man. Eagles and vultures have got far-reaching eye-sights.

Most animals can find their ways at dark nights. They can feel the differences of temperature of the road and around it. They are even sensitive towards the very weak ultra-violet lights which are reflected from the road.

The owl’s piercing eyes at dark nights can see a small mouse moving in the grass.

Fishes have several beautiful eyes. Man lacks such eyes, however.

Animals’ eyes range from two to many. The bee may not see the colorful flowers the way we se them. It sees them with ultera-violet lights.

The worker-bees make different sizes of vestibules and labyrinths in their hives: the smaller vestibules are for the workers; the bigger ones are for the male bees. And the queens most probably live in special compartments.

The queen leaves her unproductive eggs in the male compartment, while she puts the fertilized eggs in the compartment of the female bees and the queen. The worker-bees wait for the arrival of the new generation of the bees and will prepare food, which is honey and wax, for the new-comers and will chew the food for them. But as soon as the male and female bees approach their maturity, they stop chewing and feed them natural honey. These female bees which are nourished in this way will change later into the worker-bees.

These bees chew food for the female bees which are in the queen’s compartment. These bees will later on turn into the queen who lay fertilized eggs.

Dogs, with their strong sense of smell can distinguish what animals have passed near them. All animals have strong sense of hearing which is very limited in man.

A kind of water-spiders builds up a sphere nest similar to a ball and by fastening something heavy sends it to the depth of the water. Then it comes up, fills the hairs under its stomach with air; then it goes to the ball-shaped nest, blowing air into it, till it becomes inflated with air. It then lays its eggs in this nest, raising its children and protecting them in this closed nest.

This activity of the spider involves a series of engineering feats.

The salmon which has been living in the sea for years may turn back towards the river which has taken it to the sea.

If the salmon which is swimming along the river is taken and put into another river, it will turn back to its homeland, swimming even opposite the original direction.

More complicated and stranger than the behavior of salmon is the issue of snake-fish. Upon reaching maturity, these strange animals will swim towards a location in the southern part of Bermuda Islands, no matter where they are, and start laying eggs there and then die there. Those snake-fishes which come from Europe have to swim thousands of miles to reach this location.

The babies of snake-fishes which do not know anything of the world, start going back to their homeland and after crossing the seas and struggling against storms, waves and tides, return to the places from where their parents had come earlier. That is why snake fish is found in all lakes, seas and oceans of the world. These young snake-fishes start living in their homeland and upon reaching maturity, start going towards the Bermuda Islands and start the cycle once again.

Where does this sense of navigation and returning to one’s homeland stem from? The snake-fish living on the shores of America, has never been seen in the waters of Europe; a snake-fish living in Europe has never been seen in the American shores, either. In order for the European snake-fish to reach the Bermuda Islands, it has increased its maturation time to one year or even longer. Do the cells which have constructed the snake-fish possess a sense of navigation and have possessed a determination of their own?

Animals seem to possess telepathy of some sort. If you put a female butterfly in the window of your room, she will emit some weak signs from her. After a few minutes a male butterfly will answer these signs. You could not believe it. But it happens and you can not create any disturbance on the way of this communication.

Do these weak creatures have some sort of special mechanisms for this communication?

A cricket, rubs its wings or feet together and makes an audible sound even upto one kilometer.

This male cricket moves six hundred tons of air in order to call his mate, and the female cricket has special mechanisms to warmly answer her lover’s call.

If you take away a chick bird from its nest and raise it in some other location, it will start making a nest like its parents when it reaches maturity. Are these behaviors accidental or is there a general intelligence behind them?

The answer to these questions are neatly dealt with in Sahifeh:

ثُمَّ سَلَكَ بِهِمْ طَرِيقَ إرادَتِهِ وَبَعَثَهُم في سَبِيلِ مَحَبّتِهِ ...

The story of the guiding of man which takes place through wisdom, nature, Prophethood, Imamate and the Holy Quran is a mysterious one, as well.

No school of thought has dealt with the definition of wisdom and its value as Islam has done through the Holy Quran and narrations. The value of each individual in front of God is measured by the amount of his use of wisdom. Wisdom is a means to arrive at the truth, and if it is used against one’s wishes and whims, it is a means for his prosperity here and hereafter. Of course, it is proved during centuries that if wisdom is not helped by prophethood, Imamate, the Holy Quran and God’s Benevolence, it will not bring about prosperity for man. Thus, there is a difference between those who rely on wisdom per se and those who rely on Allah’s assistance, as well.

Those schools which have relied soly on wisdom have never been able to produce a sample of men and women who are produced in the systems based on prophethood and velayat.

This is a proven fact that wisdom without prophethood has always been dominated by instincts and animal desires and tendencies. Wisdom in such cases has emited only weak glows. If wisdom lived side by side the prophethood, there would not be any sigh of injustice or discrimination.

The issues of strong versus weak, dominant versus dominated, the oppressor versus the oppressed, the exploiter versus the exploited, the free man versus the slave, all stem from man’s deprivation of innocent governors.

Now, concentrate for a moment on the Holy Quran and its sacred verses. If its commands had been justly carried out, would there have been on the earth anything except justice, truth, affection and love?

The world is replete with corruption, injustice, debauchery and libertinism, treason, crimes and tyranic discriminations. This has not been because of the lack of wisdom or thought or conscience or human nature. Rather, the real cause has been the separation of wisdom from Prophethood, guidance, revelation and Imamate. When wisdom is lonely nothing except disaster, injustice could be expected from human societies.

The radius for the brightness of wisdom is limited indeed. It could only deal with the discovery of material phenomena and a negligible amount of spiritual knowledge. And this little amount of glowing is not sufficient for man’s prosperity both here and in the Hereafter. Man’s extreme need to revelation can easily be observed in all aspects of life. And this fact is being confessed by the world scientific centers. Before long all nations will express their needs towards the center of Revelation and will take sanctuary in the Prophethood.

At any rate, the life-giving school of Islam has devoted a huge amount of the verses of the Holy Quran and narrations to introduce wisdom and to show its significance. Regardless of its true value, wisdom should not be accounted for without recourse to the complete Wisdom, i.e., the Creator of the world and man.

Islam sees man’s prosperity in his connection with wisdom, nature, Conscience, The Holy Quran, Prophethood and Imamate. Islam considers these factors as interacting one another.

Wisdom, together with material and spiritual science has a strange capacity to lead man towards growth. Wisdom with no Prophethood is an incomplete guidance and can never satisfy all man’s needs.

Wisdom and prophethood are two glowing lights on the way of out lives. If man walked beside these two lights, he would get anything he desired for.

With the power of wisdom, man realizes the facts and notices the sweetness of reasoning and wisdom; and through this strong Divine power he can yield to God’s determination and from there he will meet prosperity.

The love and affection to which prophets, God’s men, Imams and Gnostics refer is the result of the connection of wisdom with prophethood; it is the result of the unity of wisdom and revelation.

If wisdom were coupled with sciences and revelation and if the world dwellers became truly religious, the world here would be a sample of the paradise, and everybody would be satisfied with their rights and would not involve to trespass over other people’s rights. If wisdom is not coupled with religion and sciences however, this precious element which is the basis for man’s prosperity will not find a chance to improve. If it is deprived of religion issues, it will be like a bird which has got only one wing: in that case this world will be good for him, but he will lose the other world.

Now that our world is 1367 of the solar calendar, schools, universities and libraries are scattered all over the world and the light of sciences has illuminated most parts of the world; however, due to the fact that there is no faith in some hearts, and because of man’s separation from real Islam, life has been replete with all forms of corruption. For this reason, the world population are deprived of security, and as a result, injustice prevails every where.

Faith in God and attention to the Doomsday which is the basis for prophethood of Mohammad (s) causes man’s wisdom and capabilities to blossom and protects man against malice and corruption.

Wisdom coupled with faith causes the vigilance of man’s conscience and prepares him to love truth and leads him towards virtues.

Experience has shown that science is not powerful enough to surface these love and affection. However, faith can cause these truths to manifest themselves.

A true believer is a well-wisher; he is patient and reliant on God; he is virtuous; he is the source of benevolence; he is clean; he is insightful; and he is a lover and a Gnostic.

If wisdom did not ask prophethood to help it, firstly it would not succeed in realizing the spiritual truths; secondly, it would fall prey to lusts and whims; in this way it would remain deprived of a true picture of the truths. To prove this, we would not need any reasoning: man’s life has proved this in different eras.

As the great Gnostics have stated: wisdom together with velayat and prophethood is the position for affiliation with God; and wisdom minus prophethood equals separation from Allah.

The position of association with God is the position of possessing Divine features and morals; on the contrary, the position of separation from God is the position of possessing satanic characteristics.

Hafiz, the Iranian poet says:

The paradise’s pastures receive water from association with God and stay fresh;

And the hell fire will endure the extreme heat because of you.

Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Darabi, the great Gnostic, in interpreting this poem of Hafiz, says:

Be aware that by “association with God” is meant to gain the features of Allah; and by “lack of association” is meant viscious manners. Some verses of the Holy Quran depict this issue clearly:

يَوْمَ تَجِدُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا عَمِلَتْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ مُحْضَرًا.

“On the day that every soul shall find present what it has done of good. 3:30”

And also:

فَالْيَوْمَ لَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا وَلَا تُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ.

“So this day no soul shall be dealt with unjustly in the least; and you shall not be rewarded aught but that which you did. 36:54”

And the narration:

الّذي يَشْرَبُ في آنيةِ الذَهَبِ وَالفِضّةِ إنّما يُجرْجَرُ في جَوفِهِ نارَ جَهَنّمَ.

“The sound of hell fire is heard in the stomach of the one who drinks in golden ware and in silverware”.

And the narration:

الظُّلْمُ ظُلماتُ يَومِ القِيَامةِ والنّاسُ يُحشَرونَ عَلى صُوَرِ أعْمَالِهِم.

“Injustice equals the darkness of the Doomsday; And people will be judged by what they had done”.

And also the Hadith:

أرْضُ الْجَنَّةِ قِيعانٌ وَغِراسُها لا إله إلا اللهُ.

The earth of the paradise is barren, and its trees are saying there is no god but Allah.

What we have discussed so far is included in the following sentences by Imam Sajjad (s):

ثُمَّ سَلَكَ بِهِم طَرِيقَ إرَادَتِهِ، وَبَعَثَهُم في سَبيلِ مَحَبَّتِهِ، لا يَمْلِكُونَ تأخيراً عَمّا قدّمَهُم إلَيهِ ولا يَسْتَطِعُونَ تَقَدُماً إلى ما أخّرَهُمْ عَنْهُ.

“After clothing them with the dress of life, Allah guided them all in His own manner and excited them on the way of His love; now the creatures are dominated by Him, having no way to oppose Him.

Of course, this is not in opposition with man’s free will. Free will is in relation with man’s actions.

Man’s free will can not change the course of actions. Allah has decided for most creatures to go their own way and for some others to have free will of their own. Neither one of these, however, has the power to interfere with His determination.

Anyway, all creatures are headed towards Him with love, some with evolutionary guidance, some with instinct guidance, and some with the guidance of wisdom, nature, conscience and prophethood. All these are just a reflection of His Determination, Decision, Love and Affection towards the creatures.

وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ رُوحٍ مِنْهُمْ قُوتاً مَقْسُوماً مِنْ رِزقِهِ، لا يَنقُصُ مَنْ زادَهُ ناقِصٌ، وَلا يَزِيدُ مَن نَقَصَ مِنْهُم زائِدٌ.

“In the distribution of sustenance, Allah out of His Great Generosity assigns each creature a definite portion. The amount of this sustenance is dependant upon His wisdom and Expedience, and nobody could change this plan”.

Concerning the sustenance of animals, there is no room for discussion since they are not bound by religious bonds. But in the case of man who is responsible towards Allah and has to earn his living in right ways, we have a lot to say.

On the basis of the Quranic verses. The acceptance of the injustice of the tyrants and aggressors is forbidden. Any body who accepts injustice is a criminal as well.

The Almighty God has bestowed upon al human beings different rights: the right to eat, the right to have a shelter, the right to wear dresses. It is not fair for a few to benefit from all privileges at the expense of the deprivation of the majority of population. It is upto people to rise against the aggressors in the east and in the west of the world and have control over them so that sustenance could be distributed equally among every body.

If by observing the status of the aggressors and tyrants of the world and comparing it with the position of the deprived and the oppressed, a man says this is the wish of God or this is what God has decided, he is definitely wrong and is contradicting the Quran, wisdom, logic and the sound reasoning. He has, as well, leveled an accusation against God and has delivered a satanic judgment.

Changing the amount of sustenance is one thing and the government of the aggressors and their free exploitation of the assets at the expense of the deprived is quite another issue.

The government of the tyrants and their extravagance in material issues is a pain which could only be cured by the rise of the deprived people of the world.

These greedy dogs and wolves should be frightened away from the God-given assets so that the deprived could attain what they deserve.

The amount of sustenance is assigned to each servant through God’s benevolence and he has to earn it in the right ways. An individual should not get involved in the multiplication of wealth, as it is forbidden by the Holy Quran. Little amount of sustenance does not imply one’s deprivation; such a person does not have to ask people for help. This kind of sustenance is in fact an examination for the individual to pass.

Any body who is given ample sustenance should spend his extra income for the needs of the society and should not be carried away by his income. One who does not enjoy ample sustenance should be content with what he has and should not get himself involved in sins. This scarcity is not for ever. It will last for a certain amount of time: it is the time of trial and examination set out by God. The Holy Quran says wealth, ornaments, government are not in the hand of one individual; they constantly change hands.

Thus the large amounts of wealth which is in the hands of the oppressors are gained through tyranny and injustice and is not given by God. This is because God will not approve such an accumulation of wealth. At Doomsday these tyrants are accountable and are penalized by chastisement. The deprivation of nations who are living in poverty beside mines of gold and valuable metals or oil is not approved by God, either, This is the product of the government of tyrants and has nothing to do with God.

The verses of the Holy Quran which deal with the sustenance, the right and wrong incomes, the amount of sustenance are divided into five classes:

1. There are those verses which absolutely relate sustenance to God. These verses declare that what is rightfully assigned to people is correct and good and is away from evil. This is because Allah is the source of benevolence, blessings, favor and glory. His might is infinite and He wishes every servant good. The health and welfare of man depends on his obedience towards God’s commands. Since the magor factor for prayer is the legal sustenance, God will assign people rightful means of subsistance:

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ.

“Those who believe in the unseen and keep up prayer and spend out of what we have given them. 2:3”

الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ.

 “Those who keep up prayer and spend benevolently out of what we have given them. 8:3”

الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَهُمْ وَالْمُقِيمِ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ.

“To those whose hearts tremble when Allah is mentioned, and those who are patient under that which afflicts them, and those who keep up prayer, and spend benevolently out of what we have given them. 22:35”

أُوْلَئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُمْ مَرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ.

“These shall be granted their reward twice, because they are steadfast and they repel evil with good and spend out of what we have given them. 28:54”

تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنْ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ.

“Their sides draw away from their beds, they call upon their Lord in fear and in hope and they spend benevolently out of what we have given them. 32:16”

In these verses reference is made to men of God and the lover-Gnostics who are in connection with the world of unknown and who establish prayers, whose heart are filled with God’s fear and awe as they remember Him, who are patient for their religion with oceans of hardships, who answer bad and evil with good and generosity, and who worship God at the dawn. As we see at the end of each one of the five verses we will read: “They spend benevolently out of what we have given them”.

The essence of sustenance rests on God’s knowledge and benevolence. Whatever stems from His names and Attributes is correct, genuine, and flawless. This meaning is deriven from the sentence:

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ…

With regards to the above verses, nobody will ever dare to claim that there is any kind of sustenance except the clean one. This would be an utter accusation to the existence of Almighty God. God is free from any defect and flaw, and He has the features of perfection, wholesome, justice, rightousness, benevolence and magnanimity.

2. There are, as well, those verses which explicitly deem as good and clean those sustences which are allocated by God, and have exempted the Manager of the world from allocating any unlawful sustenance. They have considered unlawfully-gained bread as a satanic act:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ.

“O Men! Eat the lawful and good things out of what is in the earth, and do not follow the footsteps of the shaitan; surely he is your open enemy. 2:168”

وَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمْ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ.

“And eat of the lawful and good things that Allah has given you, and be careful of your duty to Allah, in whom you believe. 5:58”

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.

“Eat, then, of the lawful and good things which you have acquired in war, and be careful of your duty to Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 8:69”

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمْ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاشْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ.

“Therefore, eat of what Allah has given you, lawful and good (things), and give thanks for Allah’s favor if Him do you serve. 16:114”

In the above verses our attention is drawn to the lawful nature of our daily bread and we are warned against unlawful sustenance and we are ordered to be careful of our duties towards Allah. We are also told to thank God for the lawful sustenance we receive from Him.

From the sentences مِمّا رَزَقَكُم الله ومِمّا غَنِمتُمْ (From what Allah has given you, and from what you have acquired in war) we could easily conclude that what Allah has given us is clean, lawful and good. It is not He who has opened up the unlawful way of gaining daily bread; rather, it is people who break the border of piety and follow the footsteps of Shaitan and the Aggression and sell their bright and prosperous tomorrow, when they could sit with Prophets, to the filthy things which they can get here in this world.

3. There are also those verses of the Holy Quran which exclusively relate the abundance or lack of it in sustenance to the expediency of life and warn us not to be quite satisfied or happy with this abundance and not to be depressed for the lack of it, either. These two states of affairs are transiet and temporary, however.

اللَّهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ وَفَرِحُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا مَتَاعٌ.

“Allah amplifies and straitens the means of subsistence for whom He pleases; and they rejoice in this world’s life, and this world’s life is nothing compared with the hereafter, but a temporary enjoyment. 13:26”

إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا.

“Surely your Lord makes plentiful the means of subsistence for whom He pleases and He straitens them; surely He is ever Aware of, Seeing, His servants. 17:30”

اللَّهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ لَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ.

“Allah makes abundant the means of subsistence for whom He pleases of His servants, and straitens them for whom He pleases, surely Allah’s cognizant of all things. 29:62”

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ.

“Do they not see that Allah makes ample provision for whom He pleases, or straitens? Most surely there are signs in this for a people who believe. 30:37”

قُلْ إِنَّ رَبِّي يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ لَهُ وَمَا أَنفَقْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَهُوَ يُخْلِفُهُ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ.

“Say: Surely my Lord amplifies the means of subsistence for whom He pleases of His servants and straitens them for whom He pleases, and whatever thing you spend, He exceeds it in reward, and He is the best of sustainers. 34:39”

Thus, the amplification of the means of subsistence or lack of it are two kinds of exams put on the believers. This exam will find out those who have ample should spend for others and those who are in strait should keep their faith and honesty and be patient.

Once again we will observe that the range of means of subsistence which is righteous is within the framework of Divine laws and commandments. It is delimited by Him, and those who enjoy such means amply should help other Moslems. This is because the accumulation of wealth, even lawfully gained, is forbidden and is used to destroy one’s prosperity. On the other hand, the strain in the means of subsistence of the form which befalls the believer due to a catastrophe, depends on Allah. But if this state of the affairs happens due to one’s living extravagantly or delving into sins, it is not related to God.

One who is able to discern the truth does not consider the range of subsistence as important. What is significant for him is to carry out his tasks. When he has abundant wealth, he will spend it freely on the needy, and when he is in dire poverty, he will be patient.

لَهُ مَقَالِيدُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ.

“His are the treasures of the heavens and the earth; He makes ample and straitens the means of subsistence for whom He pleases; surely He is cognizant of all things. 42:12”

The Holy Quran, in some verses, attributes the strain in the means of subsistence to the purifying factors to keep the believer away from sins. It considers this state of affairs as man’s savior and the connector of man to God.

وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَكِنْ يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ.

“And if Allah should amplify the provision for His servants, they would certainly revolt in the earth; but He sends it down according to a measure as He pleases; surely He is aware of, seeing, His servants. 42:27”

Thus, the ample amount of provision does not indicate God’s favor, or love towards anybody; neither does its absence show God’s lack of interest in anybody.

For those who lack human traits such as Abulahab, Qarun, Busofyan, wealth is a permanent and eternal curse. On the other hand for those whose traits are like those of Salman, Buzar, Meqdad, Meitham, Komeyl, and Balal, wealth is a means to mobilize others on the path of prosperity and to practice patience for God and to attain eternal prosperity.

Concerning those who employ their wealth for viscious lusts and corruption and for the transient wishes and whims, the Holy Quran says:

وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آتَاهُمْ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَهُمْ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُوا بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلِلَّهِ مِيرَاثُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ.

“And let not those deem, who are niggardly in giving away that which Allah has granted them out of His grace, that it is good for them; nay, it is worse for them; they shall have that whereof they were niggardly made to cleave to their necks on the resurrection day; and Allah’s is the heritage of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is aware of what you do. 3:180”

Regarding those who spend their wealth for God, who satisfy the needs of the oppressed and help them out, the Holy Quran says:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَى فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَى.

“Then as for him who gives away and guards against evil, and accepts the best, we will facilitate for him the easy end. 92:5-7”

If we Islamically treat the mines, seas and forests, which belong to all, and all are equal in exploiting them, and the wealth which we gain legally due to our personal endeavors, the prosperity of the society will be safeguarded. But if we treat these sources of wealth foolishly, the community will suffer greatly and a few will carry on injustice and will demolish all.

Now let us discuss on one sacred verse and on interesting narration:

وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمْ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا.

“And do not give away your property which Allah has made for you a means of support to those of the weak of understanding. 4:5”

اِنَّ مِن بَقاءِ الإسلامِ وَبَقاءِ المُسْلمِينَ أنْ تَصِيرَ الأموالُ عِنْدَ مَنْ يَعرِفُ فيها الحقَّ وَيَصنَعُ فِيها المعروفَ واِنَّ مِن فَناءِ الإسلامِ وَفَناءِ المُسْلِمِينَ اَن تَصِيرَ الأموالُ عِنْدَ مَن لا يَعْرِِفُ فِيها الحَقَّ ولا يَصْنَعُ فِيها المَعْرُوفَ.

One of the factors for the survival of Islamic culture and that of the Moslems is to entrust the financial affairs to somebody to recognize the Moslem’s rights and to invest the finance in good affairs. On the other hand, one of factors for the fall of the Moslems is for them to let their financial issues be guided by the ignorant.[57]

In one of his invocations, Imam Sajjad (s) says to God:

نَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ تَناولِ الإسرافِ، وَمِنْ فِقْدانِ الكفافِ ومِن مَعِيشَةٍ في شِدّةٍ.

“O God, at the time of abundance, I ask you to protect me from falling in the terrible well of extravagance, and when I lack the means of subsistence, I ask you to help me.”[58]

Concerning wealth, or in the words of the Holy Quran and narrations “the lawful means of subsistence”, there are precious narrations in the Islamic sources:

قال رَسُولُ اللهِ 7: الكاسِبُ حَبِيبُ اللهِ

The Prophet (s) has said: One who is busy in a lawful business is God’s friend.

قالَ الصَادقُ D: قالَ الله تعالى: الخَلْقُ كُلّهُمُ عيالي، فاحَبُّهُم اِليَّ الْطَفَهُم بِهِم وَاسعَاهُمْ في حوائِجِهُم.

Ibn Senan, the well-known narrator, says: Imam Sadiq (s) reports God having said: All people are my family members: the most beloved ones for Me are those who show affection towards people and make endeavors to resolve their problems.[59]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 7: نِعْمَ المالُ الصّالِحُ للعَبْدِ الصّالحِ.

The Prophet (s) has said: How nice it is for a worthy believer to possess lawful wealth.[60]

In other words, a worthy man recognizes the lawful subsistence and then spends it in donations.

A man came to see Imam Sadiq (s), saying: pray God to increase my means of subsistence. Imam Sadiq (s) replied: I will not do so; go and find daily-bread in the way God has prescribed:[61]

لَيْسَ مِنّا مَنْ تَرَكَ آخِرَتَهُ لِدُنياهُ، اَو تَرَكَ دُنياهُ لِآخِرَتِهِ.

One who sells his hereafter to this world or sells his world to his hereafter is not one of us.[62]

In explaining the following excellent narration:

نِعْمَ الَعونَ عَلَى الآخِرَةِ الدُّنيا.

“How excellent is this world to win the other.”[63]

 Jalaleddin says: One whose major objective is this world alone has lost his life in vain, because the circle of our wants and desires is endless and only spiritual desires could lead us on the right path.

One who employes this world to get the other is in the best condition.

It is useless to use all tricks in order to gain this world. It is better to use these tricks to stop worshipping this world.

It is more advisable for a prisoner who wants to escape the prison to cut an underway canal rather than try to close down the prison.

By world-worshipping I mean to forget God; I do not mean having wealth or a position. If an individual has a clear account of money and knows how to spend it wisely, he is a God-believer and in fact is carrying out worshiping.

If our possession of the worldly wealth is in accordance with the rules of the religious laws, then our action is harmonious with what the Prophet (s) has said: “How good it is for a true believer to have lawful wealth.”

If you let the love for money penetrate the depth of your heart, it is as though water had filled the inside of a ship. This concentrated water would make the ship sink. But if the love for money does not rest deep in our hearts, then it will be like the water outside and beneath the ship which will make it move smoothly.

This was the reason for Solomon (s) considering himself as poor and wretched in spite of this great wealth and possessions.

If an empty jug is sealed thoroughly, it will stay on the water surface. In the same way inside a true believer is empty of wishes, so he is above all in life; his jug of spirit is filled with Divine thoughts and reflections; however, he will consider himself as poor.

أَنْتُمْ الْفُقَرَاءُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ.

“You are they who stand in need of Allah, and Allah is He Who is the Self-sufficient, the Praised One. 35:15”

There are precious narrations concerning the wealth and the lawful income:

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: طَلَبُ الحَلالِ فَرِيْضَةٌ على كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ وَمُسْلِمَةٍ.

The Prophet (s) has said: It is compulsory for every man-Moslem and woman-Moslem to go after a lawful income.[64]

وَعَنْهُ 4: العِبَادَةُ سَبْعُونَ جُزْءاً، أفْضَلُها طَلَبُ الحَلالِ.

The Prophet (s) has said: There are seventy portions to worship; the best part is to go after the lawful income.[65]

وَقالَ 4: مَنْ أكَلَ مِنْ كَدِّ يَدِهِ نَظَرَ اللهُ إلَيهِ بِالرَّحْمَةِ ثُمَّ لا يُعَذِبُهُ أبَداً.

The Prophet (s) has said, as well, “One who eats out of his trials will enjoy God’s benevolence and will never be punished by God.”[66]

وَقالَ 4: مَنْ أكَلَ مِنْ كَدِّ يَدِهِ حلالاً فُتِحَ لَهُ أبوابُ الجَنَّةِ يَدْخُلُ مِنْ أيّها شاءَ.

The Prophet (s) has also stated: All the doors of the paradise will open up to anybody who will eat out of his trial: he may enter hs position from any gate he wishes.[67]

وَعَنْهُ 4: مَنِ اكْتَسَبَ مالاً مِنْ غَيرِ حِلّهِ كَانَ زَادُهُ إلى النّارِ.

The Prophet (s) has said: Anybody who earns money through unlawful means has prepared for himself the fire of the Hell.[68]

قال النبي 4: مَنْ أكَلَ الحَلالَ قامَ على رأسِهِ مَلكٌ يَسْتَغْفِرُ لَهُ حَتّى يَفرُغَ مِنْ أكْلِهِ.

The Prophet (s) has said: there is an angel for anybody who eats lawfully and asks God to forgive him.[69]

وَقالَ 4: الكادُ على عِيالِهِ كَالمُجاهِدِ في سَبِيلِ اللهِ.

The Prophet (s) has stated: One who tries hard to earn lawfully for his family members is like a warrior, fighting for God.[70]

وَعَنْهُ 4: مَنْ أكَلَ الحَلالَ أرْبَعِينَ يَوماً نَوَّرَ اللهُ قَلبَهُ.

The Prophet (s) has also said: God will lighten anybody’s heart who eats legally earned daily-bread for forty days.[71]

From the sacred verses of the Holy Quran, narrations and Islamic news it could be understood that gaining one’s daily bread lawfully is a kind of worship. And any worship under this worship is accepted by God. Any worship or donation which is rooted in illegal and unlawful means is of no value or merit.

From the discussions we have had so far we could conclude that earning one’s income and spending it for God is a heavy duty for him.

4) There are also some Quranic verses which consider the means of subsistence as God’s way to test people. It is upto man to enter this exam and show his talents. If he is wealthy, through spending benevolently he may gain high positions in front of God and people. If he does not have abundance, he may engage in patience in the face of hardships and depressions.

Concerning the fact that wealth in this world is only to test the believers, the content of the verses 17 to 33 from Surah Qalam (The Pen) is very enlightening: The story goes like this:

A man from Yemen, in the territory called Sana’, who was true believer and always carried out God’s commands, started cultivating a piece of barren land. After going through a lot of unsurmountbel obstacles, he prepared a garden full of fruit trees. A good smell was around the garden; the garden was surrounded with tall trees. Sweet water filled the springs flowing in the garden.

The religious man used to walk around the garden, being amazed by this God-given asset. After his walk, he used to go to a corner and spend some time worshipping God.

In his supplications and invocations, he used to implore God to protect him against the temptations which wealth causes man to go astray.

He used to ask God to let him use that wealth modestly and spend the rest on the poor.

And he carried out this planning as he had wanted to. At the harvest time he used to allocate some of the income to his family and the rest to the poor. Whenever he sold some of the produce he then opened the door of the garden to the poor, asking them to take away the fruits proportional to their needs.

The man’s children, however, who were not as religious as he was and who were filled with material considerations and who had not taken lessons of generosity from their father, objected to their father’s behavior, telling him: “the way you are treating the garden, you are doing us injustice and you are making hurdles on the way of our daily-bread. If you continue this way, you will make us poor and miserable.”

The believing man told his children: I think you are mistaken. What is the use of accumulated wealth and how is it going to solve your problem? Let us suppose I had amassed lots of wealth since my youth in the form of bags of gold and silver and at the time of my death I had put it for your use. Then I would have to answer on the Doomsday where I had got that wealth.

My children! This garden is not mine, nor is it yours. It belongs to the Creator. We are obedient servants to Him. He has wanted us to use the amont we need and let the rest go to the needy ones. It is not fair to let a minority possess all the requirements of life and let the majority suffer among whom there are worthy believers who are honorable but who do not have enough to live on.

To thank God for his affluence, we have to feed the needy and to serve them well. I do not want to go any other way than this. My only love is God and I will not carry out any plan against Him. I endure in carrying out His objectives and I am happy that He has bestowed upon me all these assets.

My children: we are holding in trust what He has given us. We should not waste it. The needy, the sick, the wretched, the miserable, the orphans, even the animals all have to share in this wealth. Only in that case will God be content with us.

Only after these creatures were content with what they were after would we have the right to use our wealth. This has been my way of life since my youth and nothing may disturb my plan now.

And try to understand that in this way your wealth will multiply and is protected against disasters and will bring about God’s blessings and is an interlude to future prosperity.

My children! Just give me time. You see that my hair has grown gray, my strength has deteriorated, my body has got a curve, I am suffering from different diseases, and I am going to die pretty soon. After my death you will be heirs to this possession. There are two ways open to you then: either you will follow my approach or you will choose the viscious way. If you give away to the poor freely, God will give you subsequent rewards. And if you go astray, God’s chastisement will be yours.

Some time later, the benevolent man passed away.

Time passed swiftly. The garden was ready to be harvested: the fruits were ripe and ready to be picked up. The poor were very delighted because they wished to get some of the harvest to solve their problems.

The benevolent man’s children started counseling. One of them said: there will not be any share for the poor from now on. We will sell the produce and become affluent. The other brother, who was like his father in manners, showed his dissatisfaction, saying: I will not agree with you. You think it is to your benefit not to give away the poor’s shares. You will, as a result, lose every thing you have. Let us follow our father’s way; then God’s blessings will be yours.

The answer he received was: Do not talk on something which does not belong to you. Your sermon is of no worth to us, anyway.

The brother who was a true believer told them: Let us now pray to God since your prayer will stop you to engage in evils. But they did not pay attention to him.

They decided to enter the garden early the next morning and sell the produce, depriving the poor of their shares.

They ate dinner and went to bed. During their sleep a cloud full of thunder and lightning, sent by Almighty God, destroyed any fruit they had.

Early in the morning they entered their garden. Nothing was left of it. They were perplexed, saying: yesterday we had everything, now, we have none; perhaps we have entered a garden which is not ours. But the believing brother replied: No; this is your own garden.

You wretched guys! You became deprived prior to making the poor deprived. At the end of this story God says:

كَذَلِكَ الْعَذَابُ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ.

“Such is the chastisement, and certainly the chastisement of the hereafter is greater, did they but know! 68:33”

His Holiness lets his servants enjoy His full affection in order to grow; now if these servants appreciate His generosity, they will receive their rewards. However, if they became aggressors, they would severely be punished in one way or another.

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ.

“And know that your property and your children are a temptation, and that Allah is He with whom there is a mighty reward. 8:28”

إِنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَاللَّهُ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ وَاسْمَعُوا وَأَطِيعُوا وَأَنفِقُوا خَيْرًا لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُفْلِحُونَ.

“Your possessions and your children are only a trial, and Allah it is with whom is a great reward. Therefore be careful of your duty to Allah as much as you can, and hear and obey and spend, it is better for your souls; and whoever is saved from the greediness of his soul, these it is that are the successful. 64:15-16”

وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ الْخَوْفِ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِنْ الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَنفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ وَبَشِّرْ الصَّابِرِينَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ أُوْلَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُهْتَدُونَ.

“And we will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits and give good news to the patient. Who, when a misfortune befalls them, say: surely we are Allah’s and to Him we will return. Those are they on whom are blessings and mercy from their Lord, and those are the followers of the right course. 64:15-16”

5) There are some other verses in the Holy Quran which consider wealth, ornaments and treasures as worthless and fatal compared to the spiritual matters and God’s satisfaction which are eternal and everlasting. These sacred verses recommend that we should not be fond of transient goods and not be carried away and tempted by worldly affairs. They recommend that we change what we have here into good deeds and make our future with these worldly substances. This way of treating the world has been the way the Prophets (s) have always taken.

قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِمَنْ اتَّقَى...

“Say: the provision of this world is short, and hereafter is better for him who guards against evil…4:77”

Those who guard against evil treat the provision of this world wisely. They use their time, energy, fame, honor, and knowledge to build up their hereafter. They would never sell truth to the untruth; neither will they sell their future prosperity to vices.

أَفَمَنْ وَعَدْنَاهُ وَعْدًا حَسَنًا فَهُوَ لَاقِيهِ كَمَنْ مَتَّعْنَاهُ مَتَاعَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ هُوَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ الْمُحْضَرِينَ.

“Is he to whom we have promised a goodly promise which he shall meet with like him whom we have provided with the provisions of this world’s life, then on the day of resurrection he shall be of those who are brought up? 28:61”

يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّمَا هَذِهِ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا مَتَاعٌ وَإِنَّ الْآخِرَةَ هِيَ دَارُ الْقَرَارِ.

“O my people! This life of the world is only a passing enjoyment, and surely the hereafter is the abode to settle. 40:39”

اِنْ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةُ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ.

“(And embellishment of gold); and all this is naught but provision of this world’s, and the hereafter is with your Lord only for those who guard against evil. 43:35”

مَتَاعٌ قَلِيلٌ ثُمَّ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ.

“A brief enjoyment! Then their abode is hell, and evil is the resting-place. 3:197”

الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًا.

“Wealth and children are an adornment of the life of this world; and the ever-abiding, the good works, are better with your Lord in reward and better in expectation. 18:46”

It is narrated from the Prophet (s):

ما الدُنيا في الآخِرَةِ إلاّ مِثْلُ ما يَجْعَلُ أحَدُكُمْ إصْبَعَهُ في الْيَمِّ، فَلْيَنظُرْ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ.

The Present world, compared with the hereafter, is like you enter one finger into the seawater: how much water can you absorb in this way?

It is also narrated from the Great Prophet (s):

مَا الدُّنيا في ما مَضى مِنْها إلاّ كَمِثْلِ ثَوْبٍ شُقَّ باثْنينِ وَبَقيَ خَيْطُهُ، إلا فكانَ ذلِكَ الخَيْطُ قَدِ انْقَطَعَ.

Compared with the past, the present is like a garment torn in two portions. Nothing is left except the thread which is also torn up.

The one who becomes proud of having this little world’s provision and this fatal and transient item is, in fact, deprived of all truth and of God’s blessings; as a result, he will indulge in all sorts of wishes and lusts and will sacrifice everything for his temporary whishes and whims. He will suffer severely, however.

From the above discussions, we will conclude the following:

1) Those verses which deal with the ample or meager means of subsistence will never impede our economic activities. According to the Holy Quran everybody has to carry out a business. It is forbidden to waste one’s time idly and be a parasite over others. However, it is a divine action to take care of one’s wealth in accordance with God’s rules.

2) If affluence or poverty is the result of exploitation, the oppressed ones should rise against the aggressors in order to attain their human and divine rights.

3) The affluence which is the result of committing sins and involvement in crimes is not related to God’s planning whatsoever.

4) The amount of means of subsistence is God’s way to test and try the servants in order for them to grow. That is to say, it is the result of God’s justice and wisdom towards man.

5) Through abundance, some of the believers will attain the paradise due to their helping the poor and spreading their wealth as alms and donations. It this way, they will insure their future. Through lack of abundance and little amount of means of subsistence, a second group of believers will enter the paradise due to their patience and because of their avoidance of getting involved in sins. This very struggle against evils is the best kind of reserves for their future. That is to say, the very lack of wealth is a stoppage against indulging in sins. It is also a factor for cleanliness.

The vigilant and seeing men are living only for the truth; they die for the truth; they do not ask for anything except the truth; they know nothing but the truth. Their business, eating habits, dwelling places, manners, wealth, positions are for the sake of the truth.

This world is for them just a ladder for the hereafter; their assets are for the needy ones and for the helping of the public in general.


ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ لَهُ فِي الْحَياةِ أجَلاً مَوْقوتاً، وَنَصَبَ لَهُ أمَداً مَحْدُوداً، يَتَخَطّا إلَيْهِ بِأيّامِ عُمُرِهِ، وَيَرْهَقُهُ بِأغْوَامِ دَهْرِهِ، حَتَى إذا بَلَغَ أقصى أثَرِه، وَاسْتَوعَبَ حِسابَ عُمُرِهِ، قَبَضَهُ إلى ما نَدَبَهُ إلَيهِ مِنْ مَوْفُورِ ثَوابِهِ، اَو مَحْذُورِ عِقابِهِ، لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذينَ أساؤُوا بما عَمِلوا، وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذينَ أحْسَنُوا الحُسْنى، عَدْلاً مِنهُ تَقَدَّسَتْ أسماؤه وَتَظاهَرَتْ آلاؤه، لايُسْألُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسألونَ.

“Then Allah arranged the life span for every person in this world, determining a definite end for every creature. Every one comes one step near to his end each day and night till he passes away. He takes advantage of his days and nights. Then God summons him to give him rewards for the goodly works he performed on the earth or to give him chastisement for the evils he performed. This is the way of Allah’s justice. He is clean and fault-free. His sacred Names and Attributes are ever-lasting. His material and spiritual assets are continual. He is never responsible towards His servants; rather, it is the believers who are responsible in front of Allah”

The above subtile and elegant phrases and expressions indicate two significant facts:

1) There is a limited life-span for every creature;

2) Every body will go on trial upon his entry into the other world.


The Precious Jewel of Time

Every nation has an axiom or a proverb dealing with the precious value of time. The most famous of them is the expression: Time is gold.

But the magnificent Islamic culture has never evaluated time with the material things, however precious these things may be. This is because in the scale of justice and wisdom there is nothing equal to man’s precious life.

Life-time in Islam is measured with the scale of faith, good deeds and good mannerism. One who has spent his days and nights to gain faith and knowledge and good mannerism has not wasted his time. He sill definitely attains the paradise at the end.

To spend time in absurd activities, in satanic merry-making or in aggression, or in accumulating wealth is to waste it. And this will bring one to the fire of the hell.

Those who, at the Doomsday, suffer amxiety, torture and wretched-ness, are the ones who had wasted their time in this world. They had spent in vain the time which was given to them by Allah, the Almighty, to improve themselves.

On that day, these people awaken and find out that they should not have wasted their time. Then from among the hell fire they will resort to God: O God! Please send us back to the earth and allocate to us the same amount of life-span for the second time so that we would be doing good deeds. We would like to be like the well-wishers. But they are told: We gave you life to serve people; We even sent you prophets to teach you; but you did not benefit from Our assets.

This kind of question and answer, according to the Holy Quran, takes place between God and the hell-dwellers for five times. At the fifth and the last time, the tongues of the hell-dwellers become inactive and they become silent for ever.

قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَاعْتَرَفْنَا بِذُنُوبِنَا فَهَلْ إِلَى خُرُوجٍ مِنْ سَبِيلٍ ذَلِكُمْ بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ وَإِنْ يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوا فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ.

“They said: O God! You took away our lives twice and gave them back to us twice. Then we confessed to our mistakes, errors and lack of attention. Is there any way for us to get rid of this hell! (In response, they are told) this is the punishment for your aggression against Allah. You were the ones who appointed an associate for Allah. Now you have to see the consequences (And the God’s verdict for you is for you to remain perpetually in the fire). 40:11-12”

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ الْمُجْرِمُونَ نَاكِسُوا رُءُوسِهِمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ رَبَّنَا أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا فَارْجِعْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ... فَذُوقُوا بِمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا إِنَّا نَسِينَاكُمْ وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْخُلْدِ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ.

“(O our Prophet) Could you but see when the guilty shall hang down their heads before their Lord: Our Lord! We have seen and we have heard, therefore send us back, we will do good; surely now we are certain. 32:12-14”

“So taste, because you neglected the meeting of this day of yours; surely we forsake you; and taste the abiding chastisement for what you did.”

وَهُمْ يَصْطَرِخُونَ فِيهَا رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ أَوَلَمْ نُعَمِّرْكُمْ مَا يَتَذَكَّرُ فِيهِ مَنْ تَذَكَّرَ وَجَاءَكُمْ النَّذِيرُ فَذُوقُوا فَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ نَصِيرٍ.

“And they shall cry therein for succour: O our Lord! Take us out, we will do good deeds other than those which we used to do. Did We not persevere you alive long enough, so that he who would be mindful in it should mind? And there came to you the warner; therefore taste; because for the unjust, there is no helper. 35:37”

وَأَنذِرْ النَّاسَ يَوْمَ يَأْتِيهِمْ الْعَذَابُ فَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رَبَّنَا أَخِّرْنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ نُجِبْ دَعْوَتَكَ وَنَتَّبِعْ الرُّسُلَ أَوَلَمْ تَكُونُوا أَقْسَمْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلُ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ زَوَالٍ.

“And warn people of the day when the chastisement shall come to them, then those who were unjust will say: O our Lord! Respite us to a near term, so we shall respond to thy call and follow the apostles. What! Did you not swear before that there will be no passing away for you! 14:44”

قَالُوا رَبَّنَا غَلَبَتْ عَلَيْنَا شِقْوَتُنَا وَكُنَّا قَوْمًا ضَالِّينَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ عُدْنَا فَإِنَّا ظَالِمُونَ قَالَ اخْسَئُوا فِيهَا وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ.

“They shall say: O our Lord! Our adversity overcame us and we were an erring people. O our Lord! Take us out of it; then if we return to evil surely we shall be unjust. He shall say: Go away into it and speak not to Me. 23:106-108”

The fact that they are prohibited to talk to Allah is a severe punishment indeed.

In contrast to these people, there are those who took their time in getting trained in the school of the Prophet and got good manners and engaged in goodly deeds: in other words, they worshipped Allah while on the earth.

These are people whose actions are for nobody except for God, who have no love except for Allah, who have no teachers except the Prophets and the Infallible (s).

The Prophets, Imams, Gnostics, lovers and advisers have all asked human beings to recognize the true value of time and to spend every moment of their lives in praying God and serving people and to avoid wasting their time in satisfying their desires.

The Islamic knowledge and the precious narrations all have guided man to spend their time in useful affairs.

قَالَ النَبيُّ 4: اِتَّقِ المَحارِمَ تَكُنْ أعْبَدَ النّاسِ، وَارْضَ بِما قَسَمَ اللهُ لَكَ تَكُنْ أغْنى النّاسِ، وَأحْسِنْ إلى جارِكَ تَكُنْ مُؤمِناً، وَأحِبَّ لِلنّاسِ ما تُحِبُّ لِنَفْسِكَ تَكُنْ مُوقِناً، وَلا تُكْثِرِ الضَحِكَ فَاِنَّ كَثْرَةَ الضَّحْكِ تُميتُ القُلُوبَ.

The Prophet (s) has stated: In order to be the most pious among people, do not spend your time in performing sins; In order for you to be affluent be content with what God has given you through lawful business; in order to be considered a believer, do good deeds for your neighbors; in order to be a man of conviction, let others have what you wish to have; and avoid too much laughter since it will kill your heart.[72]

وَقالَ: مَن خَزَنَ لِسانَهُ سَتَرَ اللهُ عَوْرَتَهُ، وَمَن كَفَّ غَضَبَهُ كَفَّ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَذابَهُ، وَمَن اعْتَذَرَ إلى اللهِ عَزَّوجَلَّ قَبِلَ عُذْرَهُ وتَجاوَزَ عَنْهُ.

The Prophet (s) has stated as well; Allah will not disclose the defects of anybody who keeps his tongue from backbiting people and calling them names and hurting them through his ridiculing others. One who controls his anger will be safe against God’s chastisement. And one who repents to God for what he has done wrong in the past by compensating through his good deeds and good manners and by getting involved in what Allah likes, shall be forgiven by Allah.[73]

Salman Farsi once went to visit Abudarda. He found Abudarda’s wife in shabby dress. She was very depressed. He asked her for the reason. She answered: Your brother Abudarda is not fond of the world anymore. He is always engaged in prayers. Salman waited till Abudarda arrived. He welcomed Salman and brought him some food. Salman then said: Abudarda help yourself. Have some food. But he answered: I am fasting. Then Salman said: for God’s sake, have some food. Abudarda replied: If you do not eat, I won’t eat either. Finally, they ate. At night time when Abudarda was headed for prayer, Salman stopped him, telling him: you have got to do something for God; but you are also responsible towards your family. Sometimes go on fasting, but sometimes avoid fasting. Do your prayers on time. Do not reduce your time of sleeping. Give people what they deserve. Spend your time as it is specified by Allah, Prophets (s) and divine books, or else you are to be deprived of many God’s blessings.

Abudarda went to meet the Prophet (s) and let him know what had occurred between him and Salman. The Prophet (s) confirmed what Salman had told Abudarda.[74]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ4: قَدْ أفْلَحَ مَنْ أسْلَمَ وَكَانَ رِزْقُهُ كَفافاً وَصَبَرَ على ذالِكَ.

The Prophet (s) has said: One who is obedient to Allah in all aspects of his life and does not spend his time to obtain his means of subsistence unlawfully, will be successful and salvaged.

Regarding this issue, Bahaoddin Balkhi, known as Bahawalad has offered some pieces of advice and some valuable articles. We will refer here to some portions of them:

“I said: O man! In every bit of your lust there lies a demon; and demons gather around you because of that lust. Your inner side houses demons of all sorts. You were told to close two doors in order for the demons not to enter your body: those two doors are your throat and your lust. If you try to close these doors but you still see some temptations, it is because these doors are not thoroughly sealed off yet.

You were told to empty your bottle, i.e. your stomach from bread and fill it up with light. But you filled it up with whims and desires. You were then deprived of bread in order for you to take your lesson: العاقِل تَكْفِيهِ الإشارةِ.

We have addressed the wise, not the un-wise. Equip your ears with the ear-rings of intelligence. Purify yourself; be ready to serve others. Try to appreciate the differences between right and wrong and be pious, because they say: الأولِياءُ عَرائِسُ اللهِ [75]

The great Prophet(s) has said:

قَدْ أفْلَحَ مَنْ أسْلَمَ وِكانَ رِزْقُهُ كَفافاً وَصَبَرَ على ذالِكَ.

One who spends his time doing the right things and spares spending his time in wrong affairs and does not touch anything which is against God’s will, has undoubtedly obtained the treasures in heaven.

O dear ones! The wrong affairs of this world are not worth even a little bit of your precious time.

Imam Sajjad (s), in an excellent narration, guides people how to spend their precious time:

إنَّ أحَبَّكُم عِندَ اللهِ عَزَّوَجَلَّ أحْسَنُكُم عَمَلاً، وَإنَّ أعْظَمَكُم عِنْدّ اللهِ عَمَلاً أعْظَمَكُم عِنْدَ اللهِ رَغْبَةً، وَإنَّ أنْجَاكُم مِنْ عَذابِ اللهِ أشَدُّكُمْ خَشْيَةً للهِ، وَإنَّ أقْرَبَكُم مِنَ اللهِ أوْسَعَكُم خُلْقاً، وَإنَّ أرْضاكُمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ أسْبَغَكُم عَلى عِيالِهِ، وَإنَّ أكْرَمَكُم عِنْدَ اللهِ أتْقاكُم.

“The dearest ones of you in front of the Glorious Allah is the most beneficent among you. The greatest one among you in action is the one who has the greatest heed towards Allah. The safest of you from Allah’s chastisement is the one among you who fears Allah the most. The closest one of you to God is the one whose good manners every person can enjoy. God is satisfied most with anybody who provides his wife and with all their needs. And the dearest one of you for God is the one who contains himself from wrong-doings.”[76]

In order to comprehend the truth behind Imam Sajjad’s statement, we have to spend our precious time getting the required knowledge. Without this process, it would be impossible to arrive at those truths.

The Honorable Prophet (s) of Islam says: If men and women of my Ommat are careful in spening their time wisely, they will gain the paradise:

مَن سَلِمَ مِن رِجالِ أمَّتي مِنْ أرْبَعِ خِصالٍ فَلَهُ الجَنَّةُ: مِنَ الدُّخُولِ في الدُّنيا، وَإتّباعِ الهَوى، وَشَهوَةِ البَطْنِ، وَشَهْوَةِ الفَرجِ، وَمَن سَلِمَ مِنْ نِساءِ أمّتي مِنْ أربَعِ خِصالٍ فَلَها الجَنّةُ: إذا حَفِظتْ ما بَينَ رِجْلَيْها، وَأطاعَتْ زَوْجَها، وَصَلَّتْ خَمسَها، وَصامَتْ شَهْرَها.

“Any one of the men of my ommat who defends himself against four traits and who will not spend his time on these four will be a paradise dweller: The four traits are: indulging in the world of wrong-doing; indulging in the whims and desires; filling the stomach with unlawfully-gained food (haram)and spending time in sexual affairs.”[77]

“And those women of my Ommat who pay attention to four facts shall be paradise dwellers, as well: keeping their chastity, obeying their husbands, praying God five times a day and fasting in the month of Ramathan.”

And all these are the result of having faith in Allah and paying heed to the Resurrection Day and doing good deeds. We will see this issue brought up in the Holy Quran:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ جَزَاؤُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ رَبَّهُ.

“As for those who believe and do good, surely they are the best of men. Their reward with their Lord is gardens of perpetuity beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein for ever; Allah is well pleased with them and they are will pleased with Him; that is for him who fears his Lord. 98:7-8”

Imam Muse Ibn Ja’afar (s), in a precious narration, shows us how to spend our life-time usefully:

اجْتَهِدوا في أنْ يَكُونَ زَمانُكُم أرْبَعَ ساعاتٍ: ساعْةٌ لِمُناجَاةِ اللهِ، وَساعَةٌ لأمْرِ المَعاشِ، وَسَاعْةٌ لِمْعاشَرَةِ الإخْوانِ وَالثُقاتِ الَّذينَ يُعَرِّفُونَكُم عُيُوبَكُم وَيُخْلِصُونَ لَكُمْ فِي البَاطِنِ، وَساعَةٌ تَخْلُونَ فِيها لِلَذاتِكُمْ في غَيْرِ مُحَرَّمٍ.

Try to divide your 24 hours in the following manner:

1) Some portion for worshipping and supplication;

2) Some part for earning life and managing family circle;

3) Some portion for meeting with your religion brothers, those who tell you what defects you have and are sincere to you;

4) and some portions for pleasures which are not unlawful.[78]

Imam Baqir (s) says: Ali (s) prayed the night prayers in the kufe Mosque, then he called people three times, telling them:

تَجَهَّزوا – رَحِمَكُمُ اللهُ – فَقَدْ نُودِيَ فِيكُمْ بِالرَحِيلِ، فَمَا التَّعَرُّجُ عَلَى الدُّنْيا بَعْدَ النِّداءِ فيها بالرَّحيلِ!

تَجَهَّزُوا ـ رَحِمَكُم اللهُ ـ وانتَقِلُوا بِأفْضَلِ ما بِحَضْرَتِكُمْ مِنَ الزَادِ وَهُوَ التَّقْوى، وَاعْلَمُوا أنَّ طريقَكُمْ إلى الْمَعادِ، وَمَمَرَّكُمْ عَلى الصِّراطِ وَالهَوْلَ الأعْظَمَ أمَامَكُمْ؛ عَلى طَرِيقِكُمْ عَقَبَةٌ كَؤُودَةٌ، وَمَنازِلُ مَهُولَةٌ مَخُوفَةٌ، لابُدَّ لَكُم مِنَ المَمَرِّ عَلَيْها وَالوُقُوفِ بِها؛ فَإمّا بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللهِ، فَنَجاةٌ مِنْ هَوْلِها وَعِظَمِ خَطَرِها وَفَظاعَةِ مَنْظَرِها وَشِدَّةِ مُخْتَبَرِها؛ وَإمّا بَهَلَكَةٍ لَيْسَ بَعْدَهَا انْجِبَارٌ.

“May God bless you all. Be ready for the journey to the other world. You are called to that ever-lasting abide; you are invited to join there. Then why are you procrastinating? You act as if you were not called upon to join the other world.

“May God bless you. Get prepared and take with you the best kind of provision, which is piety.

“Be aware that you have to enter the other world, and you have to pass the Sarat, A great fright is ahead of you; there is a rough journey ahead. There are awesome resting-places on your way. You have to cross them; they can not be discarded. The only Salvation you have is God’s blessings. These blessings can only be obtained through faith and good deeds. If you live neglectfully and meet some obstacles, there will not be any compensation.”

The Second Martyr and His Attention Towards The Value of Time:

The Second Martyr who is the interpreter of the excellent text of Loma’s, is one of the great jurisprudents of the world of Shiism. He is also a great scholar in the doctrines of Shiism.

In the precious treatise called Boqyatol-Morid, his student writes how significant time was for his master. He writes:

1) In order to manage home affairs, he used to carry fire-wood on a donkey every evening.

2) He used to perform his morning prayer in his home which was the mosque;

3) He used to storm when he sat at his table giving lectures. This showed he had amassed lots of knowledge when he was young.

4) He earned his life by his endeavors;

5) He served any guest he might have;

6) One of his peculiarities was his skill in writing at least thirty lines at one stroke;

7) He wrote two thousand books, two hundred volumes of which were in his own handwriting.

8) He had connections with the world of the invisible through his sleep and dreams. Sheikh Bahaee’s father writes: I went up to him; I found him deep in thoughts. I asked him why he was concerned. He replied: “I am the second Martyr because last night I dreamed that Seyyed Morteza had a party in which all scholars were gathered. When I entered he told me to sit next to the martyr sheikh. This shows I am going to be a martyr.” He finally became a martyr.

Seyyed Mahdi Qazvini and His View on Time:

The strange and spectacular traits of the great scholar seyyed Mahdi Qazvine make us wonder at times. A man like him is a sample of genuine human traits. Mohaddes Qommi writes at the end of his Montahiol Amal:

These supernatural positions of this seyyed were not unpredictable since he had learned knowledge and its application from seyyed Baqir, who had got it from his uncle Bahrol Olum.

His great uncle brought seyyed Mahdi up in such a way as he obtained great virtues.

Firstly, after his migration from Najaf Ashraf to Helleh, he started educating people. Thanks to his efforts more than one hundred thousand Arabs converted to twelve-Imam Shiites. He told me: when I arrived at Helleh I noticed that Shiites residing there had from the school of Shiism only the carriage of their dead to the city of Najaf. They did not observe even the simplest forms of the Islamic commands.

Because of his effective trainings, those people turned into performers of good deeds.

Secondly, his truly human characteristics included great patience, perseverance, piety, his supplications and prayers to God. Never did he ask his family members for anything, such as food, tea, coffee or a Hubble bubble.

He used to accept invitations but upon his presence at the host’s house, he used to sit in a corner editing his books. He never took part in conversations unless he was asked a question.

At the month of Ramathan he used to perform his evening prayers with people at the mosque; then he performed the Nafeleh prayer and then he went home to break his fasting. Then, he would go back to the same mosque and performed his night prayer and then he used to return home. People then gathered together at the mosque. First a Quran reader read some verses. Another lecturer then used to read a sermon from Nahjolbalaqa. Then, a third man used to narrate some of the hardships of Imam Hossein (s). Then, one of the believers used to read special supplications for the month of Ramathan. They used to continue till very early in the morning which is called the dawn (or Sahar). They used to eat their food over there and then they scattered. Although he was old, he used to observe all the necessary prayers and supplications.

Thirdly, he has edited a great many number of books on jurisprudence, principles, Monotheism, Imamate and discourse, and the like. One of these books reasons that Shiite is the man’s salvage and is called Tuba Laho and Hosn Me’ab.

The Value of Time in Ali’s View:

إنَّ المَغْبُونَ مَنْ غُبِنَ عُمْرَهُ وَإنّ المَغْبُوطَ مَنْ أنْفَذَ عُمْرَهُ في طَاعَةِ رَبِّهِ.

A loser is the one has wasted his time, and a winner, whom everyone will envy, is the one who has spent his time worshipping Allah.[79]

إنَّ العاقِلَ مَنْ نَظَرَ في يَوْمِهِ بِغَدِهِ، وَسَعى في فِكاكِ نَفْسِهِ وَعَمِلَ لِما لابُدَّ لَهُ وَلا مَحِيصَ عَنْهُ.

In fact a wise man is the one who sees his future in his present time and who considers this world as a harvesting-place for his hereafter: the one who frees himself from his lusts and whim; the one who tries hard to avoid the hell fire and endeavors for a day which he has to meet anyway.[80]

إنَّ أخْسَرَ النّاسِ صَفْقَةً وأخْيَبَهُم سَعْياً رَجُلٌ أخْلَقَ بَدَنَهُ في طَلَبِ آمالِهِ وَلَمْ تساعِدْهُ المقادِيرُ على إرادَتِهِ، فخَرَجَ مِنَ الدنيا بحسَراتِهِ وَقَدِمَ على الآخِرَةِ بِتَبِعاتِهِ.

In fact, the severest loser in bargaining his life and the most regretful one is the person who weakens his body strength to fulfil his wishes and then due to God’s determination is deprived of attaining his wishes and who then departs from this world with much regrets.[81]

إنَّ أوْقاتِكَ أجْزاءُ عُمْرِكَ، فَلا تُنْفِذْ لَكَ وقْتاً إلاّ فيما يُنْجِيكَ.

No doubt the hours you spend are all parts and portions of your life-time. Thus, do not spend your time in anything unless it can save you, somehow.[82]

If you look at the world through the eyes of monotheism and prophets and God’s men, you will observe that it is a place for human growth. If its assets are used in the right way by man, he can attain the supernatural world easily. He is then reluctant to use even one minute of his precious time in the wrong way. He sees this world as a prelude to the next world. But if this world is seen through the eyes of the material-minded people, it is a place for sensuality and for mistaking right for wrong and wrong for right. Under such circumstances man’s features turn into the features of wolves and his spirit will change into stone.

Imam Ali (s), in the following sentences, refers to those seeing and alert persons who use every minute of their lives in satisfying God. He refers, as well, to those blind persons who add to their files and records nothing but injustice and tyranny.

إنَّ الدُّنيا مُنتَهى بَصَرِ الأعْمَى، لا يُبْصِرُ مِمّا وَراءَها شَيْئاً؛ وَالبَصيرُ يُنْفِذُها بَصَرَهُ وَيَعْلَمُ أنَّ الدَارَ وَراءَها. فَالبَصيرُ مِنْها شاخِصٌ، وَالأعْمَى إلَيْها شاخِصٌ، وَالبَصيرُ مِنْها مُتَزَوِّدٌ، وَالأعْمى إلَيها مُتَزَوِّدٌ.

In fact, this world is the last resort and perspective for a blind man; he can not see anything beyond it (and for this reason, he will not pay attention to the Doomsday which is the focal point in the discussions of the divine books).[83]

But a clear-thinker will realize that the true residence for man is the other world. He will spend his time here to satisfy his God and to prepare his provisions. But a blind person only tries for his needs here.

إنَّ اللّيلَ وَالنّهارَ يَعْمَلانِ فيكَ فاعْمَل فِيهِما، وَيأخُذانِ مِنكَ فَخُذ مِنْهُما.

In fact, day and night will affect you. You too should make your influence over them. They take away your life-span; you, too, take spiritual advantages from your life.[84]

How And When to Spend Time

In the Holy Quran and in narrations, it is shown how time should be spent. Thus, the tasks of people are pre-determined, and no body may refuse to carry out his responsibilities.

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ4: مَنْ سَلَكَ طَريقاً يَطْلُبُ فيه عِلْماً سَلَكَ اللهُ بِهِ طَرِيقاً إلى الجَنّةِ، وَإنَّ المَلائِكَةَ لَتَضَعُ أجْنِحَتَها لِطالِبِ العِلْمِ رِضاً بِهِ، وَإنّهُ لَيَستَغْفِرُ لِطَالِبِ العِلْمِ مَنْ فِي السّماءِ وَمَنْ فِي الأرضِ حَتّى الحُوتِ فِي البَحْرِ، وَفَضْلُ العالِمِ عَلى العَابِدِ كَفَضْلِ القَمَرِ عَلى سائِرِ النُّجُومِ لَيْلَةَ البَدْرِ، وَإنَّ العُلَماءَ وَرَثةُ الأنْبِياءِ، إنَّ الأنبِياء لَمْ يُوَرِّثُوا ديناراً وَلا دِرْهَماً وَلكِنْ وَرَّثُوا العِلْمَ، فَمَنْ أخَذَ مِنْهُ أخَذَ بِحَظٍ وافِرٍ.

God will direct to heaven anybody who spends his time in obtaining God’s and devine knowledge. The angles will joyfully spread their wings for the real scholar to fly by them. Every body should ask God’s blessings for divine scholars. The superiority of a scholar over a worshipper is like that of the moon of the fourteenth of the lunar calendar over other stars. In fact, the scholars and scientists are the heirs to the prophets. The prophets did not possess any wealth except knowledge. Anybody who acquires knowledge has got the complete satisfaction.[85]

وَقالَ4: أربَعَةٌ تَلْزَمُ كُلَّ ذي حِجى وَعَقْلٍ مِنء أُمّتي: اِسْتِمَاعُ الْعِلْمِ، وَحِفْظُهُ، وَنَشْرُهُ، وَالعَمَلُ بِهِ.

The Prophet (s) has also said: There are four obligatory tasks for any one of my Ommah: The acquisition of knowledge, keeping it, spreading it among people and acting it out.[86]

وَقالَ4: مَنْ تَعَلَّمَ العِلْمَ لِلتَكَبُّرِ ماتَ جاهِلاً، وَمَنْ تَعَلَّمَهُ لِلقَولِ دُونَ العَمَلِ ماتَ مُنافِقاً، وَمَن تَعَلَّمَهُ لِلمُناظَرَةِ ماتَ فاسِقاً، وَمَنْ تَعَلَّمَهُ لِكَثْرَةِ المالِ ماتَ زِنْدِيقاً، وَمَنْ تَعَلَّمَهُ لِلعَمَلِ ماتَ عَارِفاً.

The Prophet (s) has said, as well: Anybody who boasts of his knowledge will pass away ignorant; any body who does not carry out what he learns is a hypocrite; anybody who uses his knowledge to argue with people will die as a wrong-doer; and anybody who used his knowledge to multiply his wealth, will die as an infidel; and finally, anybody who learns something in order to act it out is a true Gnostic.[87]

وَقالَ4: لا يَكُونُ العَبْدُ فِي السَماءِ وَلا فِي الأرضِ مُؤْمِناً حتّى يَكُونَ فَضُولاً، وَلا يَكُونُ فَضُولاً حَتّى يَكُونَ مُسلِماً حَتّى يَسْلَمَ النّاسُ مِنْ يَدِهِ وَلِسَانِهِ، وَلا يَسْلَمُ النّاسُ مِنْ يَدِهِ وَلِسَانِهِ حَتّى يَكُونَ عالِماً، وَلا يَكُونُ عالِماً حَتّى يَكُونَ عامِلاً بِالعِلمِ، وَلا يَكُونُ عامِلاً بِالعِلْمِ حَتّى يَكُونَ زَاهِداً، وَلا يَكُونُ زَاهِداً حَتّى يَكُونَ وَرِعاً، وَلا يَكُونُ وَرِعاً حَتّى يَكُونَ مُتَواضِعاً، وَلا يَكُونُ مُتَواضِعاً حَتّى يَكُونَ عارِِفاً بِنَفْسِهِ، وَلا يَكُونُ عارِفاً بِنَفْسِهِ حَتّى يَكُونَ عَاقِلاً.

The Prophet (s) has also stated, there are some actions dependant on some others: A worshipper from the sky and the earth is not truly a believer unless he is generous. Your being a true believer depends on your generosity. Your being a Moslem depends on the fact that others are safe from your tongue. People are not at ease with you unless you are knowledgeable. A man is not considered a scholar unless he acts on what he knows and preaches. He is not a true actor unless he is reluctant to engage in wrong-doings. He is not considered reluctant to do wrong unless he is clean. He is not clean unless he bows to God. And he is not decent and honest unless he recognizes his true self. And finally he does not recognize his very self unless he is wise.[88]

وَقالَ 4: أفْشُوا السَّلامَ وأطْعِمُوا الطّعامَ، وَصِلوا الأرْحامَ، وَصلّوا باللَّيْلِ وَالنّاسُ نيامٌ تَدْخُلوا الجَنَّة بِالسَّلامِ.

He has also stated: be prepared to greet people first, feed others, visit your relatives; when people are asleep go on worshipping: only under these conditions will you enter the paradise in complete health.[89]

وَقالَ 4: إنَّهُ لا نَبِيَّ بَعْدي، وَلا اُمَّةَ بَعْدَكُمْ، ألا فَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ، وَصَلُّوا خَمْسَكُمْ، وَصُومُوا شَهْرَكُمْ، وَحُجُّوا بَيْتَ رَبِّكُمْ، وَادُّوا زَكاةَ أموالِكُمْ طَيِّبَةْ بِها أنْفُسُكُمْ، وَأطِيعُوا وُلاةَ أمْرِكُمُ تَدْخُلُوا جَنَّةَ رَبِّكُمْ.

And the Prophet (s) has said as well: there is no Prophet after me and there will be no more Ommah. Let us fast in the month of Ramathan; let us carry out hajj. Let us pay our due alms with all our hearts. You obey the Infallible ones (s) and the Jurisprudent so that you may enter the paradise.

وَقالَ 4: مَنْ أطْعَمَ مْؤْمِناً لُقمةً أطْعَمَهُ اللهُ مِنْ ثِمَارِ الجَنَّةِ وَمَنْ سَقاهُ شَرْبَةً مِنْ مَاءٍ سَقاهُ اللهُ مِنَ الرَّحِيقِ المَخْتُومِ، وَمَنْ كَسَاهُ ثَوباً كَساهُ اللهُ مِنَ الإسْتَبْرَقِ وَالحَريرِ، وَصَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَالمَلائِكَةُ ما بَقِيَ في ذلِكَ الثَّوْبِ سِلْكٌ.

He has also stated: Anybody who feeds a believer a loaf will receive the heavenly fruits from God; and any body who gives a believer a drink of water will receive water from ZamZam. And any body who dresses a believer will receive silk dress from God and will be blessed by God upto the last moment when a tread of that dress still remains.

وَقالَ 4: خافُوا مِنَ اللهِ، وَصِلُوا الرَحِمَ، فَانَّهُما فِي الدُّنْيا بَرَكَةٌ، وَفِي العُقْبى مَغْفِرَةٌ، وَفي صِلَةِ الرَّحِمِ عَشْرُ خِصالٍ: رِضا الرَّبِّ، وَفَرَحُ القُلوبِ، وَفَرَحُ المَلائِكُةِ، وَثَنَاءُ النّاسِ، وَتَرْغِيمُ الشَّيطانِ، وَزِيادَةُ العُمْرِ، وَزِيادَةُ الرِّزْقِ وَفَرَحُ الأمْواتِ، وَزِيادَةُ المُرُوَّةِ، وَزِيادَةُ الثَّوابِ.

The Messenger of God has stated: Be fearful of God and pay visits to your relatives. These two are the source of abundance here. There are ten advantages in paying visits to one’s relatives: God’s delight, the happiness of hearts, the angels’ satisfaction, the people’s admiration, Satan’s anger, adding up to one’s life-span, having abundance, the happiness of the deceased, the increase in one’s manhood, and finally an increase in the heavenly rewards.

وَقالَ 4: إذا كانَ يَوْمُ القِيامَة لَمْ تَزُلْ قَدَما عَبْدٍ حَتّى يُسْألَ عَنْ أرْبَعٍ: عَنْ عُمْرِهِ فيمَ أفْناهُ، وَعَنْ شَبابِهِ فيمَ أبْلاهُ، وَعَمَّا اكْتَسَبَهُ مِنْ أيْنَ اكْتَسَبَهُ وَفِيمَ أنْفَقَهُ، وَعَنْ حُبِّنا أهْلَ البَيْتِ.

The Great Prophet (s) has also stated: On the Doomsday, each believer will be asked the following four questions: how he spent his life, how he spent his youth, how he earned and spent his wealth, and his love and affection towards us, the infallible ones(s).[90]

وَقالَ 4: يا أيُّهَا النّاسُ تُوبُوا إلى اللهِ قَبْلَ أنْ تَمُوتُوا، وَبادِرُوا بِالأعْمالِ الصالِحَةِ قَبْلَ أنْ تُشْغَلوا، وَأصْلِحُوا الَّذي بَيْنَكُم وَبَينَ رَبِّكُم تَسْعَدوا، وَأكْثِروا مِنَ الصَّدَقَةِ تُرزَقُوا، وَامُرُوا بالمَعْرُوفِ تُحْصَنُوا، وَانْهَو عَنِ المُنْكَرِ تُنْصَروا، إنَّ أكْيَسَكُم أكْثَرُكُمْ ذِكْراً لِلمَوْتِ، وَإنَّ أحْرَمَكُم أحْسَنُكُمُ اسِتِعداداً لَهُ. ألا وَإنَّ مِنْ عَلاماتِ العَقْلِ التَّجافِيَ مِنْ دارِ الغُرُورِ، وَالإنابَةِ إلى دارِ الخُلُودِ، وَالتَزَوُّدَ لِسُكْنَى القُبُورِ، وَالتأهُبَ لِيَومِ النُّشُورِ.

The Honorable Prophet has also said: O people, prior to your death, repent all your sins; and engage in good deeds while you have freedom; make peace between yourself and your God so that you will prosper; pay lots of alms so that you will be given abundance; enjoin the good so that you may be safe against social harms; and forbid the evil so that you may get help; The cleverest one among you is the one who remembers death the most; and the most prudent among you is the one who is most capable and ready to receive death. Be aware that there are four signs for one being wise: not being proud, having love in the world Hereafter; compiling provisions for the other world; and being prepared for the Doomsday.[91]

It would take me a lot of energy to delve into all the details of this divine issue. Now you are familiar with Islam’s view on how to spend one’s time. Now it is time for me to deal with the second part of the first invocation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh.

قَبَضَهُ إلى ما نَدَبَهُ إلَيهِ مِنْ مَوْفُورِ ثَوابِهِ، أوْ مَحْذُورِ عِقابِهِ، لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذينَ أساؤُوا بِما عَمِلُوا، وَيَجْزيَ الَّذِينَ أحْسَنُوا بِالحُسْنى، عَدْلاً مِنْهُ تَقَدَّسَتْ، أسْماؤُهُ وَتَظاهَرَتْ آلاؤُهُ، لايُسْأَلُ عَمّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسأَلُونَ.

“At the end of one’s life, one is accountable for what good he has performed and what the evil he has done. This is to punish the evil-doer for the evils he has done and to reward him for the good he has performed and for the prayer he has engaged in. This is the mere justice by God who is flawless and Whose assets are continual. He will do what He deems advisable and nobody is allowed to question His authority. Rather, it is man who is asked for what he has done, especially how he has spent his time.”

The Reward For One’s Deeds

Out of His Affection, Allah Has bestowed upon man the following assets: wisdom and conscience; self and nature; spirit and heart; prophethood and imamate; velayat and honor; khelafat and guidance; knowledge and insight; body and soul; the earth and the sky; the sea and the desert; the air and the mountains; the mines and resources; clothing, foods and drinks and the like. Then man is asked to appreciate these blessings and spend each in its right place till he gets prosperity both here and in the hereafter. Those who spend God’s assets and abundance in the right manner and who spend their time worshipping Allah will definitely receive their rewards in the Hereafter. But those who do not appreciate God’s assets and spend their time being engaged in sins will meet Allah’s chastisement. These two approaches of Allah in treating us in the other world is His pure justice.

We human-beings should pay attention to the following important issues concerning Allah’s abundance:

1) God’s complete favors;

2) The amount of God’s favors;

3) The appreciation of God’s favors; and

4) The change of God’s favors.

1) God, the Almighty, has provided man with favors which are complete in nature. There is not any left out part to this favor. Regarding this, the Holy Quran says:

أَسْبَغَ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعَمَهُ ظَاهِرَةً وَبَاطِنَةً وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلَا هُدًى وَلَا كِتَابٍ مُنِيرٍ.

“And made complete to you His favors outwardly and inwardly. And among men is he who disputes in respect of Allah though having no knowledge, nor guidance, nor a book giving light. 31:20”

2) The amount of the God-given assets available to man is innumberable. Suppose you tried to count the human body cells. Also imagine you could count one thousand of them in one second. It will take us three hundred thousand years to count all of them! Let alone counting the assets given us by God. Regarding this, Allah says in the Holy Quran.

وَآتَاكُمْ مِنْ كُلِّ مَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُ وَإِنْ تَعُدُّوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ لَا تُحْصُوهَا إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَظَلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ

“And He gives you of all that you ask Him; and if you count Allah’s favors, you will not be able to number them; most surely man is very unjust, very ungrateful. 14:34”

3) Man should ask himself who has sent these favors, whom are they sent to, and for what purpose they are sent to man. Only in this way can he recognize the Giver of these assets and may he appreciate the value of them and how to use them. In this way, then, justice will domainate over our affairs. Regarding this, the Holy Quran says:

اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِي الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ.

“(O children of Israel) call to mind My favor which I bestowed on you and be faithful to your covenant with Me, I will fulfill My covenant with you; and of Me, Me alone you should be afraid. 2:40”

4) There are a group of people who disregard the Giver of the favors and convert these favors into sins, debauchery, and blasphemy. They deserve a nasty life. In contrast, there is a second group who spend these favors in places they are ordered to. These group are among God’s best worshippers and will deserve a clean and prosperous life. Regarding those who convert God’s favors into sins, God says:

أَلَمْ تَرَى إِلَى الَّذِينَ بَدَّلُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ كُفْرًا وَأَحَلُّوا قَوْمَهُمْ دَارَ الْبَوَارِ.

“Have you not seen those who have changed Allah’s favor for ungratefulness and made their people to alight into the abode of perdition. 14:28”

And we will find in another verse:

وَمَنْ يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ.

“And whoever changes the favor of Allah after it has come to him, then surely Allah is severe in requiting evil. 2:211”

Now, observe God’s Prophet, God’s men, the Infallible Ones (s), the right-doers, the Gnostics, and the God-lovers who did not waste an atom of what they were given by God. Noah for instance, lived upto one thousand years on the earth without changing God’s favors into sins and blasphemy.

Then look at Solomon, the possessor of wealth and position, then at Joseph, the owner of wealth and Egypt’s treasures, then at Ibrahim, the great, the owner of herds of sheep, and finally look at Imam Ali (s) who possessed farms and government; these people never were ungrateful to what God had given them.

Shaqiq Balkhi told Harun: Being a governor is to be the Janitor and the door-keeper of the hell. Harun asked him: how? He answered: people have trusted you the treasury so that you may help the needy so that they would not involve in sins due to poverty and then get punished. People have given you swords to fight the God’s enemies and not to attack Moslems and destroy their cultures. They have let you carry a whip so that you force people to do right things so that the society may remain clean and safe. If you are not careful to carry out these tasks, you will end up in the hell.

Now let us observe the status of the well-wishers and wrong-doers from the view points of the Holy Quran and the narrations.

Every mature Moslem has to delve into the verses of the Holy Quran and the narrations thoughtfully and with deliberation or else he will be deprived of the benefits and advantages of these sources.

A careful observation of those verses of the Holy Quran which deal with death, the Doomsday, reward and punishment, will lead man to correct and rectify his inward and outward aspects and to help him control his organs from going astray.

The Holy Quran describes for us the quality of good death and the way the Death Angel treats us. Taking advantage of these descriptions is mandatory for all.

I will present below a glimpse of some of these aspects and will refer the reader to some volumes of the great scholar, Majlesi’s Behar.

The Strange Phenomenon of Death

Death is a fact whose remembrance will break the tyrant’s neck and will make the Kesras bow and will make the ceasars despair.

Everybody is afraid of death and all are waiting for its arrival. Its arrival is inevitable. When it arrives, it will drag people from castles into tombs, from the bright rooms full of chandeliers into small dark spaces, from the presence of beautiful women and men into the presence of worms and ants, from taking wines into sleeping on the earth, from the company of the relatives into the fright of loneliness and from the comfortable beds into the cold stone beds.

The sample of Gnostics, the Imam of the lovers, Imam Zainol Abedin (s), in his Abu Hamza Thamali invocation, at the Ramathan dawn says to God:

فَقَدْ أفْنَيْتُ بِالتَسْوِيفِ وَالآمالِ عُمْرِي، وَقَدْ نَزَلتُ مَنْزِلَةَ الآيِسينَ مِنْ خَيْري، فَمَنْ يَكُونُ أسْوأ حالاً مِنّي إنْ أنَا نُقِلْتُ عَلى مِثْلِ حالِي إلى قَبْرِي لَمْ اُمَهِّدهُ لِرَقْدَتِي، وَلَمْ أفْرُشْهُ بِالعَمَلِ الصّالِحِ لِضَجْعَتِي. وَمَالي لا أبْكِي وَلا أدري إلى ما يَكونُ مَصِيري، وَأرى نَفْسِي تُخَادِعُني، وَأيّامي تُخَاتِلُني، وَقَدْ خَفَقَتْ عِنْدَ رَأسي أجْنِحَةُ المَوتِ، فَمالي لا أبْكِي؟ أبكِي لِخُرُوجِ نَفْسِي، أبْكي لِظُلمَةِ قَبْرِي، أبْكي لِضيقِ لَحْدي، أبْكي لِسُؤالِ مُنْكَرٍ وَنَكِيرٍ إيّاي، أبْكي لِخُروجي مِنْ قَبْري عُرْياناً ذَلِيلاً...

“In fact, I have wasted my time indulging in wrong wishes. I have reached a stage in which I have lost hope of any changing. Of my predicament. Now, tell me who is more miserable than me? Woe to me if I go to my grave under these conditions, a grave which I have not prepared in good conditions and I have not yet carpeted it with good actions. Why should I not cry when I know nothing of the things that may happen to me. Now, I have realized that my true Self has deceived me. Time, too, plays tricks on me. This happens when the eagle of death has spread its wings over me! Why should I not cry? I cry for the departure of my spirit and soul from my body, for the darkness of my tomb, for the small space in which I will stay, for the interrogation of Nakir and Monkar Angels, and I will cry for the moment when I have to leave the tomb naked and depressed and miserable.

For those who have spent their time worshipping their Allah, and who have always been anticipating the day when they could meet their Love, death is an easy and palatable affair. For others, it is Just misery.”

عَنْ أبي جَعْفَرٍ A قال: قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: المَوتُ المَوتُ، جاءَ المَوتُ بِما فِيهِ، جاءَ بِالرَّوحِ والرّاحَةِ وَالكَرَّةِ المُبارَكَةِ إلى جَنَّةٍ عاليَةٍ لِأهْلِ الخُلُودِ، الَّذينَ كانَ لها سَعْيُهُم، وَفيها رَغْبَتُهُم. وَجاءَ المَوتُ بِما فِيهِ، جَاءَ بِالشَّقوَةِ وَالنَدَامَةِ وَالكَرَّةِ الخَاسِرَةِ إلى نارٍ حامِيَةٍ لِأهْلِ دارِ الغُرُورِ، الَّذِينَ كانَ لَها سَعْيُهُم، وَفِيها رَغْبَتُهُم.

Imam Baqir (s) reports from the Holy Prophet (s), having said:

“O people! Remember death. Death is coming with a blessed and charming walk to take away to the paradise those who lived here but were anticipating the other world and used this world as a preparation for the other.

Death is coming to take away to the hell those who are slaves to their wishes and to the material issues!”[92]

A man asked the Prophet (s): why do I hate death? The Prophet (s) asked him: Are you a rich man? He replied: yes. The Prophet asked him: Have you sent anything in advance to the other world? He replied: No! the Prophet (s) then replied: that is why you are afraid of death.

عَنِ الصّادِقِ A عَن أبيهِ عَن جَدِّهِ G قالَ: سُئِلَ أميرُ المُؤمِنينَA بِماذا أحبَبتَ لِقاءَ اللهِ؟ قالَ: لَمّا رَأيتُهُ قَدِ اخْتارَ لي دِينَ مَلائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَأنْبِيائِهِ عَلِمْتُ أنَّ الَّذي أكْرَمَنِي بِهذا لَيْسَ يَنْساني، فأحبَبْتُ لِقاءَهُ.

Imam Sadiq (s) reports from his father, who reports from his grandfather: People asked Imam Ali (s): Why are you so fond of death and dying and for the transform from here to there? He replied: The God who has appointed the right religion for His angels, Prophet and the Infallible Ones (s) will never forget me. That is why I am resless till I meet with Him.[93]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: شَيئَانِ يَكْرَهُهُما ابْنُ آدَمَ: يَكْرَهُ المَوْتَ وَالمَوتُ راحَةُ المُؤمِنِ مِنَ الْفِتْنَةِ، وَيَكْرَهُ قِلَّةَ المالِ، وَقِلَّةُ المالِ أقَلُّ لِلحِسابِ.

The Prophet (s) has stated: Adam’s son is afraid of two things: He is frightened from death, which is in fact a safety for the believer from evil; he fears little wealth, which in fact is an asset by itself since it lowers one’s responsibilities in the other world.[94]

The narrator says: I told Imam Sadiq (s) that Abuzar is reported to have said: people abhor three things which I admire: death, poverty, and disaster.

Imam (s) replied: you are not right in claiming this. What Abuzar meant was: death in praying God is better for him than life in committing sins; poverty in praying for him is better than affluence in committing sins, and disease and catastrophe in worshipping is better than health in aggression.


The Death of The Benefactors From The Viewpoint of The Holy Quran

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمْ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنْتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ.

“(As for) those who say: Our Lord is Allah, then continue in the right way, the angels descend upon them, saying: Fear not, nor be grieved, and receive good news of the garden which you were promised. 41:30”

يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ ارْجِعِي إِلَى رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَرْضِيَّةً فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي.

“O soul that art at rest! Return to your Lord, well-pleased with Him, well-pleasing him, So enter among My servants, And enter into My servants, And enter into My garden. 89:27-30”

أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَ اللَّهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ لَهُمْ الْبُشْرَى فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ.

“Now surely the friends of Allah-they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve. Those who believe and guarded against evil. They shall have good news in this world’s life and in the hereafter; there is no changing the words of Allah; that is the mighty achievement. 10:62-64”

The Death of The Evil-Doers From The Viewpoint of The Holy Quran

يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَى يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُجْرِمِينَ وَيَقُولُونَ حِجْرًا مَحْجُورًا.

“On the day when they shall see the angels there shall be no joy on that day for the guilty, and they shall say: It is a forbidden thing totally prohibited. 25:22”

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمْ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا فَأُوْلَئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا.

“Surely as for those whom the angels cause to die while they are unjust to their souls, they shall say: In what state were you? They shall say: We were weak in the earth. They shall say: Was not Allah’s earth spacious, so that you should have migrated therein? So these it is whose abode is hell, and it is an evil resort. 4:97”

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ بَاسِطُوا أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ.

“And if you had seen when the unjust shall be in the agonies of death and the angels shall spread forth their hands; Give up your souls; today shall you be recompensed with an ignominious chastisement because you spoke against Allah other than the truth and because you showed pride against His communications. 6:93”

الَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّاهُمْ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ فَأَلْقَوْا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِنْ سُوءٍ بَلَى إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ.

“Those whom the angels cause to die while they are unjust to themselves. Then would they offer submission: We used not to do any evil. Aye! Surely Allah knows what you did. 16:28”

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمْ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ اتَّبَعُوا مَا أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُوا رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ.

“But how will it be when the angels cause them to die smiting their back. That is because they follow what is displeasing to Allah and are averse to His pleasure, therefore He has made null their deeds. 47:27-28”

سُئِلَ عَنِ الحَسَنِ بْنِ عَليٍّ H: مَا المَوتُ الَّذي جَهَلٌوهُ؟ فَقالَ: أعْظَمُ سُرُورٍ يَرِدُ عَلَى المُؤمِنِينَ، إذْ نُقِلُوا عَنْ دارِ النَكَدِ إلَى النَّعيمِ الأبَدِ؛ وَأعْظَمُ ثُبُورٍ يَرِدُ عَلَى الكَافِرينَ، إذْ نُقِلُوا عَنْ جَنَّتِهِمْ إلى نارٍ لا تَبيدُ وَلا تَنْفَدُ.

Imam Mojtaba (s) was asked: what is an unknown death? He answered: It is the best joy which occurs to the believers because they move from a home of hardships to an eternal house of prosperity. It is also the worst kind of misery and wretchedness which befalls the infidels since they move from the paradise of this world into the eternal hell of the other world.[95]

Imam Zainol Abedin (s) was asked: what is the death? He replied: For a believer, death is like taking the dirty dress and chains off his body and putting on clean and a sumptuous dress.

For the infidel, death is like taking a sumptuous dress off and putting on tough and rough dress. Death for him is like the movement from the presence of nice companions into the worst kind of resorts.[96]

Imam Musa Ibn Ja’afar (s) arrived on the bed of a dying man who was speechless. The relatives of the man asked Imam (s): O son of the Prophet (s): we would like to know what death is.

Imam (s) replied: “Death is for the believers to get cleaned of their guilts and sins. In fact, it is their last torture and pain.

“Death is a refinery for the infidels for their features; it is their last joy. It is their last reward. This friend of yours is being purified now in the same way that a dress is cleansed in water. He is getting ready to live in his eternal resort.”[97]

Imam Javad (s) went to visit a Shiite sick who was crying because of his death. Imam said: O believer, are you crying over a death whose nature you do not know. Suppose your body is entirely dirty and your body is covered with all sorts of wounds. Also suppose there is a special bath the water of which will heal all your ailments. How much would you be delighted? The dying man replied: I do not know. Imam replied: death is the same bath which washes away your sins and makes you free and provides you with all kinds of delights. This is not the case for crying. That man became calm, dying peacefully.[98]

In some books on Hadith, such as Jameol Akhbar, chapter 135, Shafi of Feis, section on death, and Mohjatol Beiza’, Vol 8, P 259, we will read: Ibrahim told the Death Angel: How would it seem when you go to meet a wrong-doer? The Angel replied: Turn your face. Ibrahim did so. The Angel said: Now turn your face and look at me. When Ibrahim looked at him he found the Angel dark, and dirty in face, smelling , with dirty dress on, having fire coming out of his nostrils, letting smoke fill the space. Upon looking at the Angel, Ibrahim fainted. When he recovered his senses, Ibrahim found the Angel in his usual shape. He told the Angel: Looking at you is enough for a guilty man. When Ibrahim realized the Angel had a beautiful face when he meets a believer, he said: this reward would suffice a believer.

The Issues of The Grave And The Barrier:

After the soul is taken from the body, the second phase of dying is the tomb. In fact, the grave is the same as the barrier for man. There are some verses which point out to this fact. Each person’s barrier is a reflex of his moral, and ethical and ideological status.

For a believer, the barrier is a place for ease, prosperity and company of clean souls and God’s abundance. For an infidel, the Barrier is a place for hardships and meeting the dirty souls and filthy corpses.

حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَهُمْ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُونِي لَعَلِّي أَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيمَا تَرَكْتُ كَلَّا إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا وَمِنْ وَرَائِهِمْ بَرْزَخٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ.

“Until when death overtakes one of them, he says: Send me back, My Lord, send me back; Haply I may do good in that which I have left. By no means! it is a mere word that he speaks; and before them is a Barrier until the day they are raised. 23:99-100”

Regarding the chastisement of the evil-doers at the Barrier, the Holy Quran states:

النَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَعَشِيًّا وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُوا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ.

“The fire; they shall be brought before it every morning and evening and on the day when the hour shall come to pass; Make Firon’s people enter the severest chastisement. 40:46”

Concerning the delights of the well-wishers at the Barrier, the Holy Quran says:

وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ.

“And reckon not those who are killed in Allah’s way as dead; nay, they are alive and are provided sustenance from their Lord. 3:169”

The interpretation of Nur Al-Thaqalein, which is one the most important Shiite interpretations, reports Imam Baqir (s) having said that this verse was revealed to the Prophet (s) related to the martyrs of the Holy wars of Badr and Ohod.

Ibn Masud reports from the Prophet (s): God addressed the martyrs of Ohod asking them: what do you desire? They replied: O God! What greater desire can we have when we are surrounded with your ever Lasting innumerable blessings and assets, resting under your heavens. The only desire we ask for is to let us go back to the world once again and get martyred for you once more.

But God said: My commandment is infallible and irrevocable and that is that nobody shall return to the world after his or her death. Now that our condition is as it is, send our best wishes to the Prophet and send our good news to those who remained alive and tell them not to worry. Here their status is referred to in the following verses:

يَا لَيْتَ قَوْمِي يَعْلَمُونَ بِمَا غَفَرَ لِي رَبِّي وَجَعَلَنِي مِنْ الْمُكْرَمِينَ.

“O would that my people had known of that On account of which my Lord has forgiven me and made me of the honored ones.36:26-27”

In the story of Habib, the carpenter, which is told in the sacred Surah ya seen, verses 26,27, we have the same issue brought up.

في الكافي، عَنِ الصّادِقِ A قالَ: إنَّ لِلقَبْرِ كَلاماً في كُلِّ يَوْمٍ يَقُولُ: أنَأ بَيْتُ الغُرْبَةِ، أنَا بَيْتُ الوَحْشِةِ، أنَا بَيْتُ الدُّودِ، أنَا القَبْرُ، أنَا رَوْضَةٌ مِنْ رِياضِ الجَنَّةِ، أوْ حُفْرَةٌ مِنْ حُفَرِ النّيرانِ.

It is reported from Imam Sadiq (s) in the honorable book called kafi: Imam is reported to have said: the grave has different speeches each day: among them are the following: I am the house of exile, the house of fright, the resort of worms. I am the grave. I am either a garden of paradise or a hole of the hell holes.[99]

The account of the Barrier has its roots in the Quran, and divinity. Everybody has to pass it. It is excellent for the believers but hard and nasty for the infidles.

What influences the status of the Barrier is our ideas, morals and deeds. If an individual has right and divine ideas and if he follows the Prophets and the Infallible Ones (s), the Barrier would Just be a paradise for him. On the other hand, if man bears wrong ideas and nasty morals, such as greed, pride, aggression, jealousy, stinginess, hard speech, back-biting, accusation, and blaming, the Barrier would be a hole out of the holes of the hell. He may not escape it, however.

A Statement by the Martyrd Morteza Motahhari

Motahhjari in his valuable book called “the Divine Justice” reports from his teacher Mirza Ali Agha Shiraze, a great jurisprudent and a devoted Lover, who has said: One day in Isphahan, while teaching Nahjolbalaqa, he started crying and said: Last night during a hard deliberation, I found out the status of my Barrier in the following shape: After my death, people and my relatives saw me off to the grave. At the time of burying I noticed a black dog enter my grave. I cried and shouted, but nobody heard me. When the grave was covered and every body had left, fright took control over me. Suddenly, a piercing light illuminated my grave. I became extremely delighted that the dog immediately escaped from my grave. I asked the light who it was. He answered: I am Hossein Ibn Ali. Be at ease till the Doomsday. That dog was some of your viscious characters, which were not dominant, however.[100]

... وَهُوَ يُنادِي يا أهْلِي وَيا ولدي لا تَلْعَبَنَّ بِكُم الدُّنيا كَما لَعِبَتْ بي، فَجَمَعْتُ المالَ مِنْ حِلِّهِ وَغَيْرِحِلِّهِ ثُمَّ خَلَّفْتُهُ لِغَيري، فَالمَهْنَأُلَهُ و التَّبِعَةُ عَلَيَّ، فَاحْذَرُوا مِثْلَ ما حَلَّ بي.

The Great Prophet (s) has said: The spirit of the diseased cries after his death: My relatives and children, be careful not to be carried away by the world in the way that it has deceived me. I collected some wealth through legal and illegal means and left it for my heirs. Now they are enjoying it, but I have to account for it. Avoid the misery in which I am now.[101]


An Exemplary Story from Salman

Salman Farsi was appointed as the governor of Mada’en by Imam Ali(s). Asbaq Ibn nobaateh says: I was with Salman in Madaen and I used to pay him visits frequently. One day, I went to meet him while he was sick, the same illness which finally caused his death. I frequented his house. His illness became severe and he was sure his end had come. One day he told me: O Asbaq the Prophet (s) had told me that when I approached death a dead man would talk to me. Now I want to know if I am going to die pretty soon or not.

Asbaq says: I told him: tell me what to do for you. He said: Go and take me a coffin and spread the rug which they spread inside the coffin, then take me to the graveyard with four people.

Asbaq did what he was told to. He rose up to carry out Salman’s orders. They, then, took Salman to the grqveyard and laid down the coffin. He said: draw me towards Mecca. Then he said loudly:

السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُم يا أهْلَ عَرْصَةِ البَلاءِ، السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُم يا مُحْتَجبينَ عَنِ الدُّنيا.

“My greeting to you, the dwellers of the Land of hardships; greetings to you who have left the world.”

But he received no answer. He greeted them once more, saying: Please answer me. I am Salman Farsi, the close friend of the Prophet. He had told me one of you, dead people, would speak to me when my time is over. I want to know if I am dying or not.

Now, one of the dead souls answered him. It told Salman: I hear your voice. Ask me what you want. Salman asked it: Do you belong to the Barrier or to the Paradise. The soul answered it was one of those which had received God’s blessings and belonged to the Paradise. Salman asked the soul about its death. Salman then ordered his followers to lay him on the ground and started talking with God.

You are the one who have control on everything; you are the One to Whom all shall return; you are the One Who protect everyone; nobody may interfere with the chastisement you appoint to people. I believed in you and I have followed your Messenger. I have confirmed your book. Now is the time for the fulfillment of you promise. You are the one Who will not break your promise. Take away my soul and let me join you. Let me rest beside your favors. He then prayed and passed away.[102]

A Strange Story of the Barrier of the Dead:

Several years ago there lived a true believer in one of the cities of Iran. His eldest son, too, was as pious as his father. Both of them lived in dire poverty, living in a dilapidated house. In order to keep their prestige and not to ask people for help, they lived economically. For instance, they used to use the city water for drinking and cooking, but for washing they used the water from the well in their house.

Over the well they had built a small room in order to keep its water clean and for people to stand under it when they draw water out. This father and son did not employ a worker to draw water; rather they did it themselves.

One day these two discussed that the ceiling over the shelter of the well was ruined. They decided to repair it by themselves since they did not have the budget to bring home a builder.

On the appointed day, they covered the well with boards to protect the water from getting dirty. They made some clay adding straw to it. The father performed the job of a builder and the son acted as a worker. When the ceiling of the shelter was repaired, the father noticed that he had lost his ring. He thought he had put it next to the pond when he wanted to wash his hands. But it was not there. He searched for it for two days, with no result. He was really sorry for his ring. Several years later he passed away.

The pious son says: Some times later I dreamed about my father. I saw him in my dream and I knew he had passed away several years back. He told me he had borrowed five hundred tumans from a man and asked me to pay the debt. The son awoke, but did not take the dream seriously. Some time later, the father came to the son’s dream repeating the old story. The son told him: in order for me to be certain that it is you, give me a signal. The father said: Do you remember the story of the ring I lost when we were repairing the shelter over the well? I said: yes, I remember. My father replied after death many issues come to light for the dead person. After death I realized I had put my ring in the clay in the ceiling. Now, in order for you to realize that it is your dad talking to you, remove the clay, you will find it.

Early in the morning, the son acted as he was told without telling anybody about his communication with his father. Finally he found the ring.

The son, then, prepared the money, taking it to the market. He found the man and asked him if his father owed him anything. The man spoke of five hundred tumans. He said the father had asked him for this money and he had given it to him without asking for any receipt and some time later he passed away. The son asked the business man why he had not come to them for his money. The businessman replied he could not have done so since he did not have any receipt. The son gave him the money, telling him the whole story.[103]

The Adventure of the Writer of the Present Book Regarding the Barrier

I, Hossein Ansayan, the writer of these lines together with a friend in the year 1345 on a Wednesday night entered Qum from the Jamkaran Mosque. The city of Qum was in complete darkness. Nobody was seen on the streets. We two were waiting for a taxi to take us to my house which was next to Ayatollah Hojjat’s home.

By chance a taxi arrived. The face of the driver was completely different from others. He seemed to be a thoroughly pious man. He asked our destination. My friend replied graveyard. The driver took us to the Vady Asselam Graveyard, telling us: I am a friend of the Janitor. Let me knock on the door. He knocked on the door. The keeper opened the door. We entered the place, each one of us went upto an empty grave, contemplating for some time.

At this time a cloak-wearing man approached us. The driver recognized him and called him, telling him: you are a man of God and you have been here since the beginning of the construction of this graveyard, You have been keeping this place and have been engaged to recite Quran for some of these dead people, receiving your salary from the heirs of these dead ones. If you know of any secret relating to this place, please let us know.

The Janitor said: I know a lot of things about this place; here I will narrate to you one of them.

One day a dead man was brought here from the city of Hamadan. From the relatives and companions it could be understood that the man used to be a pious man. When he was buried one of his children called me, saying: Are you ready to recite some verses of the Holy Quran over the grave of our father for certain period of time and receive your wage? I said I would do what they told me. For several months the Janitor recited some verses of the Quran on each Friday night over the grave. But one Thursday I was too busy to perform my duty. But the day after I went and did my job. The following week, the children of the dead man came upto me telling me: last Friday night our father came to us in our dream, complaining that you had deprived him of the God’s assets on that night.

The Adventure of Mohaddeth Qumi Relating to the Barrier

Haj Sheikh Abbas Qumi, the great narrator and scholar, who has written more than fifty volumes of useful books, is one of the most pious men of God whose chastity and faith nobody may doubt. He has had a lot of adventures, one of which I will mention here. It was narrated to me by his son Haj Mirza Ali Agha Mohaddes. He said;

Due to the great volume of edition and worship, my father fell ill in Nafaf. The physicians were unable to cure him. One day, while in great pain he told my mother: My dear and kind spouse, fetch me a teapot with an empty bowl. He asked us to raise him from his bed. He sat on his bed, telling us: using my fingers I have been writing “the God said,” “Imam Sadiq said,” and “Imam Baqir said,” for the last fifty years. These fingers should be spiritually effective now. If they are not so, they had better be cut off. Then he kept his fingers above the bowl, pouring water over them from the tea-pot. Then he drank the water. After some hours he was completely cured.

He, as well, narrated the following event from his father, telling us: My father, Mohaddes Qumi was suffering from a severe eye-ache. The Iraqi physicians were unable to cure him. One day, he asked my mother to take him the book called Osul Kafi. She gave it to my father. My father said: the writer of this book, Koleyni, was one of the most pious men of his day and his book is a source of miraculous, spiritual events. It could not be ineffective. He rubbed the book on his eyes once or twice. Two hours later, there was no sign of the pain.

He also narrated the following adventure: I became a preacher due to my father’s recommendation. It was arranged for me to preach for ten nights in the city of Qum. The people of Qum appreciated and welcomed me because of my eloquence in speech and due to the fact that I was my father’s son. One night I was discussing on a certain narration when a man named Haj sheikh Mehdi Pairn Shahri shouted among the audience, asking me: what is the source of this narration? I replied: I do not know the sourse, I have heard it from the religion scholars. But he shouted at me again warning me: Do not say anything you have heard when you are preaching. Find the source and then preach it.

This act of his was too much for me. I became so depressed that I decided on the spot to quit preaching for good and all. That night I saw my father in my dream. Smiling, he told me: My son forget about your wrong decision. This is because preaching is a significant craft. This task used to be carried out by Prophets. By the way, the narration under discussion is on such and such a book on page such and such. Tomorrow night refer to the source so that the sheikh might get satisfied.

Haj Mirza Ali Aqa said: When my father, Mohaddes Qumi passed away next to the grave of Imam Ali (s), the Imam of the Gnostics, and the sample for lovers, we buried him next to his teacher Haj Mirza Hossein Nury and went back home. There was commotion in our house till midnight. When I slept I saw my father in my dream. I asked him about his conditions. He answered: since my arrival at the Barrier, I have met Hossein (s) three times.

The Strange Adventure of Ayatollah Aqa Seyyed Jamaleddin Regarding the Barrier

He narrates the following: One day it was extremely hot when I attended the Vadi Asselam in the city of Najaf to read some verses from the Quran. To escape heat, I sat under the shelter over one of the graves. At this moment I noticed a crowd of the dead, dirty in appreance and clothed in shabby dress, approaching me and asking me to ask God to help them. They told me about their plight and asked me to interfere and ask God to forgive them. I blamed them for having been careless while they were in the world. I told them: Go away you aggressors!

He said these dead used to be Arab Sheikhs who used to live in abundance.[104]

The honorable Prophet (s) has stated: Over any dead person there arrived two angels called Nakir and Monkar. They ask the dead one: What is your opinion on the Prophet? If the man is pious, he would say: The Prophet is God’s obedient servant and His Messenger. I confess that God is One and that Mohammad (s) is His Messenger. Then the two angels would say: we expected you to say such words. Next they widen his grave seventy meters by seventy meters and illuminate it like the day light. Then, they tell him: take your rest. He would, however, say: Let me go to tell my relatives on my conditions. However, they would tell him: Now close your eyes, take your rest. You are like that bride who will not wake up unless kissed by her bridegroom. Then he sleeps till he is summoned by God on the Doomsday.

But if the dead person were an infidel, having no relations with faith or religion, he would be ignorant of the prophet when he were asked relevant questions on religion. He would say: I am not sure; I repeat what I have heard from people. Then, the angels would say: We knew you would answer in such words. They order the grave to narrow to the extent that it tightens the dead person inside. The man will suffer continually till he is summoned on the Doomsday.[105]

Upon the end of the Barrier term, it is time for the Doomsday to start. On that day the good-doers and evil-doers will receive their rewards. According to the Holy Quran, the Doomsday starts with the trumpet being blown.

The Blowing of the Trumpet or the Interlude to the Doomsday:

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَى فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنْظُرُونَ.

“And the trumpet shall be blown, so all those that are in the heavens and all those that are in the earth shall swoon, except such as Allah please; then it shall be blown again, then lo! They shall stand up, awaiting. 39:68”

فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ. فَمَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُفْلِحُونَ. وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فِي جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ.

“So when the trumpet is blown, there shall be no ties of relationship between them on that day, nor shall they ask of each other. Then as for him whose good deeds are preponderant, these are the successful. And as for him whose good deeds are light these are they who shall have lost their souls, abiding in hell. 23:101-103”

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَإِذَا هُمْ مِنْ الْأَجْدَاثِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَنسِلُونَ. قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا مَنْ بَعَثَنَا مِنْ مَرْقَدِنَا هَذَا مَا وَعَدَ الرَّحْمَانُ وَصَدَقَ الْمُرْسَلُونَ.

“And the trumpet shall be blown, when lo! From their graves they shall hasten to their Lord. They shall say: O woe to us! Who has raised us up from our sleeping-place? This is what the Beneficent God promised and the apostles told the truth. 36:51-52”

فَإِذَا نُقِرَ فِي النَّاقُورِ فَذَلِكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوْمٌ عَسِيرٌ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ غَيْرُ يَسِيرٍ .

“For when the trumpet is sounded, That, at that time, shall be a difficult day, For the unbelievers, anything but easy. 74:8-10”

Thus when the trumpet is blown all the dead come to life and both the good and the bad ones run to God’s presence to get their rewards or chastisement.

فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَحْشُرَنَّهُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ ثُمَّ لَنُحْضِرَنَّهُمْ حَوْلَ جَهَنَّمَ جِثِيًّا.

“So by your Lord! We will most certainly gather them together and the Shaitans, then shall we certainly cause them to be present round hell on their knees. 19:68”

The Names of the Doomsday

The Doomsday is a strange day. It is when all come together. It is when all records and files will be judged impartially. It is when every body should go on trial and receive his or her punishment if they deserve it. It is when every one has to cross the Sarat. It is the day which leads to paradise for the believers and to hell for the unbelievers. That day has got different names based on people’s ideas. Feiz Kashany, in his Al-Mahajjah al-Baydhaa, refers to these names and has asked everbody to pay attention to these names wholeheartedly. He has asked us to study our status with regards to these names and take our lessons. Here are those names, each one of which has got a mystery inside it.

(يوم القيامة، يوم الحسرة، يوم الندامة، يوم المحاسبة، يوم المسألة، يوم المسابقة، يوم المناقشة، يوم المنافسة، يوم الزلزلة، يوم الدمدمة، يوم الصاعقة، يوم الواقعة، يوم القارعة، يوم الراجفة، يوم الرادفة، يوم الغاشية، يوم الداهية، يوم الآزفة، يوم الحاقّة، يوم الطامّة، يوم الصاخّة، يوم الطلاق، يوم الفراق، يوم المساق، يوم القصاص، يوم التناد، يوم الحساب، يوم المآب، يوم العذاب، يوم الفرار، يوم القرار، يوم اللقاء، يوم البقاء، يوم القضاء، يوم الجزاء، يوم البلاء، يوم البكاء، يوم الحشر، يوم الوعيد، يوم العرض، يوم الوزن، يوم الحقّ، يوم الحكم، يوم الفصل، يوم الجمع، يوم البعث، يوم الفتح، يوم الخزي، يومٌ عظيم، يومٌ عقيم، يومٌ عسير، يوم الدين، يوم اليقين، يوم النشور، يوم المصير، يوم النفخة، يوم الصيحة، يوم الرجفة، يوم الرجّة، يوم الزجرة، يوم السكرة، يوم الفزع، يوم الجزع، يوم المنتهى، يوم المأوى، يوم الميقات، يوم المعاد، يوم المرصاد، يوم القلق، يوم العرق، يوم الافتقار، يوم الانكدار، يوم الانتشار، يوم الانشقاق، يوم الوقوف، يوم الخروج، يوم الخلود، يوم الوعيد، يوم التغابن، يومٌ عبوس، يومٌ معلوم، يومٌ موعود، يومٌ مشهود، يوم لاريب فيه، يوم تبلى السرائر، يوم لا تجزي نفسٌ عن نفسٍ شيئا، يوم تشخص في الأبصار، يوم لا يغني ملوى عن مولى شيئا، يوم لا تملك نفس لنفس شيئا، يوم يُدعون الى نار جهنم دعّا، يوم يسحبون في النار على وجوههم، يوم تقلب وجوههم في النار، يوم لا يجزي والد عن ولده شيئا، يوم هم بارزون، يوم هم على النار يُفتَنون، يوم لا ينفع مال و لا بنون، يوم لاينفع الظالمين معذرتهم ولهم اللعنة ولم سوء الدار، يم ترد فيه المعاذير، يوم تخشع فيه الأبصار وتسكن الأصوات، و يقل فيه الإلتفات، و تبرز الخفيات و تظهر الخطيئات و الخبيثات، يوم يساق العباد ومعهم الأشهاد ويشيب الصغير، ويسكر الكبير، فيومئذٍ وُضِعت الموازين، ونشرت الدواوين، وبُرِّزت الجحيم، وأُعلي بالحميم، وزفرت النار، ويئس الكفار، وسُعِّرت النيران، و تغيرت الألوان، وخرس اللسان، ونطقت جوارح الإنسان، فـ”يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ!”).

Regarding these names and attributes, on that day, everybody will be treated in accordance with what he or she has done. If they have gone the right direction they will receive their rewards; otherwise, they will end up in the hell. Now it is the time to refer to some of rewards for good deeds and some of the punishments for the evil acts.


The Redeemer Acts on the Doomsday

قالَ رسُولُ اللهِ 4: ثَمَنُ الجَنَّةِ ا إلهَ إلا اللهُ.

The Prophet (s) has stated: The price of the paradise is the expression لا اله الا الله [There is no God except Allah].[106]

For sure, anybody who expreese “لا اله الا الله” with recognition should receive the paradise, since this expression nullifies aggression shaitan, very self, instincts and wrong lusts. This expression equals the prayers, hajj, alms, one fifth of one’s possession (khoms), directing others to do what is lawful and prohibiting them to get involved in evils. Any speaker who wholeheartedy uses this expression shall get the paradise as a reward. It is for this reason that the Prophet (s) has brought up this issue in another narration:

لَيْسَ شَئٌ إلاّ وَلَه شئٌ يَعْدِلُهُ إلاّ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ، فَإنَّهُ لا يَعْدِلُهُ شَئٌ؛ وَلا إلهَ إلاّ اللهُ، فَإنَّهُ لا يَعْدِلُها شئٌ؛ وَدَمْعَةٌ مِن خَوفِ اللهِ، فَإنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَها مِثْقالَ، فَإنْ سالَتْ عَلى وَجهِهِ لَمْ يَرْهَقْهُ قَتَرٌ وَلا ذِلّةٌ بَعْدَها أبَداً.

For everything in this world there is a parellel except for the following three items:

Firstly, for the sacred Being of Allah;

Secondly, the expression لا إله إلا الله for which there is no tone (of course speech should go side by side with actions مَن ثَقُلَت مَوازينُهُ).

Thirdly, the tears which come to eyes due to our fright from God. Any face which receives this kind of tears shall receive no misery.[107]

The Holy Quran, Nobovvat (belief in the Prophethood), Imamate (belief in the Imams), Faith in the Prophets, belief in the angels, good deeds, good morals, right ideas are all dependent over the expression “لا اله الا الله”. Any body who uses this elegant expression with cognizance shall receive the paradise as a reward; or else nasty figures such as Shemr, Omar Sa’ad, Moavieh, Yazid, Khali and Senan used to employ this expression only with their tongues, not deep inside.

One of te bases for Monotheism is the expression “لا اله الا الله”. It is for this reason that the Prophet (s) has stated:

خَيرُ العِبادَةِ قَولُ لا اِلهَ إلاّ اللهُ

“The best kind of worship and prayer is the use of “لا اله الا الله”.[108]

In one section of a lengthy narration, we will read: The Prophet (s) told people: O crowd of people, Those of you who use the expression “لا اله الا الله” with true belief without mingling anything with it will meet God and will receive the paradise as a reward. Now Imam Ali (s) rose and said, how could a believer use this expression and how should he stop mixing anything with it? The Prophet (s) answered: He should not use this expression in order to gain financial reward, to engage in wrong-doing, to enslave himself, or to involve in serfdom. Unfortunately, there are some people whose sayings are those of the well-wishers but whose actions are those of the devils. They use this expression orally but will not stop performing any crime.

Thus belief and action should go hand in hand, they should be harmonious. Or else, mere saying of it will not solve any problem.

عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِ A قالَ: مَنْ قالَ لا إله إلاّ اللهُ مُخْلِصاً دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ وَإخلاصُهُ بِها أنْ يَحْجِزَهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ اللهُ عَمّا حَرَّمَ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ.

The sixth Imam (s) has said: Anybody who uses the expression “لا إله إلا الله” with sincerity shall obtain the paradise. His sincerity here is taken to mean the avoidance of engaging in wrong acts.[109]

In his trip to Neishabor, in the well-famed narration of Selselatol Zahab, the eighth Imam (s) narrates from his ancestors narrating from the Prophet (s):

لا إلهَ إلاّ اللهُ حِصْني، فَمَنْ دَخَلَ حِصْني أمِنَ مِنْ عَذابي فَلَمّا مَرَّتِ الرّاحِلَةُ نادى: بِشُرُوطِها، وَأنا مِنْ شُرُوطِها.

“The expression “لا إله إلا الله” is my strong fortification. Anybody who enters this stronghold is immune from punishment. When his palfry started to move, he added: Of course all this depends on certain conditions and I am one of those conditions.”[110]

This simply means a confession that I am the true Imam, not the Bani Abbass governors. The expression “لا اله الا الله” has meaning next to our velayat, not next to the Bani Abbass governors who use this expression without meaning it.

The condition for being a monotheist is to confess to Ali’s Velayat

In a significant narration, Abu Saeed Khodry Says: One day some of the Prophet’s followers, including Imam Ali (s) were gathered around the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) said: Anybody who utters “لا اله إلا الله” shall enter the paradise. Then two of his followers uttered this expression. The Prophet (s) then said: it is a fact if this person (referring to Imam Ali (s)) and his Shiite followers utter this expression, it will be accepted. Once again those two persons said: we will use this expression. Then the Prophet (s) put his hand over Imam Ali’s head, saying then: The sign for your following him is not to break your allegiance with Imam Ali, not to occupy his position and not to contradict him.

قال أبُو عَبْدِاللهِ A: إنَّ اللهَ تَعالى ضَمِنَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ ضَماناً، قالَ: قُلْتُ وَما هُوَ؟ قالَ: ضَمِنَ لَهُ إنْ هُوَ أقَرَّ لَهُ بِالرُّبوبِيَّةِ، وَلِمُحَمَّدٍ بِالنُّبُوَّةِ، وَلِعَلِيٍّ بِالإمَامَةِ، وَأدّى مَا افْتَرَضَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ، أن يُسْكِنَهُ في جارِهِ، وَلَمْ-يَحتَجِب عَنْهُ. قالَ: قُلْتُ فَهذِهِ وَاللهِ الْكَرامَةُ الَّتي لا يُشْبِهُها كَرامةُ الآدَمِيينَ! قالَ: ثُمَّ قالَ أبُو عَبْدِاللهِ A: اعْمَلُوا قَليلاً تَنَعَّمُوا كَثيراً.

Mofazzal Ibn Omar Kufi narrates from Imam Sadiq (s) having stated: God has insured for the believer an action. Mofazzal asked what the action was. God has guaranteed the believer to be next to Him if he confesses in Monotheism, in Mohammad’s prophethood and in Imam Ali’s leadership and if he carries out his duties. Mofazzal says he told the Prophet (s): I swear to God there is no parallel to this asset. Then the Prophet (s) said:[111] Do little, but enjoy a lot.[112]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِالله A: مَنْ تَوَضَّأ وتَمَنْدَلَ كُتِبَت لَهُ حَسَنَةٌ، وَمَنْ تَوَضَّأ وَلَم يَتَمَندَل حَتّى يَجِفَّ وُضُوءُهُ كُتِبَت لَهُ ثَلاثُونَ حَسَنَةً.

The sixth Imam (s) has said: there is one piece of reward for anybody who performs ablution and dries his face. But there are thirty pieces of reward for anybody who performs ablution without drying his face.[113]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِ A قالَ: مَنْ تَطَهَّرَ ثُمَّ أوى إلى فِراشِهِ باتَ وَفِراشُهُ كَمَسجِدِهِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: If a person performs ablution prior to his going to bed, his bed will be a mosque for him.[114]

عَنْ جَعْفَر بنِ محمّدٍ، عن أبائِهِ G أنَّ النَّبيِّ4 قالَ: إنَّ اللهَ عَزَّوجَلَّ أوْجَبَ الجَنَّةَ لِشابٍ كانَ يُكْثِرُ النَظَرَ فِي المِرْآةِ فَيُكْثِرُ حَمْدَ اللهِ عَلى ذلِكَ.

Imam Sadiq (s) narrates from his grand-fathers reporting from the Prophet (s): God will bestow the paradise upon the youth who frequently looks at the mirror, thanking God for the asset of the youth he has received from God.[115]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: مَنْ أسْبَغَ وُضُوءَهُ، وَأحْسَنَ صَلاتَهُ، وَأدّى زَكاةَ مالِهِ، وَكَفَّ غَضَبَهُ، وَسَجَنَ لِسانَهُ، وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لِذَنْبِهِ، وَأدّى النَّصِيحَةِ لأهْلِ بَيْتِ نَبِيّهِ، فَقَدِ اسْتَكْمَلَ حَقايقَ الإيمانِ، وَأبْوابُ الجَنَّةِ مُفَتَّحَةٌ لَهُ.

The Prophet (s) has stated: The doors of the paradise will be open to anybody who carries on ablution desirefully, who performs his prayers well, who pays his due alms, who extinguishes his rage, who does not indulge in sins related to his tongue, who asks God to forgive his sins, who is benevolent towards the Infallible ones, and whose faith is complete.[116]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِ A: مَنْ مَشى إلى المَسجِدِ لَمْ يَضَعْ رِجْلَهُ عَلى رَطْبٍ وَلا يابِسٍ إلاّ سَبَّحَتْ لَهُ الأرْضُ إلَى الأرَضينَ السَابِعَةِ.

The sixth Imam (s) has said, “Anybody who goes towards the mosque, from any step which he takes, praises will be uttered for Allah and its rewards are recorded for him.[117]

قالَ أبُو عَبْدِاللهِ A: يا أبَانُ، هذِهِ الصَّلَواتُ الخَمْسُ المَفْرُوضَاتُ مَنْ أقامَهُنَّ وَحافَظَ عَلى مَواقِيتِهِنَّ لَقِيَ الله يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ وَلَهُ عِنْدَهُ عَهْدٌ يُدْخِلُهُ بِهِ الجَنَّةَ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يُصَلِّهُنَّ بِمَواقِيتِهِنَّ فَذلِكَ إلَيهِ، إنْ شاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُ، وَإنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ.

Aban Ibn Taqleb says: Imam Sadiq (s) has said: If a person performs prayers five times and takes special attention, he will meet with God while he has a guarantee from Allah who will let him enter the paradise. But if he does not pay due attention and does not consider the time of the prayers, he will not have such assurance from Allah. God may forgive him or may punish him.[118]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: مَنْ اَسْرَحَ في مَسْجِد من مَساجِدِ اللهِ عَزَّوَجَلَّ سِراجاً لَمْ تَزَلِ المَلائِكَةُ وَحَمَلَةُ العَرْشِ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لَهُ ما دامَ في ذلِكَ الْمَسْجِدِ ضَوْءٌ مِنَ السِّراج.

The Prophet (s) has said: Anybody who lights a light in any monsque, he will constantly be praised by angels who ask God to forgive his sins as far as the light is turned on.[119]

عَن أبي جَعْفَرٍ A قالَ: مَنْ أذَّنَ سَبْعَ سِنينَ مُحْتَسِباً، جَاءَ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ ولا ذَنبَ لَهُ.

Imam Baqir (s) has said: Anybody who calls for Salāt (prayer) for seven years will enter the gathering place of mankind on the Resurrection Day (Mahshar) with no sins.[120]

قالَ أبو عبدِاللهA: أيُّما مُؤْمِنٍ سَجَدَ للهِ سَجدَةً لِشُكْرِ نِعْمَةٍ في غَيْرِ صَلاةٍ، كَتَبَ اللهُ لَهُ بِها عَشْرَ سَيِّئاتٍ، وَرَفَعَ لَهُ عَشْرَ دَرَجاتٍ فِي الجِنانِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has stated: Any believer who thanks God for His assets at any time other than the prayer-time, will receive ten rewards from Allah and ten of his sins will get obliterated and his status in the paradise will raise ten times.[121]

عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: لِلمُصَلّي ثَلاثُ خِصالٍ إذا قَامَ في صَلاتِهِ يَتَناثَرُ عَلَيهِ البِرُّ مِنْ أعْناقِ السَّماءِ إلى مَفْرَقِ رَأسِهِ، وَتَحِفُّ بِهِ المَلائِكَةُ مِنْ تَحْتِ قَدَمَيهِ إلى أعْناقِ السَّماءِ، وَمَلَكٌ يُنادي: أيُّها المُصَلّي لَو تَعْلَمُ مَنْ تُناجي مَا انْفَتَلتَ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has declared: There are three advantages for any prayer-performer: (1) When he starts praying, there are blessings from the heaven upto his head; (2) The angels will surround him from his feet upto the heavens; (3) An angel calls him, saying: O performer of the prayer, if you knew whom you are supplicating, you would pay no attention to anything else.[122]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: مَنْ أتى الجَماعَةَ إيماناً واِحْتِساباً اسْتَأنَفَ العَمَلَ.

The Prophet (s) has said: Any body who participates in praying in order to attract Allah’s satisfaction and delight should carry out this act in order for his sins to be entirely forgiven.[123]

Asbaq Ibn Nabateh says: Imam Ali (s) has said: When the earth dwellers engage in sins, Allah will punish them accordingly. But when Allah observes that the aged people, despite their weakness engage in praying and children are being taught to recite the Holy Quran, He will postpone the punishment of the sinners.[124]

قالَ أميرُ المؤمِنِينَA في وصيتِهِ: الله الله في الزَّكاةِ فَإنَّها تُطْفئُ غَضَبَ رَبِّكُمْ.

Towards the end of his honorable life Imam Ali (s) stated: For God’s sake observe alms. It will extinguish God’s anger.[125]

قالَ أبُو عَبْدِاللهِ A: مَنْ حَجَّ يُريدُ بِهِ اللهَ وَلا يُرِيدُ بِهِ رِياءً ولا سُمْعَةً، غَفَرَ اللهُ لَهُ البَتة.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: Any body who performs the Hajj ceremony for God’s sake and not for publicity, shall be forgiven by Allah.[126]

عَنْ مُحَمَّد بْنِ مُسْلِم، عَنْ أبي جَعْفَرٍ A قالَ: كانَ عَلِيُّ بِنُ الحُسَينِ H يَقُولُ: أيُّما مُؤمِنٍ دَمَعَتْ عَيْناهُ لِقَتْلِ الحُسَينِ Aحَتّى تَسيلَ عَلى خَدِّهِ، بَوَّأهُ اللهُ تَعالى بِها في الجَنّةِ غُرَفاً يَسْكُنُها أحْقاباً. وَأيُّما مُؤْمِنٍ دَمَعَتْ عَيناهُ حَتَّى تَسِيلَ عَلى خَدِّهِ فيما مَسَّنا مِنَ الأذى مِنْ عَدُوِّنا فِِي الدُّنيا بَوَّأهُ اللهُ في الجَنّةِ مُبَوَّأ صِدْقٍ. وَأيُّما مُؤْمِنٍ مَسَّهُ أذىً فينا فَدَمَعَت عَيْناهُ حَتّى تَسيلَ عَلى خَدِّهِ مِنْ مَضاضِةِ ما اُذيَ فينا، صَرَفَ اللهُ عَنْ وَجْهِهِ الأذى، وَآمَنَهُ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ مِنْ سَخَطِهِ وَالنّارِ.

Mohammad Ibn Moslem narrates from Imam Baqir (s) who in his turn narrates from Imam Sajjad (s), saying: God will settle in the pavilions of the paradise any believer who sheds tears on his cheeks for the martyrdom of Imam Hossein (s). Allah will give an appropriate location in the paradise to any believer who sheds tears for the catastrophes which we have suffered in this world. And God will forgive any believer who suffers any harm on the way of gaining our friendship.[127]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: الحافِظُ لِلقُرانِ وَالعامِلُ بِهِ مَعَ السّفَرَةِ الكِرامِ البَرَرَةِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: The reciter of the Holy Quran and the performer of Quran’s commands is always accompanied by angels.[128]

عَن أبي بَصِير، عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ: أوْحَى اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ إلى داوُدُ إنَّ عَبْدِيَ المُؤْمِنَ إذا أذْنَبَ ذَنْباً ثُمَّ رَجَعَ وَتابَ مِنْ ذلِكَ الذَّنْبِ وَاسْتَحيى مِنّى عِنْدَ ذِكْرِهِ، غَفَرْتُ لَهُ وَأنْسَيْتُهُ الْحَفَظَةَ؛ وَأبْدَلتُهُ الحَسَنَةَ وَلا اُبالي، وَأنا أرْحَمُ الرّاحِمِينَ.

Abu Basir narrated from Imam Sadiq (s): God revealed to His Prophet David, saying: If my believer commits a sin and then repents and then remembers the sin and becomes shameful, he will be forgiven by Me and I will make his angels forget his sins.[129]

I will do this because I am the kindest of all kind ones.

عَن أبي جَعْفَرٍ A قالَ: مُعَلِّمُ الخَيْرِ يَسْتَغْفِرُ لَهُ دَوابُّ الأرْضِ وَحِيتانُ البُحُورِ وَكُلُّ صَغِيرَةٍ وَكَبِيرَةٍ في أرْضِ اللهِ وَسَمائِهِ.

Imam Baqir (s) has said: All creatures on the earth and all the fishes and any big and small creatures on the earth shall ask God to forgive any teacher who teaches and preaches good things to people.[130]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ 4: مُجالَسَةُ أهْلِ الدّينِ شَرَفُ الدُّنْيا وَالآخِرَةِ.

The Prophet (s) has stated: Associating with believing people is a means of honor both here and in the hereafter.[131]

عَنْ أبي جَعْفَرٍ Aقالَ: أرْبَعٌ مَنْ كُنَّ فِيهِ بَنى اللهُ لَهُ بَيْتاً فِي الجَنَّةِ، مَن آوَى اليَتِيمَ، وَرَحِمَ الضَّعيفَ، وَأشْفَقَ عَلى والِدَيهِ، وَرَفِقَ بِمَمْلُوكِهِ.

Imam Baqir (s) has said: God will prepare an abode in the paradise for anybody who has the following four characteristics:

1) protecting the orphans;

2) being kind towards the weak people;

3) being kind and generous towards one’s parents;

4) being kind towards one’s inferiors.[132]

عَنْ أبي جَعْفَرٍA قالَ: سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ: مَنْ كَفَّ نَفْسَهُ عَنْ أعْراضِ النّاسِ كَفَّ اللهُ عَنْهُ عَذابَ يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ، وَمَنْ كَفَّ غَضَبَهُ عَنِ النّاسِ أقالَهُ اللهُ نَفْسَهُ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ.

Abu Hamseh Thamaly says: I heard Imam Baqir (s) saying: God will divert the chastisement on the Resurrection Day from any body who does not play with people’s honor. God will forgive anybody who suppresses his anger towards people.[133]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: ثَلاثَةٌ يُدْخِلُهُمُ اللهُ الجَنَّةَ بِغَيْرِ حِسابٍ: إمامٌ عادِلٌ، وَتاجِرٌ صَدُوقٌ، وَشَيْخٌ أفْنى عُمْرَهُ في طاعَةِ اللهِ.

The sixth Imam (s) has stated: God will take three groups of people to the paradise without accountance: a just ruler, an honest businessman, an aged man who has spent his life worshipping Allah.[134]

عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِ جَعْفَرٍ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الصّادِقِH قالَ: مَنْ أشْبَعَ جُوعَةَ مُؤْمِنٍ وَضَعَ اللهُ لَهُ مائِدَةً فِي الجَنَّةِ يَصْدُرُ عَنْهَا الثَّقَلانِ جَميعاً.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: God will prepare a table-cloth full of all sorts of foods and nourishments to feed all jinns and men for any believer who feeds a hungry God-believer.[135]

قالَ أبُو عَبْدِاللهِA: ما مِنْ مُسْلمٍ أقْرَضَ مُسْلِماً قَرْضاً يُرِيدُ بِهِ وَجْهَ اللهِ إلاّ حَسِبَ اللهُ لَهُ أجْرَهُ بِحِسابِ الصَّدَقَةِ حَتّى يَرْجِعَ إلَيهِ.

The sixth Imam (s) has said: Anybody who provides a God-believer with interest-free loan will be considered by God as a person who pays alms daily.

عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بنِ محَمّدٍ الصادِقِ، عَن آبائِهِG قالَ: قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ4: أرْضُ القِيامَةِ نارٌ ما خَلا ظِلَّ المُؤْمِنِ، فَإنَّ صَدَقَتَهُ تُظِلُّهُ.

The sixth Imam (s) narrates from his ancestors: Every gathering place on the Resurrection Day is filled with fire except for the believer’s shelter which is free from fire since his having paid alms in the world acts as a shelter for him.

Thus, we will note here that the verses of the Holy Quran, narrations, and news, have all stated the rewards and punishments for all human actions. For further information you are invited to delve into these sources.

Injurious Actions on The Doomsday

Concerning the punishments for the evil-doers, besides the verses of the Holy Quran, there are some strange narrations, some of which will be dealt with here:

عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِA: إيّاكُمْ وَالغَفْلَةَ، فإنَّهُ مَنْ غَفَلَ فَإنَّما يَغْفَلُ عَلى نَفْسِهِ، وَإيّاكُمْ وَالتَهاوُنَ بِأمْرِ اللهِ عَزَّوَجَلَّ، فَإنَّهُ مَنْ تَهاوَنَ بِأمْرِ اللهِ أهانَهُ اللهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: I warn you against negligence because anybody who acts negligently will be a loser. I also warn you against belittling God’s commands because if you disregard God’s commandments, you will be miserable on the Doomsday.[136]

عَنْ مُوسِى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍH: مَلْعُونٌ مَنِ اتَّهَمَ أخاهُ، مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ غَشَّ أخاهُ، مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ لَمْ يَنْصَحْ آخاهُ، مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ اغْتابَ أخاهُ.

The following four group of people shall not receive God’s blessings: the accuser, the fainter, evil-wisher, and the back-biter.[137]

سَمِعْتُ أبا عَبْدِاللهِA يَقُولُ: لّوْ جَحَدَ أميرَ المُؤمِنِينَA جَمِيعُ مَنْ في الأرضِ لَعَذَّبَهُمُ اللهُ جَمِيعاً وَأدْخَلَهُمُ النّارَ.

Imam Hossein Ibn Ali says: I heard Imam sadiq (s) saying: If everybody on the earth denies the Imamate leadership and obedience of Imam Ali (s), they will be severely punished by Allah and will be sent to the hell.[138]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: مَنِ ادَّعى الإمامَةَ وَلَيْسَ مِنْ أهْلِها فَهُوَ كافِرٌ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: Any body who claims he is fit for the Imamate and leadership for Moslems but does not deserve it, is an infidel.[139]

عَن أبي جَعْفَرٍA قالَ: في كِتابِ عَليّA: ثَلاثُ خِصالٍ لا يَمُوتُ صاحِبُهُنَّ أبَداً حَتّى يَرى وَبالَهُنَّ: البَغْيُ، وَقَطِيعَةُ الرَّحِمِ، وَاليَمِينُ الكَاذِبَةُ يُبارِزُ اللهُ بِها.

Imam Baqir (s) reports from Imam Ali’s writings: There are three traits the owners of which will not die unless they receive punishment here in this world: injustice, cutting family ties, and fake swearing.[140]

عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ4 أنَّهُ كانَ يَقُولُ: المَكْرُ وَالخَدِيعَةُ فِي النّارِ.

The Prophet (s) used to repeat the following: playing tricks on people and deceiving them are two sins the performer of which shall definitely receive the hell fire.[141]

قالَ عليٌّA: تَحْرُمُ الجَنَّةُ عَلى ثَلاثَةٍ: النَّمّام، وَالقَتّال، وَعَلى مُدْمِنِ الخَمْرِ.

Imam Ali (s) has said: Three groups of people shall never enter the paradise: talebearers, murderers, and wine-drinkers.[142]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: مَنْ تَعَصَّبَ عَصَبَهُ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ بِعِصابَةٍ مِنَ النّارِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: One who is prejudiced without any sound reason shall receive a fore-head band of fire.[143]

عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: ثَلاثَةٌ لا يَنْظُرُ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ إلَيهِمْ: ثاني عِطْفِهِ، وَمُسْبِلُ إزارِهِ خُيَلاءَ، وَالمُنْفِقُ سِلْعَتَهُ بِالأيْمانِ، إنَّ الكِبْرِياءَ لِلّهِ رَبِّ العالَمَينَ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: Three groups of people shall be deprived of God’s mercy: those who are proud, those who walk on the ground with pride and those who sell their goods through lies. Then he added: in fact magnanimity is special to God.

عَن أبي جَعْفَرٍ وَأبي عَبْدِاللهِH قالا: لا يَدخُلُ الجَنَّةَ مَنْ في قَلْبِهِ مِثْقالُ ذَرَّةٍ مِنْ كِبَرٍ.

Imam Baqir (s) has said: Anybody who carries even one atom of pride and haughtiness in his heart shall never enter the paradise.[144]

عَنْ أبي عبدِاللهِ A: أيُّما ناشٍ نَشَأ ف قَوْمِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُؤدِّبْ عَلى مَعْصِيَتِهِ كانَ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ أوَّلَ ما يُعاقِبُهُم فِيهِ أنْ يَنْقُصَ مِنْ أرْزاقِهِمْ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: Any tribe of people who do not punish or blame their adolescent for the wrong-doing he might have engaged in, shall receive a reduction from God in their subsistence.[145]

قالَ رَسولُ اللهِ4: مَنْ أذْنَبَ ذَنْباً وَهُوَ ضاحِكٌ دَخَلَ النّارَ وَهُوَ باكٍ.

The Prophet (s) has said: Any body laughing while have performing an evil shall enter the Barrier weeping.[146]

عَن أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: شاهِدُ الزُّورِ لا تَزُولُ قَدَماهُ حَتّى تَجِبَ لَهُ النّارُ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: Anybody who gives false witness shall receive the hell on the spot.[147]

قالَ أبُو عَبْدِاللهِ: مَن حَلَفَ عَلى يَمِينٍ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ أنًّهُ كاذِبٌ فَقَدْ بارَزَ اللهَ عَزَّوَجَلَّ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: Anybody who falsely utters a swearing in order to confirm or nullify a right, has risen against God.[148]

عَنْ عَبّادِبْنِ كَثيرٍ النَّواءِ قالَ: سَألْتُ أبا جَعْفَرٍA عَنِ الكَبْائِرِ قالَ: كُلُّ شِئٍ أوْعَدَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ النّارَ.

Obbad Ibn Kathir Navva’ says: I asked Imam Baqir (s): what are the great sins? Imam replied: Those actions for which God has promised the hell fire.[149]

Imam Baqir (s) has said: On the Resurrection Day, God will raise some people from their graves with their hands fastened to their necks so tightly as to be unable to pick up even the lightest article, who are being followed by some angels blaming them and announcing: these are among those who did not pay their due alms out of their abundance which God had given them.[150]

عَنْ حمّادِ الرازي قالَ: سَمِعْتُ أبا عَبْدِاللهِA يَقُولُ: مَنْ أفْطَرَ يَوْماً مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضانَ خَرَجَ رُوحُ الإيمانِ مِنْهُ.

Hammad Razi says: Imam Sadiq (s) has stated: Anybody who for not valid excuse abstain from fasting even one day in the holy month of Ramathan, shall lose his faith.

عَن مُعَلّى بْنِ خُنَيسٍ قالَ سَمِعْتُ أبا عَبدِاللهِA يَقُولُ: قالَ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ: لِيَأذَنْ بِحَرْبٍ مِنّي مَنْ أذَلَّ عَبْدِي المُْؤمِنَ، وَلْيأمَنْ مِنْ غَضَبي مِنْ أكْرَمَ عَبْدِيَ المُؤمِنَ.

Moa’ll Ibn Khonais says: Imam Sadiq (s) has said: God has declared: Anybody who belittles my believing servant has prepared himself to fight with me. And anybody who honors and respects my believing servant shall be immune against my anger.[151]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ4: أرْبَعةٌ لا تَدخُلُ بَيْتاً واحِدَةٌ مِنْهُنَّ إلا خَرِبَ وَلَمْ يُعْمَرْ بِالبَرَكَةِ: الخِيانَةُ، وَالسَرِقَةُ، وَشُرْبُ الخَمْرِ، وَالزِّنا.

The Prophet (s) has stated: there are four nasty things if one of which enters your life, it shall ruin your life: treason, theft, drinking and adultery.[152]

عَنْ أبي عَبْدِاللهِA قالَ: مُدْمِنُ الزِّنا وَالسَرَقِ وَالشُّرْبِ كَعابِدِ وَثَنٍ.

Imam Sadiq (s) says: The punishment for a person who habitually engages in adultery or theft or drinking is like the punishment of an idolater.

Imam Sadiq (s) also has said: keep your religion through your piety, needlessness and the ignoring of the king’s or sultan’s presents. Be aware any believer who humbles himself for money will he be made nameless by God and will have God’s anger. If a believer gains some wealth as the result of belittling himself in front of a tyrant he will lose God’s blessings. If he spends some portion of such wealth in hajj or freeing a slave, his action will not be considered.[153]

قالَ رَسولُ اللهِ4: لا تَزالُ اُمَّتي بِخَيرٍ ما لَمْ يَتَخاوَنُوا، وَأدُّوا الأمانَةَ، وَآتَوا الزَّكاةَ؛ وَإذا لَمْ يَفْعَلُوا ذلِكَ ابْتُلُوا بِالقَحْطِ وَالسِّنينَ.

The Prophet (s) has said: the activities of my Ommah are benevolent and blissful if they do not betray one another, if they keep people’s deposits, and if they pay their due alms. But if they do not carry out these instructions, they will end up in draught.[154]

Imam Sadiq (s) says Imam Ali (s) has said: There is a mill in the hell which grinds. Then he said: Don’t you want to know what it grinds? The followers asked what does it grind? He answered: it grinds the corrupt scholars, the libertine reciters, the tyrant governors, the treacherous ministers, and the liar heads of the villages.

Then Imam Ali (s) added: There is a city in the hell called Hathineh. Don’t you ask me what it contains? The followers asked: what? The hands which shook the hands of a genuine and well-wishing leader and Imam in allegiance but later broke the allegiance.[155]

عَنِ المَعْصُومِ: كُلُّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلالَةٌ، وَكُلُّ ضَلالَةٍ سَبِيلُها إلَى النّارِ.

From the Infallible (s): Any religious innovation leads to one’s destruction and misleading, and any misleading ends up in the hell fire.[156]

عَنْ أبي عَبدِاللهِA: مَنْ وَلِيَ شَيْئاً مِن اُمُورِ المُسْلِمِينَ فَضَيَّعَهُمْ ضَيَّعَهُ اللهُ تَعالى.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: God will deprive the official of his favors who has accepted the task of managing the Moslems’ affairs, but does not perform his duties properly.[157]

قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ4: إذا كانَ يَومُ القِيامَةِ نادى مُنادٍ: أيْنَ الظَّلَمَةُ وَأعوانُهُمْ وَمَن لاقَ لَهُم دَواةً أو رَبَطَ لَهُم كيساً أو مَدَّ لَهُم مَدَّةَ قَلَمٍ، فَاحْشُرُوهُم مَعَهُم.

The Prophet (s) has said: when the Doomsday arrives the herald will announce: where are the aggressors and tyrants and their partners and associates who prepared the inkpot for them or fastened their sacks for them. Thus, all associates of tyrants are tyrants as well.[158]

عَن أبي عَبدِاللهِ، عَن أبيهِH قالَ: لِلزّاني سِتُّ خِصالٍ: ثَلاثٌ فِي الدُّنيا، وَثَلاثٌ في الآخِرَةِ أمَّا الَّتي فِي الدُّنيا فَيَذهَبُ بِنُورِ الوَجْهِ، وَيُورِثُ الفَقْرَ، وَيُعَجِّلُ الفَنَاءَ. وَامّا الَّتي فِي الآخِرَةِ فَسَخطُ الرَّبِّ، وَسُوءُ الحِسابِ، وَالخُلُودُ فِي النّارِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) narrates from his father having said: For the adulterer there are six chastisement: Three of which occur here and the next three in the other world: The punishments for him in this world are: The loss of light on his face, his poverty, and his unexpected death. His punishments in the other world are: God’s rage, bad record, and entry into the fire.[159]

وَالحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذي لَوْ حَبَسَ عَنْ عِبادِهِ مَعْرِفَةَ حَمْدِهِ عَلى ما أبْلاهُمْ مِنْ مِنَنِهِ المُتَتابِعَةِ، وَأسْبَغَ عَلَيهِم مِنْ نِعَمِهِ المُتَظاهِرَةِ لَتَصَرَّفُوا في مِنَنِهِ فَلَمْ يَحْمَدُهُ، وَتَوَسَّعُوا في رِزْقِهِ فَلَمْ يَشكُرُوهُ؛ وَلَوْ كانُوا كَذلِكَ لَخَرَجُوا مِنْ حُدُودِ الإنْسانِيَّةِ إلى حَدِّ البَهِيميَّةِ فَكانُوا كَما وَصَفَ في مُحْكَمِ كِتابِهِ: إنْ هُمْ إلاّ كَالأنْعامِ بَلْ هُمْ أضَلُّ سَبِيلاً.

All praise is due to Allah who taught His servants how to appreciate His blessings and favors. If the servants were not taught this talent, they would spend God’s assets with no thanks and appreciations. Regarding this, we read in the Holy Quran:

إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا.

“They are nothing but as cattle; nay, they are straying farther off from the path. 25:44”


The Position of Praising God and its Means and Tools

From the above verse it could be realized that to stay a human being, we must thank God for what He has bestowed upon us. Anybody who refrains from doing so is not considered a human being.

The tools to recognize the asset-Giver and the assets are wisdom, man’s nature, conscience, Nobovvat (Prophethood), Imamate and the Holy Quran. The tools for praising God are our limbs and organs.

How miserable are those who merely engaged in eating, sleep and lusts! How wretched and tyrant are those who did not thank the Creator for His favors! Quran considers them lower in rank than animals. This is because animals lacking wisdom, and conscience, carry on the duties they are created for and perform them skillfully.

And how lucky are those who make use of wisdom, nature, conscience, Nobovvat, Imamate and the Holy Quran to recognize the Creator and His favors! These are better than the angels.

Here I will present you two excellent narrations concerning cognizance. Then I will deal with true human beings. Later I will pick up the explanation for the sentences from Sahifeh. These two narrations are well-documented.

عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ4: جُلُوسُ ساعَةٍ عِنْدَ مُذاكَرَةِ العِلْمِ أحَبُّ إلى اللهِ مِنْ قِيامِ ألفِ لَيلَةٍ يُصَلّى في كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ ألفِ رَكْعَةٍ، وَأحَبُّ إلَيْهِ مِنْ ألفِ غَزوَةٍ، وَمِن قِراءَةِ القُرآنِ كُلِّهِ اثنَي عَشَرَ ألْفَ مَرَّةٍ، وَخَيرٌ مِنْ عِبادَةِ سَنَةٍ صامَ نَهارَها، وَقامَ لَيلَها.

وَمَنْ خَرَجَ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ لِيَلْتَمِسَ باباً مِنَ العِلمِ كَتَبَ اللهُ عَزَّوجَلَّ لَهُ بِكُلِّ قَدَمٍ ثَوابَ نَبيٍّ مِنَ الأنْبِياءِ وَثَوابَ ألفِ شَهِيدٍ مِن شُهَداءِ بَدْرٍ، وَأعْطاهُ بِكُلِّ حَرْفٍ يَسْمَعُ أو يَكْتُبُ مَدِينَةً فِي الجَنَّةِ.

وَطالِبُ العِلمِ يُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَتُحِبُّهُ المَلائِكَةُ وَالنَبِيُّونَ، وَلا يُحِبُّ العِلمَ إلاّ السَّعيدُ، وَطُوبى لِطالبِ العِلْمِ.

وَالنَّظَرُ في وَجْهِ العالِمِ خَيرٌ مِنْ عِبْقِ ألفِ رَقَبَةٍ، وَمَنْ أحَبَّ العِلمَ وَجَبَتْ لَهُ الجَنَّةُ، وَيُصْبِحُ وَيُمْسِي في رِضى اللهِ، وَلا يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الدُّنيا حَتّى يَشْرَبَ مِنَ الكَوْثَرِ وَيَأكُلَ مِنْ ثَمَرَةِ الجَنَّةِ، وَلا يأكُلُ الدُّودُ جَسَدَهُ، وَيَكُونُ فِي الجّنَّةِ رَفيقَ خِضْرٍ.

The Prophet (s) has said: Spending one hour with God at the Forum of knowledge is better than praying a thousand nights, in each night of which a thousand of three postures: standing, genuflection and prostration are performed. Spending one hour with God at the forum of knowledge is superior to a thousand holy wars. It is also better than twelve thousand times of reciting the whole Quran and a year of prayers.

For any step a man takes in order to solve a chapter of science and knowledge, the following rewards are considered: A reward like that of the prophet’s, the reward of a thousand martyrs of the holy wars. For any word that he writes, there is a city in the paradise for him.

The acquirer of knowledge is beloved by God, angels and the Prophet alike. It is the prosperous one who goes after the acquisition of knowledge. Such a person is lucky indeed.

Looking at the face of a scholar is better than freeing a thousand slaves. Paradise belongs to the men of knowledge. A scholar spends his day and night to seek for God’s satisfaction. When he passes away he will drink Zam Zam water. He will eat the fruits of the heaven. The earth worms shall not eat his body. At the paradise he is a company to Khezr.

عَن الصادقA: لَو يَعلَمُ النّاسُ ما في فَضْلِ مَعْرِفَةِ اللهِ تعالى ما مَدُّوا أعْيُنَهُم إلى ما مَنَعَ بِهِ الأعْداءَ مِنْ زَهْرَةِ الحَياةِ الدُّنيا وَنَعِيمها، وَ كانَتْ دُنياهُم أقَلَّ عِنْدَهُم مِمّا يَطَؤونَ بِأرْجُلِهِم، وَلتنعموا بمعرفة الله و تلذذوا بها تلذذ من لم يزل في روضات الجنان مع أولياء الله.

إن معرفة الله تعالى اُنسٌ من كل وحشة، و صاحب من كل وحدة و نور من كل ظلمة و قوة من كل ضعف و شفاء من كل سقم.

قد كان قوم قبلكم يقتلون و يحرقون و ينشرون و تضيق عليهم الارض برحبها فما يردهم عما هم عليه شئ مما هم فيه من غير ترة وتر من فعل ذلك بهم و لا اذى بما نقموا منهم (وَمَا نَقَمُوا مِنْهُمْ إِلَّا أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ). فاسئلوا ربكم درجاتهم، و اصبروا على نوائب دهركم تدركوا سعيهم.

If people knew how significant it is to recognize the Great Giver, they would not consider important the things which are important for the infidels. The world then would be as mean and worthless as the earth below their steps. Their enjoyment of knowledge then would be like that of the Prophet in heaven.

The recognition of the Creator is immunity against fright and terror; it is a companion for one’s loneliness; it is light for any darkness; it is strength in the face of weakness and it is a cure for any pain.

Before you, there used to live a tribe and people who were burned and tortured, and who were mutilated. The earth in their view looked a small place. But because of their knowledge they did not refrain from worshipping God. Their only offence was their faith in God.

Ask Allah to give you the same status which He gave them. Be patient in the recognition of hardships so that you may earn what they did earn.

The Sublime Status of The Men of Knowledge

The Great Spirit is the same as the human spirit. It is also termed the First wisdom. The writer of the book Asrarol Talebin considers the celestial (holy) spirit the same as man’s true nature. God created it first in the lahut world.

The Great Spirit which is taken to be the same as the man’s ture nature is man’s active intelligence which is the source for human speech power. In the terminology of religion by “active intelligence” is menant “Jibrael” which is also called “The angel Gabriel” and Holy Spirit (Ghost).

Man’s position is a strange one. And nobody except God recognizes this position. God has established tools and means for man to reach his real position. These means are Nobovvat, Imamate, wisdom, Quran and His suplime Names. It is upto us to appreciate these spiritual blessings. And our appreciation is taken to mean the recognition of the Creator and His assets.

و الحمد لله على ما عرفنا من نفسه، و ألهمنا من شكره، وفتح لنا م أبواب العلم بربوبيته، ودلنا عليه من الإخلاص له في توحيده، وجنبنا من الإلحاد والشك في أمره، حمدا نعمّر به فيمن حمده من خلقه، ونسبق به من سبق إلى رضاه وعفوه.

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds Who let us recognize His Sacred being and revealed to us how to thank Him and opend the door of His Divinity to us and led us to sincerity from blasphemy and dubiety regarding His commandments. O God let us perform our praise and thanks to you in such away as to excel others in satisfying you and in begging you for your pardons.

The above elegant expressions stress on the following delicate points:

1) Teaching to His servants the recognition of Him;

2) Revealing to us how to thank Him;

3) Opening the doors of science and knowledge to His Divinity;

4) Pointing out sincerity in Monotheism; and

5) Keeping man away from blasphemy and associating no God with Him.

1- The Recognition of God Through His Revelation

In order to recognize Him, There is no way but thinking on the creation of the creatures, the Prophethood of the Prophets, and the revelation which is manifested in the Holy Quran and the Imamate of the infallible Ones (s).

Through thinking we could only conclude that there is one Creator. But through this tool we are not able to grasp what His Glorious Names are and what the aims for creation are and what duties man is supposed to carry out. In order to understand these issues we should resort to the Holy Quran, and the statements of the Prophet and the sacred Infallible Ones (s). This is the true meaning of the recognition of God through His guidance and this is what Imam Sajjad (s) refers to as بك عرفتك.

The initial revelation to our true self is done by God. And this guidance makes the human self ready to learn through man’s wisdom, senses and hearts. This is what is referred to in the sacred surah of Al-Shams [The Sun]:

وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا.

“And the soul and Him who made it perfect. Then He inspired it to understand what is right and wrong for it. 91:7-8”

The self gets its impetus from this revelation. This is merely God’s way to let us recognize Him. The end-point of this man’s movement is coming close to God and getting His satisfaction and attaining the paradise. Man has got to go through certain stages of ideology and arriving at the right morality and performing good deeds to arrive at this final objective in his perfection.

This is the only way open to man in perfecting and purifying his real self and getting himself free from the satanic blasphemy and dubiety. Anybody who assumes there is another way is just ignorant:

لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ.

“Far from His glory be what they set up with Him. 9:31”

Man is animal in action and potentially a human being. Man’s nature, due to the domination of the material factors and because of his bodily habits has been ignorant of his true nature and is dominated by his bodily wishes. Man is suffering from deviations in morality. In some individuals this domination is so great that they are heading for the world of beasts.

In this regard men are of diffent classes and layers.

Some individuals, whose hearts become influenced rather swiftly belong to the layer of God’s men.

And this is based on the following:

قَبِلَ مَن قَبِلَ لا لِعِلّةٍ، وَرَدَّ مَن رَدَّ لا لِعِلّةٍ.

“His acceptance or rejection is not based on any reason”

جّذبَةٌ مِنْ جَذَباتِ الحَقِّ يُوازي عَمَلَ الثَّقَلَينِ.

“One attraction of God’s attractions equals the two actions of jinns and human beings”

اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنْ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ.

“Allah is the guardian of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light. 2:257”

There is yet a second group who in contrast to the first group are absorbed by God with no trial. Because of God’s guidance the light of faith reflects from the very inner portion of these people. Although their outer nature is imprisoned in the world of materialism, from within they are addressed by their inner spiritual manifestations, believing in the following verse from the Holy Quran:

يَا صَاحِبَيِ السِّجْنِ أَأَرْبَابٌ مُتَفَرِّقُونَ خَيْرٌ أَمْ اللَّهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ.

“O my two mates of the prison! Are sundry lord better or Allah the One, the Supreme? 12:39”

Thus, these kind of people awaken from sleep because of the revelation that they receive from inside themselves and will become ashamed of having wasted their time, saying:

يَا حَسْرَتَا عَلَى مَا فَرَّطْتُ فِي جَنْبِ اللَّهِ.

[Lest a soul should say]: “O woe to me! For what I fell short of my duty to Allah. 39:56”

These awakened people will realize that there are three important issues facing them and losing any one of them means a great loss indeed:

Firstly, they should endeavor to start to move from where they are and leave their temoral bodily enjoyments and through their obedience of the commandments of the Holy Quran, try not to waste their precious time.

Secondly, they should discipline their true selves in such a way as to adopt themselves to the divine ethics. This stage belongs to having faith.

The third stage belongs to one’s benevolence since at this stage they are ready to grasp the genuine monotheism.

We should know that benevolence has got different facets. This is because the true self after being warned by the inner invocation, passes through the world of beasts and then enters the world of divinity. Thus, the book of genesis, like the book of religion, has got seven portions.

لأنَّ لِلنَفسِ مِن حَيثُ قُوَّتِها العامِلّةِ في ضَبْطِ الاُمور الدُّنياويَّةِ بَطناً اوّلا، وَلِسانُهُ: يَعْلَمُونَ ظَاهِرًا مِنْ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا. وَطَلبُ صاحِبِهِ: رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ. وَلِلنَفسِ مِن حَيثُ عُبُورِها إلى طَلَبِ الاُمورِ الاُخروية مِن جِهَةِ قُوَّتِها العاقِلَةِ المُنَوَّرَةِ بِنُورِ الشَّرعِ بَطْناً ثانياً:

This is because the true self has capacity to record the worldly affairs and it conforms to what Allah has said: They know the outward of this world’s life.(30:7) But there are some people who say: “Our Lord! Give us in the world, and they shall have no resting place. 2:200” And the true self in its pursuit of the affairs in the hereafter which stems from the light of religion has got a second portion.

This stage belongs to the common Moslems and believers. Sadreddin Rumi recognizes this stage as the first stage of the benevolence. He believes:

الإحْسانُ فِعْلُ ما يَنْبَغي لما يَنْبَغي كما ينبَغي.

“Benevolence is an appropriate action for the appropriate ones with an appropriate manner.”

Rumi has included the wills and advice in the benevolence and says:

فاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ كَانّكَ تَراهُ.

“Worship God as though you could see Him.” According to him this is the middle stage of benevolence.

And the following statements from Imam Ali (s) belong to this stage:

لَو كُشِفَ الغِطاءُ ما ازدَدْتُ يَقيناً.

“If the curtains are raised my conviction will increase”

وَلَمْ أعْبُد رَبَاً لَم أرَهُ.

“I would not worship the God whom I have not seen.”

وَجُعِلَتْ قُرَّهُ عَيني في الصّلاةِ.

“The light in my sight is based on the prayer”

وَالآنَ قِيامَتي قائِمٌ.

“Now my Doomsday has started”

وكُنْتُ سَمْعَهُ وَبَصَرَهُ.

“I will be His ears and eyes.”

When we look at the creation, we will conclude that the very base of the construction of this world is carefully established. Every bit of creation rests on its appropriate position.

The world is like a book which is edited by a knowledgeable writer. Every sentence, discourse, chapter includes a series of meanings. The order in which these elements are arranged indicates a specific objective.

Every body could read the sentences of the book of creation to a certain degree and find out a range of meanings out of it and realize the objectives and aims behind its creation. Ever body can vividly understand the wise and thoughtful Will behind the creation. Of course, anybody who has a vast knowledge of natural sciences would be more capable of grasping the objectives behind the establishment of this rule-governed system.

The Holy Quran, with a unique persuation, guides people to study the book of creation and the structure of the creatures.

The recognition of God should be based on logical bases and not merely on imitation. Man in his attempt to recognize God could drag the ring of monotheism out of the ocean of logic to ornament his hand of faith only when he dresses the recognition of God with the garment of reasoning and gets his conviction through wisdom and bases his conviction on valid and logical reasoning so that the satanic persuation could not weaken the very bases of his faith.

Isalam condemns imitation in carrying out all its commandments, especially in the acceptance of the principle of monotheism. A true believer should accept the fundamental principles of Islam on the basis of wise reasoning. The following verses of the Holy Quran all refer to this issue:

ادْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ ...

“Call to the way of your lord with wisdom…16:125”

وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلَا هُدًى وَلَا كِتَابٍ مُنِيرٍ.

“And among men there is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge and without guidance and without an illuminating book. 22:8”

Those who judge on monotheism without any proper knowledge and logic are severely reproached since science and knowledge is based on reasoning and because the logic of God’s book rests on reasoning, as well.

The Holy Quran reproaches blind imitation and blames those who have accepted the religion of their ancestors without knowledge and valid reasoning.

On the acceptance of the facts on the basis of wisdom and reasoning there are a lot of news and statements in the precious books of Shiite such as Kafi, Man la yahzar, Touhed, and Behar.

The great philosopher, Avecina says:

مَنْ قالَ أو سَمِعَ بِغَير دَليلٍ فَلْيُخْرَج عَنْ رِبْقَةِ الإنسانيّةِ.

“Anybody who says anything or accepts anything without sound reasoning should be excluded from humanity.”

Any construction which is based on a shaky foundation will fall apart and will easily get destroyed.

It would be impossible to build a twenty-story building over clay pillars. Obviously such a building should be based on strong columns.

Our beliefs, especially in religion and religious laws should be based so strongly over logical foundations that the satanic temptations would not be able to penetrate into them.

A faith which has its roots in our wisdom and Divine truth may not be shaken with the storms of doubts and suspicions.

This profound truth and this universal law is dominant over our individual and social affairs. This fact is significant not only in basic sciences but also in the act of God recognition. The issue of monotheism, which is the most significant topic in our personal and social life, makes us ready for the Doomsday and promises a bright future. Such a science can not be childish and could not be based on foolish imitation. This fact is clearly dealt with in the sacred verses of the Holy Quran and in narrations and religious news.

In the statements of our religious leaders, for instance, in the sermons of Nahjolbalaqa and in Touhid Mofazzal and in some invocations and within some of the reasoning’s of the Infallible ones (s), special attention and stress is focused on Monotheism together with reasoning and recourse to the natural sciences.

Naturally, this is the best way to let common people recognize God. Let us see how the very construction of the creatures lead us towards the omnipotent God.

The answer is clear: In the same way, the very creation of a piece of work leads us to believer in its creator, the features of that work, too, to a large extent, reveals the features of the creator.

Let us give you an example. We human individuals are not directly aware of one another’s inner thoughts and morals and mental characteristics. I can not be aware of your decisions and ethical features; neither can you recognize my inner side. However, to a large degree we recognize one another.

We scientifically believe in a certain person and accept him as a scholar. because we have seen some oral and written works of him. We recognize one as a jurisprudent, another as a philosopher, another as a mathematician and still a fourth one as a literary man. Why? Because from the first one we have heard jurisprudent discussions, from the second one we have heard philosophical debates, from the third one we have heard mathematical issues and from the fourth one we have heard literary discussions.

Because of the common features which should exist between the Creator and the created, it would be impossible to hear knowledge from an ignorant person, or philosophical discussions from a jurisprudent, or from a philosopher discussions on jurisprudence or mathematics.

For instance, anybody who has read Jawaher knows that its writer should be a great jurisprudent, even if he has not seen him. The very nature of the book indicates the greatness of the jurisprudent.

Somebdoy might say: The certainty that we have regarding these issues does not necessarily mean that there is not probability of error. Rather, it means that the probability of error is so small that no wise person would consider it. The probability of error to occur is accidental. For instance, regarding the book called Jawaher, we are certain that its writer must be a great jurisprudent. But this does not mean that there is no probability that he might not have been a jurisprudent and the work might have been published all by chance. No the probability exists that the writer of Jawaher might not have been a jurisrudent and that his writing are arranged by chance. But this probability is so weak as to be negligible. Thus, we will say: we are certain that the writer of this book must have been a great jurisprudent, with no doubt. The probability in this regard is not calculated with fractions such as one hundredth, one thousandth, or one millionth, etc. Rather, it is the fraction of a number which is beyond our imagination. For instance, we could imagine a digit one plus zeros from here to the moon.

Thus, we may add: this amount of probability which is not countable is acceptable.

For instance, we may assume that Saadi was not a genius even if we see so many of his literary works; we may also assume that he, by chance, was able to produce these literary works. In the same way, we might assume Ave Sina was not an expert in philosophy or in medicine. And his works might have been produced by chance.

Although the existence of such assumptions can not be denied, we have no doubt that Saadi was a genius in literature and Ave Sina was an expert in the philosophical and medical domain. Those who have led men to recognize God through the studying of the book of creation want these men to be sure of the Creator’s wisdom as they can be sure of the positions of Saadi, Ave Sina and the writer of Jawaher after they have read the works of these scholars.

Corsi Morrison on page nine of his book Called “the secret of Man’s creation” writes: take ten coins, marking them from one to ten and put them in your pocket. Then try to take them out in accordance with their numbers from One to ten. Take one coin but put it back in your pocket prior to taking the second coin. Thus the probability to receive number one is one out of ten. The probability of getting one and two together will be one out of a hundred. The probability of getting one, two, three consecutively is one out of a thousand. The probability to get one, two, three and four consecutively would be one in ten thousand. Thus, the probability to get much more numbers consecutively would become gradually smaller. Finally, the probability of getting from one to ten consecutively could be one in ten milliard.

For the life to start on the earth, there are so many conditions and factors involved that from the mathematical perspective it would be impossible for these conditions to have been produced by mere chance. Thus, we have to imagine that there is a thinking agent in this world which has planned life to occur. If we accept this undeniable fact, we should as well believe that there should be a clear intention behind these mathematical and delicate operations.

Another wonder in the world is the world of living things which can not be explained through chance factors.

From the onset of life, male and female were produced to guarantee the continuation of life.

The reproductive organs, both in plants and animals, both in male and female, are so complicated and amazing that no body could think their creation was with no act of pre-determination.

When we study the plant and animal limbs and organs, we will be so entirely amazed that even a study of ten books could not absorb our attention so deeply. This observation will lead us to confess to the might and power of an immense Being.

The wonders of creation are not counable. In every corner of creation we will observe indications of Determination, Will God’s intention.[160]

The present bulk of works on the recognition of God, the huge amount of philosophy regarding God’s recognition, the great number of poems and Gnostic discussions concerning God, the great amount of persuit of God all are the result of the same revelation to which the Holy Quran refers and the consequence of the same heed which Imam Sajjad(s) refers to.

This revelation has caused the shcholars to delve into scientific researches of great magnitude and has made artists such as Saadi, Hafiz, Babatahir and Jalaleddin to create those magnificent pieces of art.

This revelation has led thousands of scholars towards Gnostics and has given thousands of precious books to the human treasure of knowledge. It is this revelation which has aroused a willing in people to recognize Allah and has led them toward the loved One (i.e. Allah).

And in this process, the Holy Quran, Nobovvat and Imamate have associated with the revelation to enrich the tree of faith and to save it from any deterioration and to open up more ways for the improvement of man and to open all the doors of knowledge to the believers.

Now, let us refer to some of the products of this revelation:

Basically, each plant is composed of very tiny particles called cells or plant cells. These cells are of different shapes: some are oval, or global or six-sided. Some are spindling and some are cylindrical. Each one has got the following three portions, each of which has got an amazing structure.

1) Protoplasm: This is the living matter whose mysteries are not revealed to man yet. We do not know how it operates. What we are aware of is that it includes elements such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, Iron and sodium, and the like, plus water to a large degree.

2) The Nucleus: It also consists of different elements and portions. There are numerous strings in it which contain chromosomes. These latter are of crucial significance, however.

3) Membranes or the outer layer. This portion also consists of two different parts: First, the outer part which is shiny and hard and contains tiny chanels through which water and other elements are absorbed; the second part, while being quite delicate, plays an important role in the protection of the cell.

The structure of the leaves

Leaves vary in shapes a great deal. Their shape is determined in accordance with the tree and the soil structure. The leaves of the desert plants, which do not benefit from sufficient water, are thick and thorny which, would not let the internal humidity evaporate. But the leaves of the trees on the riversides are wide and thin in which evaporation easily takes place. The underground leaves as well as the floating leaves have different shapes and structures adapted to their environment. The cross section of a leaf under a microscope will show the following parts:

1) the bark or the outer skin which is tough and usually un-penetrtable, protecting the underlying layers. This part lacks chlorophile;

2) The tissues which contain chlorphile and are made of long prism-shaped cells containg chlorophile all over. These tissues absorb (Co2) in the sunlight decomposing it into oxygen and cadbon and reserving the carbon and expelling the oxygen. This function is useful in two ways: making the plant growth possible and purifying the environment.

3) The wood vessels, i.e., the special pipes in which the raw plant juice flows;

4) The carrying vessels through which the transformed juice reaches the plant cell. This transformation of the raw plant juice takes place through the activity of the chlorophile, and is used to feed the cells.

5) The chlorphiled hypodermis in which there is less chlorophile than the upper parts. That is why the color of the two sides of a leaf differs so greatly.

6) The indo-derm of the leaf which is similar to the outer skin or bark.

7) The tiny pores which exist in the indo-derm which make transpiration possible.

One of the most amazing functions of the leaves is respiration. They, like men and animal, absorb the oxygen of the air, making its (Co2) free. This is not to be mistaken with carbon-absorption. Like water animals which make use of the soluble oxygen, the water plants, too, get their required oxygen from the water.

The plant respiration depends on the light, heat, humidity and the type of the plant. This is a proven fact by the researchers.

The Structure of the flowers

The structure of floweres is even more complicated and amazing than that of the leaves. A flower consists of four major parts:

1) The flower cup: It is covered with green leaves whose function it is to cover the surface of the blossoms and to protect the flower leaves and the corolla.

2) The corolla: These are the principal flower leaves which are of different colors. The high heed and delicacy in the coloring of these flower leaves make us wonder and admire the creator.

3) The Navel of the flower: Inside each flower there are stamens which are collectively known as the nave. The number of these stamens are different in each flower.

Above these stamens there are some tiny and yellow swollen parts. Each part consists of a tiny bag which includes four holes which house the pollen.

The pollens are tiny, microscopic structures which act like the sperm of the male animals. After the action of fertilization between the pollens and the female organs, the plant seeds are produced. The pollens by themselves have intricate structure inside. Each one contains protoplasm, fat materials, sugar, starch and nitrogen. Each pollen consists of two nucli, one bigger than the other one. The bigger one is called the growth nucleus and the smaller one is named the generative nucleus.

4) The pistil: This part rests on the flower axis above which there is a swollen part called nosegay. The surface of pistil is covered with a sticky material. This last part protects the male seeds and helps them grow.

Below the pistil there is a protruded section called the ovary which contains tiny ovules which stick to the walls of the ovary though their tail stalks. These latter absorb the required water and material. The ovules, too, have amazing structures by themselves.


The dissemination and fertilization of the plants

When the pollen bags burst open and the pollens rested on the female nosegay, they grow rapidly. In order for the pollen to reach the female nosegay there are different approaches which make any observer amazed. One way is for the insects to do this job without them being aware what they are performing. Due to the special color and smell and the sugary substance of the flowers, the insects move towards them, sitting on them, carrying the pollens with their wooly feet from one place to another. This action is especially significant in flowers which have the male and female fertilization organs on two separate poles.

As we have already said, when the pollens rest on the nosegay, they start growing. The bigger nucleus which is the same as the nourishing uncleus starts to grow and moves toward the ovary and when it comes close enough to it, it vanishes altogether. But the smaller nucleus passes through the narrow pipe and enters the ovary and mingles with the sperms and the marriage of these two takes place at a dark location. In this way, fertilization occurs and the zygote is produced.

Now I ask for your genuine judgement: Isn’t the structure of a flower or its leaves or a microscopic cell more delicate and complicated than that of a picture frame or a watch which you can see but you become aware of its intelligent and wise builder? Is there any wise man who may attribute these strange structures and differing functions to mere and pure chance?

Suppose there were nothing in this world except a small branch of a tree. Doesn’t the amazing structure of this tree-branch lead us to an intelligent, knowledgeable, all-knowing, supernatural power who has created it?

The secrets hidden in the plant world are so great in number as to be impossible for a man to recognize in his life-time. There are some scholars, however, who have revealed some portions of these secrets. Some examples will demonstrate these researches:

1) The art hidden in the plant roots: the hairy fibres absorb the requird water and material for the different limbs and branches of a plant. They lead these materials to the stem and upper branches in contradiction to the gravity which leads every-thing towards the center of the earth. The distance for the passage of material from the roots upto the highest branch might sometimes be more than forty meters. How does this happen?

2) Transplantation of branches: Another mystery of the plant world is the act of grafting two different sorts of fruit trees. In this way, through grafting apple with pear, for instance, we could produce two different kinds of fruits on a single tree. The laboratory implanted in the tree is marvelous, indeed.

3) The correction of the defects: Another pecularity of the trees is the correction of the defects. If a branch of certain trees is separated from the tree and is planted in the ground, it will grow as a complete tree with strong roots. The roots, by the way, are so strong that they will remove any obstacle from their way. Sometimes this movement takes place peacefully by the change in the direction of the root. But sometimes the root will act out belligerently and will destroy the building or even huge rocks on their way.

4) The sensitive plants: The branches of some plants are sensitive and feel the environmental factors as the animals do. This feeling is so great that they will contract themselves if you come close to them.

5) The meat-eating plants: The branches of these trees are like the hunter’s traps.

The way these trees act is to throw their branches over and around anybody who is trapped by them. Under such circumstances there is no escape for the trapped one. After a while a poisnous juice is poured on the trapped one. It makes the trapped one digestible for the tree.

John Glen, The astronaut, confesses to the existence of an intelligent Being governing over the creation:

Upon his return to the earth, this well-known astronaut wrote an article which was published in the United States. He writes:

“I can not open my eyes without wondering and being puzzled at the beauties of the world.

A glimpse at the world will reveal the fact that there is an active Agent which controls the affairs in this world. When I was being selected for this space journey, I was given a hand-book containing all sorts of issues concerning space. Two chapters of this article influenced me greatly.

In order to understand them, we should know what a light year is. Light travels 300,000 kilometers a second. This means each second light could travel seven times round the earth. Now let us suppose a piece of light has traveled straight for one year. The distance traveled by this piece of light is called a light year. This distance is 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers.

Now let us see what this article says about the greatness of the world. The diameter of the galaxy is nearly 10,000 light year. Our sun, which is a very small star compared with other stars, is 30,000 light-year away from the center of the galaxy.

Thus, it would be impossible to imagine the immense dimensions of the distances in the distances in the solar system alone.

What we have said so far concerns the huge world around us. Now. Let us return to the micro-world of the atom.

Atoms are similar to the solar system in that they have complicated internal structures. Electrons rotate around the nucleus in each atom in accordance with a pre-determined order.

What I wish to convey to my readers is that order reigns over every thing in this world. This rule applies not only to the atoms but also to the immense aspects of creation, i.e., the galaxies which are away from us thousands of light-years.

Could we ever claim that this is mere accident? Did a molten mass of materials start spontaneously to rotate around some other celestial body. I strongly doubt it. Every movement in this world is established in accordance with a specific plan.

The huge world of stars all convince me that there is a Creator. There should be a force to keep these rotating bodies on their orbits.

Now we should accept the fact that it would be impossible to measure God with scientific scales. Nor could we reach the spiritual forces through our senses. These forces are not perceptible. But aren’t there other intangible forces which we accept without feeling them?

An air-plane might have the strongest engines and be equipped with the most delicate machines. It would not, however, be able to work without an un-felt impetus. In order to work properly, a plane should be guided and led. But what is its leader? It is the compass, for sure. But the force which operates the compass is beyond our imagination. It can never be seen, touched, and tasted. But we are aware that this force exists because we perceive it.

Next to the pilot, we will observe an apparatus which navigates the plane. We are sure that the force which runs the hands of the compass is always at work. When we travel, we owe our safety to the proper function of this mechanism. We are certain that its proper function will let us arrive at our destination.

So are the religious and spiritual forces. Let us put ourselves at their disposal to avoid going astray and to ensure arriving at prosperity. Although our senses will not feel them, their effects are felt in our life. Then why should we doubt their existence?[161]

So this is the truth behind revelation and what Imam Zainol Abedin (s) meant in the sentence discussed above.

Faith in God has numerous effects in man’s individual, social, family, political, economic and even physical status. This is valid to the extent that the researchers start their research with the following sentence. Faith in God not only keeps man’s integrity, but it safeguards his physical and mental health, as well.[162]

This much attention towards the recognition of God is the result of revelation. This revelation leads man towards truth and the Prophet and the Infallible ones (s), and the sciences. The safety of our thoughts, souls, physiques, society and families is the result of this very revelation. Regarding this, let us note the following:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُمْ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ.

“O you who believe! Shall I lead you to a merchandise which may deliver you from a painful chastisement? You shall believe in Allah and His Apostle, and struggle hard in Allah’s way with your property and your lives; that is better for you, did you but know! 61:10-11”

Naturally, human body, like his soul, becomes inflicted with the disasters of everyday life. And these diseases, either through the entry of microbes into one’s body, or through accidents or aging, will make life miserable for man.

The medical sciences and psychology teach us that the psychosomatic diseases are prevalent in the world today. These diseases may attack man because of his mental disturbances. The microbe-caused diseases could not have any effect over anybody who is mentally stable. Conversely, a man who suffers from mental disturbances will be ready to come under the attack of microbes.

The Holy Quran, fifteen centuries ago, made this issue completely clear. The Holy Quran bases one’s mental and bodily health over true faith and has ordered us to follow the right path of faith if we wish to be away from physical and mental disturbances.

The Holy Quran considers the faith in God extremely significant and has ordered man to have complete faith in the sacred Being of God.

For anybody who believes in God and in the Resurrection and for the one who ascribes everything to God there is no difference (for him) between bad and good: anything which comes from Allah is good and acceptable.

Remember the sentence usually written over the doors of our great grand fathers’ houses:

أُفَوِّضُ أَمْرِي إِلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ.

“I entrust my affair to Allah, Surely Allah sees the servants. 40:44”

Our grandfathers used to observe this expression each day and they ascribed everything to Allah only.

They truly believed that they should ask God for His assistance. Thus, they welcomed anything which they received from Him: they used to fight the nature with the weapon of faith; thus, they were content with what they were given and they never developed any mental diseases.

In contrast, people who do not have strong faith, plan all day with no result whatsoever. What they get is worry and insecurity. All the defects which attack us, such as psycho-somatic disturbances like ulcers, blood pressure, and heart attacks, result from lack of faith. Or else, a believer is certain that pain or gain is given by God; there fore, in the face of hardships, he will not give up; he will never complain and does not go to extremes in his emotions. He acts as the Holy Quran wants him to act:

لِكَيْلَا تَأْسَوْا عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلَا تَفْرَحُوا بِمَا آتَاكُمْ.

“So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, not to be exultant at what He has given you. 57:23”

This is evident. If a man knows the content of this holy verse, he will never indulge in arrogance or pride when he has a social position or when he is at the peak of youth; he will never hurt others, either, Nor will he become disturbed mentally when his social stats is denied.

Nowadays, some people are after social positions and functions. They, however, forget people and ignore them altogether.

The Holy Quran teaches us that the worldly pains or joys are transient. A wise man will never become overjoyed or exultant when he is affluent; neither does he become depressed when he is poor economically. A genuine believer knows that what he gets from Allah is in his benefit both mentally and physically. Therefore, he will face the problems bravely.

Thus, if man appreciates Godly revelations, he will both become aware of worldly affairs and will possess mental welfare. Regarding this, the Holy Quran states:

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ.

“Those who believe and whose hearts are set at rest by the remembrance of Allah; now surely by Allah’s remembrance are the hearts set at rest. 13:28”

The misery and mental difficulties of some people at the present century is due to their lack of firm beliefs in religion.

In order for man to enjoy mental security and calmness, he should involve every cell of his body in the act of invocation and supplication, praying Allah.

Revelation shows us how to thank God

Upon looking at the affluence and riches available to us, we have to thank God for what He has given us.

Revelation teaches us where to look for assets, how to use them and who has given them to us.

فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا.

“Then He inspired it to understand what is right and wrong for it. 91:8”

If you follow the inspiration of your heart you will gain another inspiration which is revelation and which is dealt with in the Holy Quran. In that Holy Book, you will get the assurance that thanking God for His affluence is compulsory. The Holy Quran has guided us in this path:

فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ.

“Therefore remember Me, I will remember you, and be thankful to Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me. 2:152”

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِلَّهِ إِنْ كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ.

“O you who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided you with, and give thanks to Allah if Him it is that you serve. 2:172”

وَرَزَقَكُمْ مِنْ الطَّيِّبَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ.

“And (He) gave you of the good things that you may give thanks. 8:26”

وَاللَّهُ أَخْرَجَكُمْ مِنْ بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ.

“And Allah has brought you forth from the wombs of your mother-you did not know anything-and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts that you may give thanks. 16:78”

Upon having declared that thanking God and appreciating Him for his affluence is compulsory, God says that uttering this appreciation is to man’s benefit:

وَمَنْ يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ.

“And whoever is grateful, he is only grateful for his own soul; and whoever is ungrateful, then Allah is Self-sufficient, Praised. 31:12”

The Holy Quran considers the grateful believers as a distinct group. However the number of such people, according to the Holy Quran, is Low.

اعْمَلُوا آلَ دَاوُودَ شُكْرًا وَقَلِيلٌ مِنْ عِبَادِي الشَّكُورُ.

“Give thanks, O Family of Dawood! And very few of My servants are grateful. 34:13”

وَمَنْ يُرِدْ ثَوَابَ الْآخِرَةِ نُؤْتِهِ مِنْهَا وَسَنَجْزِي الشَّاكِرِينَ.

“And whoever desires the reward of the hereafter I shall give him of it; and I will reward the grateful. 3:135”

3) Opening the doors of science and knowledge towards Divinity:

The holy word rabb (God) literally means “Owner” and “instructor”. In the whole world there is no real owner, nor a genuine progressive instructor except the Almighty God.

The word “rabb” is frequently used in the Holy Quran and in invocations and supplications and other books on the Islamic knowledge. If any body is absorbed by this word he is neither an aggressor, nor is he inflicted by aggression. He will not be deceived by the alien cultures, either.

The comprehension of the term divinity is effective in freeing man from the satanic webs of evil-doings and desires.

An understanding of this holy term educates man to the degree that he will become the source of generocity, honor, knowledge, conscience, and manhood. In the words of the Holy Quran, this word will create an honorable tree.

Iqbal (The Pakestani Gnostic), based on the Holy Quran, considers as the most educated man any man who is connected with God. He says this kind of education consists of three stages: (1) obedience; (2) self-control; and (3) being God’s envoy on the earth.

Obeying God in all aspects of life and showing obedience towards prophets and the Infallible ones(s) is necessary. Then we should keep this obedience unaffected by the evils; and finally we should reach the position of being God’s envoy on the earth.

The door which God opened to us to recognize His Divinity is the door of Nobovvat (Prophethood) and Imamate [belief in Imams (s)]. Imam Ali(s) says in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa:

وَاصْطَفى سُبْحانَهُ مِنْ وِلْدِهِ أنْبياءَ، أخَذَ على الوَحي مِيثاقَهُمْ، وَعَلى تَبْليغِ الرّسالَةِ أمانَتَهُمْ.

“The Almighty God selected some of the off springs of His Prophets and through revelation He appointed them to propagate the ideas of the Prophethood, and trustworthiness.”

The covenant for the propagation of the ideas of the Prophethood is the greatest covenant ever.

Naturally there should be a spirit void of any whims and wishes to receive revelation. Any internal fault would darken the revelation.

A Prophet should base his private life on ghe revelation. Being a usual human being, he has the task to act as an intermediary between God and people.

The most difficult part of a Prophet’s life, however, is to stay away from any sign of self-interest.

Imam Ali(s) adds to what we heard from him above:

“God appointed some Prophets out of the nations to help people act in accordance with the innate covenant which they have with their God. The Prophets will remind people of the God’s forgotten assets given them. The Prophets are supposed to lead people towards faith through sound reasoning and to excite and enrich people’s hidden intellects. They are also supposed to reveal to people God’s signs of grandeur: such as the lofty skies over them and the earth cradle under their feet and the necessary sustenance.”

The function of Prophethood is explained in the following verses of the Holy Quran:

الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِنْدَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنْ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمْ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمْ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُفْلِحُونَ.

“Those who follow the Apostle-Prophet, the Ummi, whom they find written down with them in the Tavrat and the Injeel (The Old Testament and the New Testament) who enjoins them good and forbids them evil, and makes lawful to them impure things, and removes from them their burden and the shackles which were upon them; so as for those who believe in him and honor him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, these it is that are the successful. 7:157”

These holy verses emphasize the following issues:

1) man’s uprise against injustice;

2) showing the Divine signs;

3) the teaching of the Holy Quran which embodies human life and existence;

4) the teaching of wisdom to man;

5) Enjoining the good and forbidding the evils;

6) Removing the obstacles which make hindrances on the man’s progress;

7) And Light in life which makes man to improve:

In the words of the leader of the pious ones, we shall read:

1) To excite men to carry out the contract which they have with their God;

2) To remind men of the God-given assets;

3) Conveying the Islamic teaching through sound reasoning;

4) Enriching man’s wisdom;

5) Showing the God’s signs in the lofty skies over the head on man and the earth cradle under his feet.

6) Showing people how God’s signs will help them when their strength does not exist any longer;

7) Educating people how to behave moderately and how to distinguish between right and wrong.

These are among the Divine revelation on the earth which are explicitly stated in the Holy Quran. Imam Ali’s statements in Nahjolbalaqa and his behaviors and manners showed these principles in action.

The great Prophet of Islam has said on the issues of Imamate and Velayat, which are revealed to him by God:

إنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَني وَعَليّاً مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ أنا أصلُها، وَعَليٌ فَرعُها، وَالحَسَنُ وَالحُسَينُ ثَمَرَتُها، وَالشِيعَةُ وَرَقُها، فَهَل يَخْرُحُ مِنَ الطَيِّبِ إلاّ الطَيِّبُ؟ وَأنا مَدينَةُ العِلمِ وَعَليٌّ بابُها، فَمَن أرادَ المَدينَةَ فَليَاتِها مِن بابِها.

وَفي لَفظِ حُذيفةَ عَن عَليٍّA: أنا مَدينَةُ العِلمِ وَعَليٌّ بابُها، وَلا تُؤتَى البُيُوتُ إلا مِن أبوابِها.

وَفي لَفْظِ: أنا مَدينةُ العِلمِ وَأنْتَ بابُها، كّذَبَ مَن زَعَمَ أنَّهُ يَدْخُلُ المَدينَةَ بِغَيرِ الباب. قالَ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ: وَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا.

Allameh Amini reports the above narrations in his book Alqadir from 143 scholars of sunni sect. He also reports 21 scholars who have confirmed the authenticity of these reports. The Great Prophet (s) has said:

“Imam Ali (s) and I are of the same tree: I am the root, Imam Ali (s) is my trunk, Imam Hassan and Imam Hossein are our fruits and the Shiite are our leaves. Does the clean one produce anything but clean?”

“I am the city of knowledge and Imam Ali (s) is the entrance to that city. Anybody who wishes to enter this city should pass through this gate.”[163]

The variations to this narration are the following:

1- أنا مَدينَةُ العِلمِ وَعَليٌّ بابُها، فَمَن أرادَ البَيْتَ فَليَأتِ البابَ.

2- أنا مَدينَةُ العِلمِ وَعَليٌّ بابُها، فَمَن أرادَ العِلمَ فَليَأتِ البابَ.

3- أنا دارُ الحِكْمَةِ وَعَليٌّ بابُها.

4- أنا دارُ العِلمِ وَعَليٌّ بابُها.

5- أنا ميزانُ العِلمِ وَعَليٌّ كَفَّتاهُ.

6- أنا مِيزانُ الحِكمَةِ وَعليٌّ لِسانُهُ.

7- أنا المَدينةُ وَأنْتَ البابُ، وَلا يُؤتَى المَدينَةُ إلا مِنْ بابِها.

8- عَليٌّ أخي وَمِنّي وَأنا مِن عَليٍّ فَهُوَ بابُ عِلمي وَوَصِيِّي.

9- عَليٌّ بابُ عِلمي وُمُبَيِّنٌ لامَّتي ما اُرسِلتُ بِه مِن بَعْدي.

10- أنْتَ بابُ عِلْمي.

It is evident for the Moslem nation that the Prophet’s knowledge was transferred to the sacred being of Imam Ali (s). In return, Imam Ali’s knowledge was transferred to his offspring from Imam Hassan (s) to Imam Mahdi (s). In order to recognize God, the Ommat has to refer to the Infallible Ones (s), For knowledge contained, for instance, in Nahjolbalaqa, Sahifeh Sajjadieh, Kafi, Wafi, Tahzib, Istebsar, Man la Yahzar, Wasa’el and Shafi.


4. Leading people towards sincerity in Monotheism:

All praise is due to Allah who attracted our attentions towards sincerity in our prayers and faith through the verses of the Holy Quran and the knowledge handed down to us from the Great Prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones (s).

فَاعْبُدْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ أَلَا لِلَّهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ ...

“Therefore serve Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience; Now, surely, sincere obedience is due to Allah alone. 39:2-3”

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا.

“Except those who repent and amend and hold fast to Allah and are sincere in their religion to Allah; these are with the believers and Allah will grant the believers a mighty reward. 4:146”

قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ.

“Say: I am commanded that I should serve Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience. 39:11”

قُلْ اللَّهَ أَعْبُدُ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ دِينِي.

“Say: Allah it is Whom I serve, being sincere to Him in my obedience. 39:14”

وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ.

“And we shall have our deeds and you shall have your deeds, and we are sincere to Him. 2:139”

فَادْعُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ.

“Therefore call upon Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience, though the unbelievers are averse. 40:14”

هُوَ الْحَيُّ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ.

“He is the living, there is no god but He, therefore call on Him, being sincere to Him in obedience. All praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds. 40:65”

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَذَلِكَ دِينُ الْقَيِّمَةِ.

“And they were not enjoined anything except that they should serve Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience, upright and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and that is the right religion. 98:5”

في مَواعِظِ النَّبيِّ لابنِ مَسْعُودٍ: يا ابنَ مَسْعُودٍ إذا عَمِلْتَ عَمَلاً فَاعْمَل للِهِ خالِصاً لأنَّهُ لا يَقبلُ مِن عِبادِهِ إلا ما كان خالصاً.

Among the advice given to Ibn Mas’ud by the Great Prophet (s) is the following: “O son of Mas’ud; if you wish to do any deed for Allah, do it clearly and be sincere; no impure action is accepted by Allah.”[164]

قالَ عليٌّD: طوبى لِمَن أخْلَصَ لِلّهِ عَمَلَهُ وحُبَّهُ وبُغْضَهُ وَأخْذَهُ وَتَركَهُ وَكلامَهُ وصَمَّهُ وِفِعْلَهُ وَقَولَهُ.

Imam Ali (s) has stated: How lucky is the person whose action, friendship, enmity, giving and taking, speech and silence and his promise are pure and sincere for God.[165]

قال الصّادِقُD: إنَّ رَبَّكُم لَرَحيمٌ يَشْكُرُ القَليلَ، إنَّ العَبْدَ لَيُصلّي الرَّكْعَتَينِ يُريدُ بِها وَجْهَ اللهِ فَيُدْخِلُهُ اللهُ بِها الجَنَّةَ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: your God is kind. He will appreciate even your smallest service towards Him. If a believer performs only two rounds of prayers sincerely, he will be granted the paradise.[166]

عَنِ الرِّضا، عَن أبائِهِ صَلوات اللهِ علَيهم قالَ: قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ4: ما أخْلَصَ عَبْدٌ لِلّهِ عَزَّوجَلَّ أرْبَعِينَ صَباحاً إلا جَرَت يَنابِيعُ الحِكْمَةِ مِنْ قَلْبِهِ عَلى لِسانِهِ.

The eighth Imam (s) reports from his parents reporting from the Great Prophet (s): “The springs of knowledge will flow from the heart towards the tongue of any believer who keeps clean and sincere for God only for forty days.”[167]

Imam Askari (s) has said: I will severely blame myself for having done nothing for a true and sincere believer if I turn the whole world into Just one loaf and put it in his mouth. And if I deprive an infidel from such loaf and let him suffer great hunger and thirst but at the last moment of his sufferings present him with a sip of water, I will think I have wasted God’s favors and assets.[168]

Keeping man away from polytheism and blasphemy

God, out of His favors, keeps man away from any form of blasphemy including worshipping the world, worldly positions, indulging in voluptuous life, giving way to one’s wishes, being fond of aggression, and satan worshipping.

As soon as the pure and sincere faith dominates one’s life, the foundation of blasphemy and polytheism will be shaken.

In the sacred surah luqman, it is stated that blasphemy is a great injustice and aggression and anybody who is under its domain upto the day of his death shall be deprived of God’s favors. His repentance at the moment of death will not be accepted, however.

Setting up anything with God will make ineffective the good things that one has performed:

وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.

“And if they had set up others with Him, certainly what they did would have become ineffectual for them. 6:88”

وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمْ الْإِيمَانَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمْ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الرَّاشِدُونَ.

“But Allah has endeared the faith to you and He has made it seemly in your hearts, and He has made hateful to you unbelief and transgression and disobedience; these it is that are the followers of a right way. 49:7”

Endearing the Faith

The appreciation of the beauty and use of anything forces us to love that thing.

The almighty God wishes to show the greatness of faith through mentioning the good aspects of it and the rewards one might get in using it in his life. The following sacred sentence:

وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ.

shows that the heart is the location for faith.

The sentence:

وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمْ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ.

Opposes unbelief, transgression and disobedience to faith. As we know, one of the ways to define an item is to resort to its opposites. Thus, faith is the opposite of unbelief, transgression and disobedience. In this way we will know the true nature of faith.

Unbelief is to negate the existence of God and the Prophet (s). On the other hand, faith is to believe in God and the Prophet (s). Indulging in transgression is to tear all curtains of piety and to attack the privacy and self-esteem of people. Thus, faith has a heart-felt dimension and will hinder people from inflicting harms over people. Disobedience is the guilt and sin of disregarding divinity. Therefore, faith will stop us from indulging in sins.

Thus, we will appreciate God’s favor for His endearment of faith in the eyes of Moslems. This is because faith is the way to save us from vices and evil-doings; it is the gateway to prosperity and true luck.

Making man abhor unbelief, transgression and disobedience

Hating something occurs when we become aware of its harms, repulsive features and its evils. Through the explanation of the harms of something we may educate people to hate it. The Holy Quran in the sentence:

وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمْ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ.

says that God has made you hate blasphemy and unbelief.

Unbelief is to deny God and His favors. This evil feature is the source of the evil doing.

Disobedience is distinct from transgression in that a transgressor is one who was obedient and then became disobedient. But transgression implies that a person was disobedient from the outset and has never been inclined to obey God.

Each one of the cases of unbelief, transgression and disobedience is against one’s belief. Neither one of these is in harmony with faith. Each one tries to root out one’s faith.[169]

As we see in the above sacred verse of the Holy Quran, God has made the human heart to love the truth and to hate the evil. Polytheism or associating another power with God is worse than unbelief, transgression and disobedience. Holy Quran has warned us against it at different junctures and occasions.

According to the Holy Quran associating another power with God or polytheism is to put another power next to God and to obey it. This sin is extremely hazardous and is unpardonable. To study it in depth, you are advised to refer to Behar.

The Mecca Idolaters, the sun-worshippers, the money mongers, the assistants to Saqifeh and the evil group of Omavids and Abbassids and the servants to Aggressors are all true examples of the polytheists.

حَمداً يُضئ لَنا بِهِ ظُلُماتِ البَرزَخِ، وَيُسَهِّل عَلينا به سبيل المبعث، وَيُشَرِّفُ بِهِ مَنازِلَنا عِنْدَ مواقِفِ الأشهاد، يَومَ تُجْزى كلُّ نَفْسٍ بما كَسَبَت وَهُم لا يُظْلَمُونَ، يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَنْ مَوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ.

حَمْداً يَرتَفِعُ مِنّا إلى أعلى عِلّيينَ في كتابٍ مَرْقُم، يَشْهَدُهُ المُقَرَّبُونَ، حَمْداً تَقَرُّ بِهِ عُيُوننا إذا بَرِقَت الأبْصارُ، وَتَبيَّضُ به وُجُوهُنا إذا اسوَدَّتِ الأبْشارُ، حَمْداً نُعْتَقُ بِهِ مِنَ أليم نارِ اللهِ إلى كريمِ جِوارِ اللهِ.

Praise is due to Allah, a praise which will illuminate the darkness of the Barrier to us and will facilitate our entry into the Doomsday and will make our houses honorable in front of witnesses. The Doomsday is the time when everybody will get the reward for what he has done and every body will be treated justly. It is a day when favoritism will not work and the disobedient ones will be severely punished.

A praise which will be exultant towards the Heavens is due to Allah. Such a praise wil be recorded in a letter which will be kept by the loved ones by God. Let us send to Allah a praise which will light our eyes when we stare at the world wonders. Let us send to Allah such a praise which will change the color of our face from the blackness of the shame which our sins have inflicted upon us. We need to send to Allah a praise which will free us from the torturing pain surrounding as and will take us next to God’s generosity and favors.

حَمْداً نُزاحِمُ بِهِ مَلائِكَتَهُ المُقَرَّبينَ، وَنُضامُّ بِهِ أنبِياءَهُ المُرْسَلِينَ في دارِ المُقامَةِ الَّتي لا تَزُول وَمَحَلِّ كَرامَتِهِ الَّتي لا تَحُولُ. وَالحَمْدُ لِلّهِ الَّذي اخْتارَ لَنا مَحاسِنَ الخلق، وَأجرى علَينا طَيِّباتِ الرّزق.

We will send God such a praise that could rise so loftily as to be next to the angels. We wish to be able through this praise to come together with God’s Prophets. Our praise is due to Allah Who provided us with the beauties of His creation, Who made us a synopsis of all creation, and Who gave us clean and legal subsistence.

وَجَعَلَ لَنا الفَضِيلةَ بالمَلَكَةِ عَلى جَميعِ الخَلْقِ، فَكُلُّ خَليفَتِهِ مُنْقادَةٌ لَنا بِقُدْرَتِهِ، وَصائِرَةٌ إلى طاعَتِنا بِعِزَّتِهِ. وَالحَمْدُ للهِ الّذي أغْلَقَ عَنّا بابَ الحاجَةِ إلا إلَيهِ، فَكَيفَ نُطيقُ حَمْدَهُ؟ أمْ مَتى نُؤدّي شُكْرَهُ؟! لا مَتى:

All praise is due to Allah Who through His Might and power made us superior to all creatures. Thus, because of Him, all creatures are at our service; praise is due to Allah Who prohibited us to resort to anybody except Him. How could we, feeble and weak servants, appreciate His favors. How could we thank Him? No, we are unable to do so.

وَالحَمدُ للهِ الّذي رَكَّبَ فينا آلاتِ البَسطِ، وَجَعَلَ لَنا أدواتِ القَبضِ، وَمَتَّعَنا بأرواح الحَياةِ، وَأثْبَتَ فينا جَوارِحَ الأعْمالِ، وَغذّانا بِطَيّباتِ الرّزقِ، وَأغنانا بفضلِهِ، وَأقنانا بِمَنّهِ.

ثُمَّ أمَرَنا لِيَخْتَبِرَ طاعَتَنا، وَنَهانا ليَبْتَليَ شُكْرَنا، فَخالَفَنا عَنْ طَريقِ أمْرِهِ، وَرَكِبْنا مُتُونَ زَجْرِهِ، فَلَم يَبْتَدِرْنا بِعُقُوبَتِهِ، وَلَم يُعاجِلنا بِنَقِمَتِهِ، بَل تأنانا بِرَحْمَتِهِ تَكرُماً، وانتَظَرَ مُراجَعَتِنا بِرَأفَتِهِ حِلْماً.

All praise is due to Allah who established in us the apparatus of expansion and contraction (veins, cartilages, bones, nerves, blood, flesh, tongue, larynx, epiglottis, stomach, liver, kidneys, etc.)

All praise is due to Allah Who provided us with the Devine spirit, faith spirit, movement spirit, the lust spirit and the body spirit.

Jaber has recorded a narration from Imam Baqir(s); this narration is recorded in Osul Kafi.

The Divine spirit is for the elites of the religion through which they recognize everything. Through the spirit of faith everybody engages in worshipping Allah. The spirit of movement is for war against the enemy and for obtaining one’s sustenance. The lust spirit is for eating, drinking and enjoying life. And the body spirit is for movement. All these five spirits are for the Prophets and the Infallible Ones (s); four of them are for the eilite and three of them are for the infidels.

Praise is due to Allah Who provided us with organs of different sorts to carry out our taks: He established for us our eyes, ears, tongues, hands, feet, lusts and stomachs to use them in solving our daily problems.

All praise is due to Allah Who provided us with legal and clean subsistence and empowered us by His powers and let us enjoy his favors.

Then through the Prophets, The infallible ones (s), wisdom, human Nature, and conscience He ordered us to obey and worship Him so that He might evaluate our sincerity in our worship. He, as well, prohibited us from performing certain affairs so that He might weigh our piety. This examination is carried out by Him not to solve any ambiguity concerning us, but to open for us the ways of improvement.

Regarding the act of thanking God, Imam Sadiq (s) has said the following:

شُكْرُ النِعمَةِ اجتنابُ المَحارِمِ.

“To Thank God means to avoid carrying out what is forbidden by God.”

Thus, anybody who avoids doing what is forbidden by God has passed the examination of appreciating God’s favors.

Despite all the favors God has bestowed upon us, we outrageously have ignored thanking him. We have been riding the palfrey of disobedience. Although we have committed sins to a large degree, God has not hurried to punish us on the spot; He has been patient; instead He has helped us with even more favors. He has protected us against disasters”

وَالحَمْدُ للهِ الّذي دَلّنا عَلى التَوبَةِ الَّتي لَم نَفِدْها إلا مِن فَضْلِهِ، فَلَو لَم نَعْتَدِد مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إلا بِها لَقَد حَسُنَ بَلاؤُهُ عِنْدَنا، وَجَلَّ إحْسانُهُ إلَينا، وَجَسُمَ فَضْلُهُ عَلَيْنا. فَما هكَذا كانَتْ سُنَّتُهُ فِي التّوبَةِ لِمَنْ كانَ قَبْلَنا، لَقّد وَضَعَ عَنّا مالا طاقَةَ لَنا بِهِ، وَلَم يُكَلِّفْنا إلا وِسْعاً، وَلَم يُجَسِّمنا إلا يُسراً، وَلَم يَدَع لأحَدٍ مِنّا حُجّةً ولا عُذراً، فالهالِكُ مِنّا مَن هَلَكَ عَلَيْهِ، وَالسّعيدُ مِنّا مَنْ رَغِبَ إلَيهِ.

All praise is due to Allah Who taught us the truth behind repentance and Has led us to repent and to ask for His forgiveness. We could not have understood the significance of forgiveness without His guidance.

The method of repentance for the previous nations was harder than the one set for us now. Repentance can be carried out by us much easier now. God did not ask us for anything which is beyond our power. He did not ask us for impossible acts. He did not let any excuse for us. We must obey Him; there is no escape in this affair; however.

An unlucky person among us is the one who disobeys God, and the lucky one is he who carries out God’s commands.

والحمد لله بكل ما حمده به أدنى ملائكته إليه، وأكرم خليفته عليه و أرضى حامديه لديه حمدا يفضل سائر الحمد كفضل ربنا على جميع خلقه.

ثم له الحمد مكان كل نعمة له علينا وعلى جميع عباده الماضيين والباقين، عدد ما أحاط به علمه من جميع الأشياء، ومكان كل واحدة منها عددها أضعافا مضاعفة ابدا سرمدا إلى يوم القيامة. حمداً لا منتهى لحده ولا حساب لعدده ولا مبلغ لغايته ولا انقطاع لأمده.

Praise is due to Allah, a kind of praise which is carried out by God’s closest angels and by His dearest creatures and by His fittest admirers. A kind of praise is due to Allah which is the best kind of praises.

We praise God for every piece of favors which He has bestowed upon us, and upon our ancestors and upon our offspring, a praise as huge as the number of all creatures. May this praise be continued up to the Doomsday.

A praise is due to Allah which is endless, the number of which is infinite, the end of which is beyond us and the time of which is ever-lasting. A continuous and eternal praise for God.”

حمداً يكون وصلة الى طاعته و عفوه، وسببا إلى رضوانه، وذريعة إلى مغفرته، وطريقا إلى جنته، وخفيرا من نقمته، وأمنا من غضبه، وظهيرا على طاعته، وحاجزا عن معصيته، وعونا على تادية حقه ووظائفه. حمداً نسعد به في السعداء من أوليائه، ونصير به في نظم الشهداء بسيوف أعدائه، إنه ولي حميد.

Praise is due to Allah; a praise which causes man to obey Him, to attract His consent and satisfaction; a praise which will pave the way to the paradise for us; a praise which will protect us against God’s rage, which will protect our prayers, which will hinder us from engaging in sins, and which will causes us to carry out our duties towards Allah.

Praise is due to Allah; a praise through which we may be among the lucky ones who have received Allah’s favors; a praise through which we may be considered among the martyrs who lost their lives in war against Allah’s foes. God’s sacred Being is the most honorable attribute ever.


Wednesday 10/3/1368, corresponding to the 25th of Shavval,

The day of the martyrdom of the Golrious and Rightous Imam Sadiq(s)

Hossein Ansaryan






An Exposition on Imam Zainol Abedin’s Sahifeh Sajjadieh


Shaykh Husayn Ansariyan

Translated by
Dr. M. Farrokhpey

Associate Professor


 TOC \o "3-3" \h \z \t "Heading 4,4,Heading 7,1,Heading 8,2"

The Creation of Mohammad(s) is the Most Magnificent News of Creation: PAGEREF _Toc64915975 \h 216

The Strange Secret in Mohammad's Creation and his Genealogy: PAGEREF _Toc64915976 \h 219

God's Good News Concerning Mohammad(s): PAGEREF _Toc64915977 \h 223

A Disturbing Adventure. PAGEREF _Toc64915978 \h 227

The Significant Issue of the birth of Mohammad(s) PAGEREF _Toc64915979 \h 232

Strange incidents on the birth of Mohammad(s) PAGEREF _Toc64915980 \h 235

The Nicknames, titles and Names of Mohammad(s) PAGEREF _Toc64915981 \h 236

The Nicknames. PAGEREF _Toc64915982 \h 237

Names. PAGEREF _Toc64915983 \h 238

Titles. PAGEREF _Toc64915984 \h 239

The Infancy and Childhood. PAGEREF _Toc64915985 \h 242

The Amazing Story of Bahira, the Monk. PAGEREF _Toc64915986 \h 246

His Youth. PAGEREF _Toc64915987 \h 251

The Story of the Marriage. PAGEREF _Toc64915988 \h 254

The Reconstruction of Kaaba. PAGEREF _Toc64915989 \h 258

The Magnificent Event of Prophethood. PAGEREF _Toc64915990 \h 259

Mohammad(s) in the Mirror of the Holy Quran. PAGEREF _Toc64915991 \h 262

In all his activities and sayings, the Prophet(s) is always a witness of God for people  PAGEREF _Toc64915992 \h 264

1) The verses on creation. PAGEREF _Toc64915993 \h 274

Professor Raz Ford's Article. PAGEREF _Toc64915994 \h 276

Verses on Man. PAGEREF _Toc64915995 \h 285

The verses of the Holy Quran. PAGEREF _Toc64915996 \h 290

The Magnificent story of Salman Farsi PAGEREF _Toc64915997 \h 293

The Purification of the self. PAGEREF _Toc64915998 \h 307

The beastly characteristics of the lusts. PAGEREF _Toc64915999 \h 309

The Satanic traits of the Lusts. PAGEREF _Toc64916000 \h 309

A Strange Story on Fazli and Harun. PAGEREF _Toc64916001 \h 318

A Strange Point Regarding Imam Ali(s) PAGEREF _Toc64916002 \h 319

The Effects of Good works and Evil-doings. PAGEREF _Toc64916003 \h 319

Ibn Arabi's strange story on his struggle against self. PAGEREF _Toc64916004 \h 320

The Treatment of the Ethical Fouls. PAGEREF _Toc64916005 \h 327

A Delicate Point. PAGEREF _Toc64916006 \h 336

The Amazing Story of Fazil Ayyaz and Davoud Ta'ee. PAGEREF _Toc64916007 \h 337

The Strange Story of a Clear-Sighted Youth and Salman Farsi PAGEREF _Toc64916008 \h 341

Amir Kabir's Strange Story. PAGEREF _Toc64916009 \h 342

Teaching them the Book and the wisdom in the next section, we will read  PAGEREF _Toc64916010 \h 347

Mohammad(s) in Nahjolbalaqa. PAGEREF _Toc64916011 \h 349

The Imam of Mercy. PAGEREF _Toc64916012 \h 366

The Ways to Get the God's Blessings. PAGEREF _Toc64916013 \h 367

The Pioneer of blessings. PAGEREF _Toc64916014 \h 370

The Issue of Blessing in the Holy Quran. PAGEREF _Toc64916015 \h 371

The Key to The Blessings. PAGEREF _Toc64916016 \h 377











وَالحَمدُ للهِ الَّذي مَنَّ عَلَينا بِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيِّهِ 4 دُونَ الأمَمِ الماضِيَةِ وَالقُرونِ السّالِفَةِ، بِقُدْرَتِهِ الَّتي لا تَعْجِزُ عَنْ شَئٍ وَإن عَظُمَ، وَلا يَفُوتُها شَئٌ وَإنْ لَطُفَ. فَخَتَمَ بِنا على جَمِيعِ مَنْ ذَرَءَ، وَجَعَلَنا شُهَدَاءَ عَلى مَنْ جَحَدَ، وَكَثَّرَنا بَمَنِّهِ عَلى مَنْ قَلَّ.

اللَّهُمَّ فَصَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ اَمِينِكَ عَلى وَحْيِكَ، وَنَجِيبِكَ مِن خَلْقِكَ، وَصَفِيِّكَ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ، اِمامِ الرَّحْمَةِ، وَقائِدِ الخَيْرِ، وَمِفْتاحِ البَرَكَةِ كَمَا نَصَبَ لاَمرِكَ نَفْسَهُ * وَعَرَّضَ فِيكَ لِلمَكْرُوهِ بَدَنَهُ * وَكاشَفَ فِي الدُّعاءِ إلَيكَ حامَّتَهُ * وَحارَبَ في رِضاكَ اُسْرَتَهُ * وَقَطَعَ فِي اِحياءِ دِينِكَ رَحِمَهُ * وَاَقصى الأدنَينَ عَلى جُحُودِهِم * وَقَرَّبَ الأقْصَينَ عَلى اِستِجابَتِهِم لَكَ.

وَوالى فِيكَ الاَبْعَدِينَ * وَعَادى فِيكَ الأقْرَبِينَ * وَاذابَ نَفْسَهُ فِي تَبْلِيغِ رِسالَتِكَ * وَاتْعَبَها بِالدُعاءِ اِلى مِلَّتِكَ * وَشُغَلَهُ بِالنُصْحِ لِاَهْلِ دَعْوَتِكَ * وَهاجَرَ اِلى بِلادِ الغُرْبَةِ، وَمَحَلِّ النَّاي عَنْ مَوطِنِ رَحْلِهِ، وَمَوضِعِ رِجْلِهِ، وَمَسْقَطِ رَأسِِهِ، وَمانَسِ نَفسِهِ، اِرادَةً مِنْهُ لِاعزازِ دِينِكَ، وَاسْتِنْصاراًعَلى أهْلِ الكُفْرِ بِكَ * حَتّى ظَهَرَ اَمرُكَ، وَعَلَتْ كَلِمَتُكَ، وَلَو كَرِهَ المُشْرِكُونَ * اللَّهُمَّ فَارْفَعهُ بِما كَدَحَ فِيكَ اِلَى الدَّرَجَةِ العُليا مِنْ جَنَّتِكَ * حَتّى لا يُساوى في مَنْزِلٍ، وَلايُكافَأَ في مَرْتَبَةٍ، وَلا يُوازِيهِ لَدَيكَ مَلَكٌ مُقَرَّبٌ وَلا نَبِيٌ مُرْسَلٌ.

وعَرِّفْهُ في أهْلِهِ الطّاهِرِينَ وَأمَّتِهِ المؤمِنِينَ مِنْ حُسْنِ الشَّفاعَةِ اَجَلَّ ما وَعَدتَهُ * يا نافِذَ العِدَةِ، يا وَافيَ القَولِ، يا مُبَدِّلَ السَيِّئاتِ بِاضْعافِها مِنَ الحَسَناتِ اِنَّكَ ذو الفَضْلِ العَظِيمِ.

وَالحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذي مَنَّ عَلَينا بِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيّهِ4 دُونَ الاُمَمِ الماضِيَةِ وَالقُرُونِ السَالِفَةِ، بِقُدْرَتِهِ الَّتي لا تَعْجِزُ عَنْ شَئٍ وَاِنْ عَظُمَ، وَلا يَفُوتُها شَئٌ وَاِنْ لَطُفَ.

All praise is due to Allah for the creation and bringing forth of the lofty being of Hathrat Mohammad(s) who was appointed by Him to direct and guide world people towards the right path. However, the previous nations were all deprived of this sacred being. Through His might, He bestowed upon us the being of Mohammad(s). His might and power is aware of all activities going on which are not discerned by human sight.

The Creation of Mohammad(s) is the Most Magnificent News of Creation

Our tongue is just unable to describe in depth the features of a man who is unique in the whole creation, beyond whom there is no wiser, or loftier or more magnanimous one. Our pen is just unable to depict his true features. Our thought is just too weak to appreciate him wholly. In order to describe him, I do not have any other way except resorting to the sacred verses of the Holy Quran, which are God's speech and to the narrations and the religious news which are the miracles of the men of God.

Defining the Great Prophet(s) of Islam in this volume is like pouring the wholly sea in an earthern pot.

He is the first wisdom; he is the closest to God; and he is the most complete of beings. He is distant from all worldly and selfish motives. We will notice the following features for Mohammad(s) in the most authentic narrations:

1- اوَّل ما خَلَقَ اللهُ العَقْلُ.
2- أوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللهُ نُوري.
3- أوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللهُ رُوحي.
4- أوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللهُ القَلَمُ.
5- أوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللهُ مَلَكٌ كَرُبيٌّ.

The five series of description belong to only one truth and one light. They are differing titles for just one single being. The highest manifestation of God's revelation is found in him. He needs nothing and nobody except God; neither does he observe any body but Allah.

No pen can ever depict this sacred being since he is God's most magnificent Messenger.

The more a being is distant from the worldly shackles, the closer he is to God. He was a sacred being who did not need even his physique. He was the manifestation of

أقْبَلَ إلى الدُّنيا رَحْمَةً لِلعالَمِينَ.

This shows that his light is manifest in all beings in the world: he is the most beloved and the purest of all creatures. Besides, one who associates with him is a perfect being who deserves the paradise. And one who ignores him belongs to the hell. This fact may be discerned in the following narration which is reported at the beginning of the book on wisdom by kafi of his book called Osul:

عَنْ أبي جَعْفَرٍD قال: لَمّا خَلَقَ اللهُ العَقْلَ اسْتَنْطَقَهُ ثُمَّ قالَ لَهُ: أقْبِلْ فَاقْبَلَ ثُمَّ، قَالَ لَهُ: أدْبِرْ، فَأدْبَرَ، قالَ: وَعِزَّتي وَجَلالي ما خَلَقْتُ خَلْقاً هُو أحَبُّ إليَّ مِنْكَ، وَلا اكْمَلْتُكَ إلاّ فيمَن اُحِبُّ. أما إنِّي إيَّاكَ آمُرُ، وإيَّاكَ أنْهى، وَإيّاكَ اُعاقِبُ، وَإيّاكَ اُثِيبُ.

The Prophet Mohammad(s) is the most magnificent creature, the summary of the two worlds; He is the light for all beings, the flower of all flower gardens, the light of the garden of creation. He is the most elegant manifestation of وما أرْسَلناكَ (And we have not sent you but to all the men as a bearer of good news 34:28); he is the nightingle of the garden ofوَما يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الهَوى “He does not speak out of desire. 53:3”

The Prophet(s) is the key to the hidden treasures, the torch for the society of believers and the giver of the mercy:

وَما أرْسَلناكَ إلاّ رَحْمَةً لِلعالَمِينَ.

(And we have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds. 21:107)

The Prophet Mohammad(s) is the base for all existence and non-existence; he is the manifestation of the hidden world and of intuition; he is the discloser of the secret of مَنْ رَآني; he is the discloser of the heavenly revelation; he is the describer of the content of نَحْنُ الآخِرونَ السّابِقُونَ and he is the discloser of the secret اِهْدِ قَوْمي إنَّهُم لا يَعْلَمُونَ. He is the wakeful of لا يَنامُ قَلْبِي. He is the resident of أبيتُ عِنْدَ اَبي and he is the candle for لي مَعَ الله. He possesses the titles and attributes of a sublime God's messenger; he is our assistant on the Doom's Day; he is the leader to the believers; he is Abulqasem Mostafa, Ahmad, Mahmoud, and Mohammad(s).

Mohyeddin talks on Hathrat Mohammad's attributes in the following manner:

صَلَواتُ اللهِ وَمَلائِكَتِهِ وَحَمَلَةِ عَرْشِهِ وَجَمِيعِ خَلْقِهِ مِنْ أرْضِهِ وَسَمائِهِ على سَيِّدِنا وَنَبِيّنا أصْلِ الجُودِ، وَعَيْنِ الشّاهِدِ وَالمَشْهُودِ، أوَّلِ الأوائِلِ.

اَنّى هُمْزمِلى عَمُوخُونْ كَتْ لِكْسِكوْخُونَ اِينَ هَوْ پارقَليطارُ وخارِ قُدْس هَوْبِت شارِربْبى شمّى هَوْيت قِلپ لوخونْ كُل مِندى وهَوْبِت مَتخِررَ خون كل مِندى دِمرونِ الَوْخُونْ.

Lahiji in the interpretation of Golshan Raz explains the line of poetry with the content “There is just one line from the onset to the end”: From the first wisdom to the lowest which is the human state and then from humanity to the Divine there is one circle on which all creatures make their journey: They all come from the deep layers and then go there once again:

 كما بَدَأكم تَعُودُونَ.

“So shall you also return. 7:29”

God's great wisdom has made it imperative that this journey on the above-mentioned circle should be carried out with a guide who possesses God's attributes. Those groups of people who are guided in this manner are superior to others and possess the attributes of the men of God. They are God's men because they are obedient to the Prophets.

On this journey, the Prophets acts like caravan-masters because they have been trained and educated for this specific task. As the caravan-masters manage the camels and their loads, so do the Prophets protect people from going to extremes in their moral affairs. They lead people towards the right path.

In comparing the prophets to the caravan-master there is an allegory to human spirit which sometimes goes out of control; at this stage it is called baqara in the terminology of Gnosticism. Upon being trained, it will be called badaneh which is a being trained, it will be called badaneh which is a camel which becomes slaughtered in Mecca on the festival Day of Azha. The story goes like this: The Prophets are the guides to people. And the true guidance is special only to those people who have submitted the camel of self to the sword of the disobedience of one's self to be slaughtered with it. It is as though the mission of the Prophets had been to connect these people to God:

وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى دَارِ السَّلَامِ وَيَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ.

“And Allah invites to the abode of peace and guides whom He pleases into the right path. 10:25”

The Prophet excel other people in that they have connected with God and have given up their very exisistance to join Allah and have adopted God's attributes. In this transformation some are closer to God than others.

The complete and whole person who is absorbed by God is Hathrat Mohammad(s). Other men of God possess Only some of God's attributes. That is why the statement:

كُنْتُ نَبِيّاً وآدَمُ بَين¡