His Birth and
The 2nd Imam after Imam Ali(a.s.) was his son Imam
son of the leader of the women of the worlds, Lady Fatima(s.a.),
daughter of Prophet Muhammad(pbuh&hf). Imam Hassan(a.s.)'s kunya was Abu
Muhammad. He was born in Medina, on the night of the 15th day of
Ramadan, three years after the hijra (624 AD).
When Imam Hassan(a.s.) was born, the Prophet(pbuh&hf) took him and
said the adhan (call to prayer) in his right ear, and said the iqama
(words similar to the adhan) in his left ear. Then he sacrificed a ram
for him (in the ceremony of aqiqa). Then he shaved his hair. He (i.e.,
the Prophet (pbuh&hf)) gave silver equal to his hair. So the weight of
Imam Hassan(a.s.)'s hair was a dirham and some of silver. Then he ordered
his hair to perfumed. So the aqiqa and giving alms as equal as the
weight of hair have become Sunna (an act of the Prophet(pbuh&hf)).
Bibi Fatima(s.a.) brought her two sons, Imam
Hassan(a.s.) and Imam
Hussain(a.s.) to the Apostle of God(pbuh&hf) at the time when he was
suffering from the sickness from which he died. "Apostle of God," she
said, "these are your two (grand) sons. Give them something as an
inheritance". "As for Hassan," he replied, "he has my form and my
nobility. As for Hussain, he has my generosity and my bravery."
His other Names al-Sibt, al-Sayyid, al-Zaki, al-Mujtaba, al-Taqi.
His Wives Imam Hassan(a.s.) married Umm Ishaq bint (the daughter of) Talha b. `Ubayd
Allah, Hafsa bint (the daughter of) 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakr, Hind
bint (the daughter of) Suhayl b. `Amru, and Ju'da bint (the daughter of
) al-Ash'ath b. Qays, whom Mu'awiya tempted to kill Imam Hassan(a.s.). So
she killed him with poison.
His Children Imam Hassan(a.s.) had fifteen children, both male and female: Zayd,
Imam Hassan(a.s.), `Amru, al-Qasim, `Abd Allah, `Abd al-Rahman, Imam
Hassan(a.s.) al-Athram, and Talha, Umm Imam Hassan(a.s.), Umm al-Husayn,
Fatima, Umm Salama, Ruqayya, Umm `Abd Allah, and Fatima.
His Characteristics No one was more like the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and
his family, than Imam Hassan(a.s.) in form, manner, and nobility.
Imam Hassan(a.s.) has been describe as : "He had a white, reddish
face. He had black eyes, smooth cheeks, thick beard, and curly,
plentiful hair. His neck was as white as a jug of silver. His body was
good. He had large shoulders, and big fleshy bones. He was of medium
height; neither long nor short. He was handsome; the best of all people
His Worship Imam Hassan(a.s.) performed the hajj on foot twenty-five times. When
he mentioned death, he wept. When he mentioned the grave, he wept. When
he mentioned the resurrection, he wept. When he mentioned crossing the
sirat (a kind of bridge which only the righteous can cross on the road
to Paradise), he wept. When he mentioned the standing before Allah(swt),
he fainted. When he mentioned Paradise and Fire, he shook as the sick
person did. So he asked Allah(swt) to make him enter Paradise and to
protect him from Fire.
When Imam Hassan(a.s.) performed an ablution for prayers, he shock all
over and his face became pale. He gave people from his property twice in
the way of Allah(swt). He mentioned Allah(swt) in all conditions whether
pleasant or otherwise.
They (the historians) said: "He (Imam
Hassan(a.s.)) was the best of
all people in worshipping Allah(swt) and refraining from the life in
His Ethics Imam Hassan (a.s.)'s ethics were excellent examples for people. So
everyone respected him. Everyone loved him when he associated with him.
When his friend or his enemy heard him talking or delivering a speech,
he was sorry that he (Imam Hassan(a.s.)) would end his talking or his
Muhammad b. Ishaq said: "After Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him
and his family, no one had a high social position as Imam Hassan(a.s.)
had. (Mats) were spread out at the door of his house. When he came out
and sat, the street was over crowded. So no one of Allah's creatures
could pass to show respect for him. When he knew that, he stood up and
entered his house. So the people could pass."
Although Imam Hassan(a.s.) had a high social rank, he was kind to
people. One day he passed by poor persons. The poor persons were sitting
on the ground. There were pieces of bread before them. They were picking
up the pieces of bread and eating them. When they saw Imam Hassan(a.s.)
they said to him: "Son of the Apostle of Allah, come to lunch!" So he
dismounted his camel and said: "Indeed, Allah does not love the proud."
He began eating with them. Then he invited them and gave them food and
The following are some examples of Imam
Hassan(a.s.)'s generosity: A
man came to him and asked him for a need. He (Imam Hassan(a.s.)) said to
the man: "Write your need on a piece of paper and submit it to me." The
man submitted his need to him. He (Imam Hassan(a.s.)) doubled the man's
need. So some of those who were sitting with Imam Hassan(a.s.) said to
him: "Son of the Apostle of Allah, the blessing of the piece of paper
was great for the man." So Imam Hassan(a.s.) said: "Its blessing for us
is greater, for Allah has made us appropriate for doing good. Do you not
know that doing good should be optional, namely without request. As for
him whom you give after the request, you give him after he has lost
face. He may spend his night restless and sleepless. He rocks between
despair and hope. He does not know whether he will face a sad answer or
a glad success. He comes to you while he shakes all over and his heart
is afraid (of you). Then if you met his need through losing face, that
(losing face) would be greater than what he has obtained from your
Imam Hassan(a.s.), gave a poet some money. So one of those who were
sitting with him said to him: "Glory be to Allah! Do you give the poet
who disobeys the Merciful (Allah) and tells lies?" Imam Hassan(a.s.),
peace be on him, said: "Servant of Allah, the best of your money is what
you spend to protect your dignity. It is an act of kindness to avoid the
A Bedouin came to Imam Hassan(a.s.) and asked him for a need. So Imam
Hassan(a.s.) said: "Give him all the money in the safe." There were
twenty thousand dirhams in the safe. All the money was given to the
Bedouin, so he said: "My master, do you not let me tell you about my
need and praise you?" Imam Hassan(a.s.) began saying: Our gifts are many,
The hopeful enjoy them, Our selves give generously before the request,
For fear of losing face.
One day Imam Hassan(a.s.) saw a black boy. The black boy was eating a
piece of bread and giving a piece of bread to his dog. So Imam Hassan(a.s.)
said to him: "What has made you do this?" "I feel shame of my dog when I
eat and do not feed him," answered the black boy. Then Imam Hassan(a.s.)
said to him: "Do not leave your place till I come to you." At that
moment Imam Hassan(a.s.) went to the black boy's master. He bought the
black boy and the wall (the garden) where he lived. He freed the black
boy and made him possess the wall.
His Outstanding Merits Imam Hassan(a.s.) is the Lord of the youth of Heaven. He was one of
the two persons in whom the progeny of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah
bless him and his family, was limited. He was one of the four persons
through whom the Prophet(pbuh&hf) made the contest of prayer with the
Christians of Najran. He was one of the five persons whom the
Prophet (pbuh&hf) covered with his cloak. He was one of the twelve Imams
whose obedience Allah(swt) made incumbent on people. He was among those
who were purified from sins as the Qur'an says. He was among those whose
love Allah(swt) made reward for the message. He was among those whom the
Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) made one of the two valuable things (thaqalayn).
Thus whoever cleaves to them does not go astray. He was the plant of the
sweet basil of the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf). The Prophet(pbuh&hf) loved
him and asked Allah(swt) to love those who love him.
Imam Hassan(a.s.)'s Succession to the Caliphate and his Abdication Imam Hassan(a.s.) was the testamentary trustee (wasi) of Imam
Ali(a.s.) over his family, his children and his followers. He bequeathed
him to look after his position and (the position of) his taxes (sadaqat)
and he wrote him a covenant (of succession) which is well-known. His
testamentary trusteeship is obvious in terms of the outlines of
religion, the essential characteristic of wisdom and good-breeding. A
great number of scholars have reported this trusteeship and many of the
men of understanding have realised the truth of this through his
(attitude to) the world.
When Imam Ali(a.s.) died, Imam Hassan(a.s.) addressed the people. He
reminded them of his right (to authority). The followers of his father
pledged allegiance to him in terms of fighting those he fought and
making peace with those with whom he made peace. He assumed the
succession in the best manner though the time of his succession was
short. Also he made a Peace Treaty with Mu'awiya on the 15th of Jamadi
al-Awwal in the year 41 A.H., according to the most correct reports. So
he was able to protect the religion and to spare the blood of the
believers. In the Peace Treaty, he followed the teachings, which he
reported on the authority of his father on the authority of his
grandfather, may Allah bless him and his family. Apparently, his
succession was seven months and twenty days.
After the Peace Treaty had been concluded, Imam
Hassan (a.s.) came back
to Medina to stay there. So his house became as a second haram (a sacred
sanctuary) for people to visit. Through these two sacred places (Imam
Hassan(a.s.)'s house and Medina), Imam Hassan(a.s.), became the rise of
guidance. He was the stronghold of knowledge and shelter of Muslims.
Meanwhile there were many knowledgeable people all around him. Anyhow
such knowledgeable people were the students of Imam Hussain(a.s.). So
they learned knowledge from him and reported it on his authority.
Allah(swt) granted Imam Hassan(a.s.) plentiful knowledge and a high
social position in the hearts of Muslims. Thus he (Imam Hassan(a.s.)) was
able to guide the community, to lead Muslims spiritually, to correct the
Islamic beliefs, and to unify the people of monotheism.
His Death Imam Hassan(a.s.) was given poison several times. When Imam
Hassan(a.s.) felt the danger in the last attempt, he said to his brother
Imam Hussain(a.s.): "My brother, I am leaving you and meeting my Lord. I
have been given poison to drink, and have spewed my liver into the
basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from where I have
been made a subject to this deceitful action. I will oppose him before
Allah, the Great and Almighty." Then he said: "Bury me with my grand
father, the Apostle of Allah (pbuh&hf). For I am worthier of him and his
family' (than others). If they prevent you from doing so, then I make
you swear by the relation which Allah(swt) has made close to you and by
the blood relation to the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) not to shed even
your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my command, till we
meet the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) to oppose the people before him and
to tell him about what we have suffered from them."
Then Imam Hassan(a.s.) made his testamentary bequests to his family
and his children. He gave Imam Hussain (a.s.) his heirlooms and the
things which the Commander of the faithful (Imam Ali(a.s.)) had
bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor, had declared him
worthy to occupy his position, and had indicated to his Shi'a (his
followers) that he (Imam Hassan(a.s.)) was his successor. Then Imam
Hassan(a.s.) died on the 28th of Safar in the year 50 A.H.
Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani said: "Mu'awiya wanted the people to pledge
allegiance to his son Yazid. However, the existence of Imam Hassan(a.s.)
b. 'Ali and of Sa'd b. Abu Waqqas troubled him very much. So he gave
them poison to drink, and they died of it."
The abominable disasters of this kind shook the conscience of the
Muslim countries. So there were various revolutions throughout history.
In this connection Allah(swt), the Exalted, says: "And they who act
unjustly shall know to what final place of turning they shall turn
His Burial Sibt b. al-Jawzi reported on the authority of b. Sa'd on the
authority of al-Waqidi, who said: "When Imam Hassan(a.s.) was about to
die, he said: `Bury me beside my father.' He meant the Apostle of
Allah(pbuh&hf). However, banu (the sons of ) Umayya and Marwan b. al-Hakam
and Said b. al-As, who was the governor over Medina, prevented him." Ibn
Sa'd said: "Among them was `A'isha, who said: `No one is buried beside
the Apostle of Allah.'"
Abu al-Faraj al-Amawi al-Isfahani reported on the authority of Yahya
b. Imam Hassan(a.s.), who said: "I heard Ali b. Tahir b. Zayd say: `When
they wanted to bury Imam Hassan(a.s.), she (`A'isha) mounted a mule and
asked the help of banu (the sons of) Umayya, Marwan, those who were
there from them (banu Umayya) and from their servants. So someone said:
`One day (she was) on a mule, and one day (she was) on a camel.'"
Al-Mas'udi has mentioned that `A'isha mounted a gray mule and led the
Umayyads to declare a second battle against the members of the House (Ahl
al-Bayt(a.s.)). He (al-Mas'udi) said: "So al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abu
Bakr came to her (`A'isha) and said: `Aunt, we, have not washed our
heads since the Battle of the Camel. Do you want people to call this day
the Battle of the Gray Mule?' So she came back."
Many people gathered together with Imam Hussain(a.s.) and said to
him: "Leave us with the children of Marwan. By Allah(swt), they are,
with us, nothing but an itching of the head." Imam Hussain(a.s.) said:
`By Allah(swt), if there had been no injunction to me from Imam
Hassan(a.s.) to prevent bloodshed and that I should not even pour blood
into a cupping-glass in (carrying out) his command, you would have known
how the swords of Allah(swt) would have taken their toll from you. You
have broken the agreement which was made between you and us. You have
ignored the conditions which we made with you for ourselves." Here Imam
Hussain(a.s.) reminded them of the conditions of the Peace Treaty.
Then they went on with (the body of) Imam
Hassan(a.s.) and they buried
him in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi beside his grandmother, Fatima
bint-e-Asad(a.s.) bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf.
In his book `al-Isaba', Ahmad Shahab al-Din al-`Asqalani said: Dawud
b. Sinan informed us: Tha'laba b. Abu Malik told us: "I (Tha'laba b. Abu
Malik) saw Imam Hassan(a.s.) on the day when he died and was buried in
(the cemetery of) al-Baqi`. I saw that if a needle had been thrown away
in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi`, it (the needle) would have not fallen but
on the head of a person."
3 Distinctions :-
1)First person on the
earth ever to be born ; who is a masoom (infallible) , & Father & Mother
is also infallible !
2) Replied to Hz Khizr
in early childhood ,who confirmed that he was as satisfied as receiving
the reply from the Prophet(as) himself . Inheritor of the Knowledge of
the Prophet (saw)
3) Imam Ali (as) requested
Imam Hassan (as) to reply to the 6 questions brought by Muwaviyas
messenger , answers to which was sought from him by the King of Romans .