The Event of Mubahala on 24th Dhu’l-Hijjah is a key event in Islamic history in which Prophet Muhammad (SA) and Christian delegations from Najran met in order to do mubahala (imprecation-a confrontation where God’s curse is invoked on whichever side holds false beliefs) to reveal who is truthful and who is lying about their religious differences concerning divinity and monotheism. Know more about the Mubahila event
Imam Ali’s (as) Giving His Ring in Charity on the 24th day of Zil-Hijjah
Ayat Al-Ma'ida 5:54-56 Background
On 24th of Dhul-hijjah, Imam Ali(as) gave his ring to a beggar whilst in ruku’ (bowing down in prayer) and the following verse was revealed identifying him as "Wali":
Only Allah is your wali (master) and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow. (5:55)
" O you who have faith! Should any of you desert his religion, Allah will soon bring a people whom He loves and who love Him, [who will be] humble towards the faithful, stern towards the faithless, waging jihad in the way of Allah, not fearing the blame of any blamer. That is Allah’s grace, which He grants to whomever He wishes, and Allah is all-bounteous, all-knowing. (54)
Your guardian is only Allah, His Apostle, and the faithful who maintain the prayer and give the zakat while bowing down. (55)
Whoever takes for his guardians Allah, His Apostle and the faithful [should know that] the confederates of Allah are indeed the victorious.(56)"
These verses that contain attributes that are mentioned in them, are the evident text that clearly indicates that Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) is to succeed the Prophet (as) and that he is the Commander of the Faithful.
Some of these attributes are expressed by Allah(swt) in the verse as follows,:
1.If any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him.
All who have quoted these verses, including the oppossers and the ones who agree, have written that in the Battle of Khaybar, the Noble Prophet (as) said the following to our Imam Ali (as) when the Muslims were defeated: “Tomorrow I will give the flag to one who loves God and the Prophet (as).
And God and the Prophet (as) love him.
He is a man who attacks continuously.
And he never flees so that by him (as) God endows triumph to the Muslims."
Also, the Noble Prophet (as) has said the following about Ali (as) in the Ta‟ir narration: “O‟ my God! Make present the most beloved creature so that he sits beside my tablecloth with me to eat this bird.”
2.Another attribute that Allah(swt)says in these verses is as follows:
"- lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters," These two opposing attributes in the verse existed in none of those near God‟s Prophet (as) and the companions except for Imam Ali (as) as it was just Ali (as) who had the attribute of being perfectly humble before God who is aware of the unseen when he was relieved from battle.
He associated well with the believers and was wholeheartedly concerned for the disabled and the helpless ones.
And he (as) had been recognized in the state of battle as being an individual who was headstrong and harsh with the unbelievers.
And he did frightening acts when faced with the strongest men of the enemy forces to the extent that anyone who saw him tolerating the battle‟s difficulties said: “This is the one which we have mentioned as one of the most humble worshippers and ascetics.”
3.Another attribute that God the Glorified the Sublime mentions in these verses is the following, " fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault."5:54-56
We do not know any of the companions or the people close to God‟s Prophet (as) who challenged the Commander of the Faithful (as) in the affair of Caliphate, and leadership of the nation who defended the Muslims in great events like Ali (as) did.
In the continuance of the above verse, the Allah(swt) suddenly revealed His intention with another sentence for ones who have insight and He says: "Your (real) friends are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish regular prayers and regular charity while they bow down humbly (in worship).
Here God first mentions the leadership of the Allah(swt) which covers all of the creatures.
Then, it mentions the leadership of God‟s Prophet (as) which has that same attribute of Divine Leadership.
Then, it makes note of the leadership of the one who gave charity while bowing down in prayer with that same clear evidence after the leadership of God and His Prophet (as).
This is enlightenment by the strong verses of the speaking Qur‟an.
4.Yet Another characteristic that the Allah(swt) mentions in continuation of the verse is as follows: "As to those who turn (for friendship) to God!, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- it is the fellowship of Allah that must certainly triumph."
This verse mentions characteristics like "certainly triumph" and the perfect proof of God.
And this attribute is especial to the one who is Immaculate in all of his deeds.
And it has not been claimed about any of the others who challenged Imam Ali (as) regarding the Caliphate as necessarily being immaculate in ranks and posts.
Thus, these verses state that the intention of the leadership in which has been mentioned is uniquely the Divine Leadership of Imam Ali (as).
Some refrences from Sunni scholars
the author of the book Al-Jam’ Bayna as-Sahah al-Sittih who has quoted it in the third part – which is the last part of this book.
Also Al-Sa‟labi narrated the following in his book of the interpretation of the Qur‟an on the authority of Al-Sadi and Abtat ibn Abi Hakim,
A similar narration has been reported by Ababat ibn al-Rub'ee, Ibn Abbas and Abizar.
A similar narration has been reported by Al-Shafe'ee ibn Al-Maqazily in five ways.
A similar narration has been reported by Ali ibn Abis and Abdullah ibn A'ta.
Al-Zumukhshari in Kitab al-Kishaf narrated the following in interpretation of the Qur‟an.
All the members of the Household of the Prophet (as) whom the Prophet has clearly described by saying, "They shall not separate until they meet at the Pond!" unanimously agree that this verse has been revealed regarding our Imam - the Commander of the Faithful Ali (as).
25th of Dhul-hijjah - On this blessed day, Surah al-Dahr (or al-Insan No. 76) was revealed praising the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) for they had observed fasting for three days and given their food to a poor, an orphan, and a captive for three days respectively. All over these three days, they used to break their fasting with water only.
It is worthy that the followers of the Prophet's family should emulate their masters during these days-especially on the 25th night of the month-and fast on this day while helping the needy and orphans and offering them meals.
Details of event from Iqbal Aamal
The following is narrated through various means including what my grandfather Abu Ja'far al-Tusi narrated in Kitab al-Misbah.
The Commander of the Faithful Ali (as) and Fatimah (as) gave charity on the twenty-fifth night of Zil-Hajjih and the verse of the Qur‟an "We feed you for the sake of Allah alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks"Holy Qur‟an: Al-Insan 76:9 was revealed.
When Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein got ill, Ali (as) went to see their grandfather Muhammad - God's Prophet (as) when Abu Bakr, Umar and other Arabs were there. The Prophet (as) told him, "O' Abal Hassan! Why don't you make a vow with God for your children. Once you make a vow, you must honor it." Then Ali (as) replied, "O.K. I make a vow for their healing and shall fast for three days to thank God the Honorable the Exalted." Fatimah and her maid Fuzza said the same thing. Then the two young children got well but the household of the Prophet had very little. Then Ali (as) went to Shamoon ibn Haria al-Khaybary and borrowed some bareley from him.
It has been narrated through several documents that the charitable acts of our Masters Ali and Fatimah (as) for the needy, the orphans and the captives occurred on three nights the first of which may have been on the twenty-fifth night of Zil-Hajjih. The following is one such narration. Ali (as) went to his Jewish neighbor Shamoon ibn Haraih and agreed to treat some sheep's skin for him in return for barley. Then he informed Fatimah about this deal and she obeyed and agreed. When he received the barley, he took it to Fatimah. Then Fatimah got up, ground it and made five loafs of bread with it – one for each. Then Ali (as) and the Prophet (as) said their evening prayers and went home. And as soon as she put the food in front of him, an indigent stopped at their door and said, “Peace be on you, O' Household of Muhammad! I am a poor man from the many poor Muslims. Please feed me so that God may feed you from the tablespread of Paradise!” Then Ali (as) heard him and ordered that it be given to him. And it was given to the poor man.
Then they spent the day and the night without eating anything but some clean water. On the second day, Fatimah (as) got up and grounded the second portion and made five loafs of bread with it – one for each. Then Ali (as) and the Prophet (as) said their evening prayers and went home. And as soon as he put the food in front of him, an orphan stopped at their door and said, "Peace be on you, O' Household of Muhammad! I am an orphan from the children of the immigrants. My father was martyred on the day of Al-Aqaba. Please feed me so that God may feed you from the tablespread of Paradise! Then Ali (as) heard him and ordered that it be given to him. And it was given to the poor man. Then they spent two days and two nights without eating anything but some clean water.
On the third day, Fatimah (as) got up and took the third portion and made five loafs of bread with it – one for each. Then Ali (as) and the Prophet (as) said their evening prayers and went home. And as soon as he put the food in front of him, a captive stopped at their door and said, “Peace be on you, O' Household of Muhammad! You captivate us but do not feed us!” Then Ali (as) heard him and ordered that it be given to him. And the food was given to the poor man. Then they spent three days and three nights without eating anything but some clean water.
On the fourth day they had fulfilled their vow. Ali (as) took Al-Hassan‟s hand in his right hand and Al-Hussein‟s hand in his left hand and went to see God‟s Prophet (as) while they were shaking like a chicken from extreme hunger. When the Prophet (as) saw them, he (as) asked, “O' Abal-Hassan! What is wrong with you?" Then they all rushed to Fatimah's house. Once they reached there, she was in her prayer niche, her stomach stuck to her back from extreme hunger and her eyes had caved in. When the Prophet (as) saw her, he (as) said, “O' God! Please save her. The Household of Muhammad are perishing due to extreme hunger!”
Then Gabriel (as) descended to Muhammad (saw) and said, “O' Muhammad! Receive what God has revealed regarding your household.” Then Muhammad (as) said, “O' Gabriel! What has He revealed?” Then Gabriel (as) recited the following verse, "Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing - (not even) mentioned? Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. We showed him the Way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will). For the Rejecters we have prepared chains, yokes, and a blazing Fire. As to the Righteous, they shall drink of a Cup (of Wine) mixed with Kafur,- A Fountain where the Devotees of Allah do drink, making it
flow in unstinted abundance. They perform (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil flies far and wide. And they feed, for the love of Allah, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,- (Saying),"We feed you for the sake of Allah alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks."76:1-9.
Muhammad ibn al-Gazali has added the following to what Al-Sa‟labi narrated in his book known as Al-Balaqa. Food was sent down from the heavens for them and they ate it for seven days. Ahmad al-Maliki al-Kharazmy has reported a similar narration regarding their receiving heavenly food.
Al-Zumukhshari has reported a narration regarding the revelation of Chapter al-Ma'eda in Kitab al-Kishaf o n the authority of the Prophet (as), "The Prophet (as) became hungry at the time of famine. Fatimah (as) gave all they had to eat on a tray with two loafs of bread and some meat that they had to the Prophet (as). Then the Prophet (as) returned the empty tray to Fatimah (as). However, when she (as) took off the cover she noticed that it is filled with bread and meat. She was amazed but recognized that it is sent to them from God.
The Prophet (as) asked her, "Where did this food come from?" She (as) replied, "They are from God who gives without measure." Then the Prophet (as) said, "Praise be to God who set you similar to the master of the ladies of the Children of Israel1." Then the Prophet (as) called in Ali ibn Abi Talib, Al-Hassan, Al-Hussein and all the other members of the family. They all ate from that food until they got full, but the food remained intact. Then Fatimah (as) distributed the food among her neighbors. Even Ali ibn Ahmad al-Vahedy al-Neishaboori who was opposed to the members of Household of the Prophet (as) has reported the narration about the revelation of the verse "Hal-Ata" in his book Asbab al-Nozool.
Section 2 On Acts of Worshipping the Lord of the Worlds on the Twenty-Fifth Night
Beware that all acts of worship that are done for the sake of God the Honorable the Exalted on such occasions reach God who is aware of what is best for the creatures and what would benefit them the most in this world and the Hereafter. Thus now we learned that giving such a small amount of charity by our Masters Ali and Fatimah on this night elevated them to such a high rank that they were praised in the Glorious Qur‟an and were bestowed many blessings. Also note that they are examples for all who want to follow them and get guided by their illuminations.
Thus, we learn from their acts that giving charity to the poor, the captives and the orphans, and giving them more priority than ourselves and our relatives is one of the best acts of worship on this night. This could help make our deeds in line with that of those who self-sacrifice and in line with the Immaculate ones. Thus, man can breath the fresh air of God's Mercy who is the Possessor of all Benevolence and Kindness, and enter the domain of Illuminance and Divine Secrets which God opens up on such nights.
Deeds for the Twenty-Fifth Day of Zil-Hijjah
Know that this is a highly honored day which has been glorified in the Holy Qur‟an by the Exalted the Honorable God. It is the best day to get close to God the Honorable the Exalted by performing the gratitude prayers regarding what He has granted to the people of remembrance and the masters of the affairs. One cannot say enough about it.
The following is reported by the chain of documents on the authority of our Sheikh al-Mufid Muhammad ibn al-Nu'man - may God the Honorable the Exalted increase his reward in Paradise - as reported in Hada'iq al-Riaz va Zuhratal Murtaz regarding the month of Zil-Hajjih.
On its twenty-fifth day the Chapter Hal Ata was revealed regarding the Commander of the Faithful Ali, Fatimah, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (as). It is recommendable to fast on that day due to what the Sublime God revealed regarding the nobility of His Chosen one and the Itrat (Household) of His Prophet and the Proof over His creatures. This was said here to honor it and perform the relevant deeds as were previously reported regarding great days such as the day of Arafa.
On the twenty-sixth day of Zil-Hajjih one of the enemies of the Household of the Prophet was killed.
And on its twenty-seventh day Marwan was killed and the Bani (Clan) Ummayad's rule was totally terminated. Thus this is a day to behappy, to fast, express thanks by praying and by giving charity in the sight of He who sees all and bestows everything whose description has been given earlier in other narrations.
Twenty-Ninth Day of Zil-Hijjah
The following is narrated based on documents on the authority of our Sheikh al-Mufid – may God be pleased with him - from Hada'iq al-Riaz regarding the twenty-ninth day of Zil-Hajjih. It is recommended to fast on that day to thank God the Sublime for the death of His enemies and the enemies of His Prophet (as) on that day.
On this day as mentioned by Al-Mufid - may God have mercy on him - you should be happy, do things to please God the Exalted, thank God the Glorifed the Praised for His Kindness, and recognition of the blessing of the destruction of His enemy that was mentioned as it was a great enemy. And what one does in return should be great and thanking God should be considerable.
It is best to recognize the Exalted God's Favor and His Perfect Characteristics at the end of this day. This requires that your animosity towards God's enemies be for the sake of God and His Prophet (as), and as much as their animosity against God and His Prophet (as). Your animosity against them should not be for ephemral worldly goals or other vague purposes. When this day ends, end it with the deeds that were reported earlier for happy days.
The last day of Dhu’l-Hijjah is the last day in the Islamic calendar.
Sayyid Ibn Tawus in his book of Iqbal al-A`mal,says it is recommended to offer a two unit prayer on this day reciting Surah al-Fatihah once, and repeating each of Surah al-Tawhid and Ayah al-Kursi ten times
After completion, it is recommended to say the following prayer:
اَللَّهُمَّ مَا عَمِلْتُ فِي هٰذِهِ ٱلسَّنَةِ
allahumma ma `amiltu fi hadhihi alssanati
O Allah, as for any act that I have done in this year
مِنْ عَمَلٍ نَهَيْتَنِي عَنْهُ وَلَمْ تَرْضَهُ
min `amalin nahaytani `anhu wa lam tardahu
but You have warned me against doing it and You have been displeased with it,
At the advent of Muharram,we beseech Imam Mahdi (ajtfs) to increase the size of our crucible and increase our ability to grieve and offer condolences, as commanded by Quran in 42:23.
"The ten days of Muharram is a time when a special sustenance is prepared and distributed. Whether we get any portion of it (or how much) depends on how closely we orbit around Imam Hussein. Let us beseech him to choose us for his service."-Sayed Mahdi Modarresi:
"Looking forward to Muharram because shedding tears of sorrow over the martyrdom of Imam Hussein (a) does something to your heart that just can’t be put into words.
It’s something that you just have to experience for yourself to understand."-Shaikh Azhar Nasser: