Month of Muharram

1st Night and Day of Muharram

The month of Muharram is the month of sadness for the Ahlul-Bayt (peace be upon them) and their followers. In this respect, Imam al-Rida (peace be upon him) is reported to have said, “With the beginning of Muharram, my father (peace be upon him) would never smile at all. He would be dominated by depression for ten days. The tenth of this month would be the day of his misfortune, sadness, and weeping. He used to say that on this day Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) was slain.”

Learn more aboout the tragedy of Karbala here.
Salaah for the New Month

Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in Iqbal al-A`mal, has mentioned that a number of prayers should be advisably offered at this night:

First: A one hundred unit prayer with Surahs al-Fatihah and al-Tawhid recited once in each unit.

Second: A two unit prayer at the first of which Surahs al-Fatiha and al-An`am (No. 6) are recited and at the second unit Surahs al-Fatiha and Yasin (No. 36).

Third: A two unit prayer in each of which Surah al-Fatiha is recited once and Surah al-Tawhid is repeated eleven times.
The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is reported to have said that whoever offers this prayer at this night and observes fasting the next day, which is the first day in the new year, the new year will be wholly good for him, and he will be saved throughout the year, and if he dies, he will be allowed Paradise.

It is recommended to observe fasting on this day. Rayyan ibn Shabib has reported that Imam Ridha (peace be upon him) said, “Just as He responded to the prayer of Prophet Zachariah, Almighty Allah shall respond the prayer of one who observes fasting on this day and prays to Him.”

Imam Ridha (peace be upon him) is reported to have said that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), on the first of Muharram, used to offer a two unit prayer. When he finished, he would raise his hands towards the heavens and repeat the following supplicatory prayer three times:

اَللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ ٱلإِلٰهُ ٱلْقَدِيمُ
allahumma anta al-ilahu alqadimu
O Allah, You are the Eternal God
وَهٰذِهِ سَنَةٌ جَدِيدَةٌ
wa hadhihi sanatun jadidatun
and this is a new year;
فَأَسْأَلُكَ فِيهَا ٱلْعِصْمَةَ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَانِ
fa-as'aluka fiha al`ismata mina alshshaytani
I therefore request Your safety from Satan,
وَٱلْقُوَّةَ عَلَىٰ هٰذِهِ ٱلنَّفْسِ ٱلأَمَّارَةِ بِٱلسُّوءِ
walquwwata `ala hadhihi alnnafsi al-ammarati bilssu'i
control over my self, which is inclined to sinning,
وَٱلاِﹾشْتِغَالَ بِمَا يُقَرِّبُنِي إِلَيْكَ يَا كَرِيمُ
walishtighala bima yuqarribuni ilayka ya karimu
engagement in all that which draws me near You, O All-generous!
يَا ذَا ٱلْجَلاَلِ وَٱلإِكْرَامِ
ya dha aljalali wal-ikrami
O Lord of majesty and honor!
يَا عِمَادَ مَنْ لاَ عِمَادَ لَهُ
ya `imada man la `imada lahu
O Supporter of him who has no supporter!
يَا ذَخِيرَةَ مَنْ لا ذَخِيرَةَ لَهُ
ya dhakhirata man la dhakhirata lahu
O Provider of him who has no provisions!
يَا حِرْزَ مَنْ لاَ حِرْزَ لَهُ
ya hirza man la hirza lahu
O Shelter of him who has no shelter!
يَا غِيَاثَ مَنْ لاَ غِيَاثَ لَهُ
ya ghiyatha man la ghiyatha lahu
O He who comes to help him who has no hope of help!
يَا سَنَدَ مَنْ لاَ سَنَدَ لَهُ
ya sanada man la sanada lahu
O Reliance for him who has no one to lean upon!
يَا كَنْزَ مَنْ لاَ كَنْزَ لَهُ
ya kanza man la kanza lahu
O Treasure of him who has nothing in the purse!
يَا حَسَنَ ٱلْبَلاَءِ
ya hasana albala'i
O He who knows well how to put to test and trial!
يَا عَظِيمَ ٱلرَّجَاءِ
ya `azima alrraja'i
O Ultimate Hope!
يَا عِزَّ ٱلضُّعَفَاءِ
ya `izza alddu`afa'i
O Strength of the weak!
يَا مُنْقِذَ ٱلْغَرْقَىٰ
ya munqidha algharqa
O Rescuer of the drowning!
يَا مُنْجِيَ ٱلْهَلْكَىٰ
ya munjiya alhalka
O He who saves from destruction!
يَا مُنْعِمُ يَا مُجْمِلُ
ya mun`imu ya mujmilu
O All-benefactor! O All-munificent!
يَا مُفْضِلُ يَا مُحْسِنُ
ya mufdilu ya muhsinu
O All-favorer! O All-benevolent!
أَنْتَ ٱلَّذِي سَجَدَ لَكَ سَوَادُ ٱللَّيْلِ وَنُورُ ٱلنَّهَارِ
anta alladhi sajada laka sawadu allayli wa nuru alnnahari
You are He before Whom prostrate in adoration the blackness of the night and the brightness of the day,
وَضَوْءُ ٱلْقَمَرِ وَشُعَاعُ ٱلشَّمْسِ
wa daw'u alqamari wa shu`a`u alshshamsi
the moonlight, the sunlight,
وَدَوِيُّ ٱلْمَاءِ وَحَفِيفُ ٱلشَّجَرِ
wa dawiyyu alma'i wa hafifu alshshajari
the ripple of the water, and the rustling of the trees!
يَا اللَّهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَكَ
ya allahu la sharika laka
O Allah! There is no associate with You!
اَللَّهُمَّ ٱجْعَلْنَا خَيْراً مِمَّا يَظُنُّونَ
allahumma ij`alna khayran mimma yazunnuna
O Allah! (Please do) cause us to be better than what they think of us!
وَٱغْفِرْ لَنَا مَا لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
waghfir lana ma la ya`lamuna
Forgive us that which they do not know!
وَلاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا بِمَا يَقُولُونَ
wa la tu'akhidhna bima yaquluna
Do not blame us for what they say!
حَسْبِيَ ٱللَّهُ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ
hasbiya allahu la ilaha illa huwa
Sufficient is Allah (for me). There is no god save Him,
عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ
`alayhi tawakkaltu wa huwa rabbu al`arshi al`azimi
On Him do I rely, and He is the Lord of the Great Throne.
آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا
amanna bihi kullun min `indi rabbina
We believe in it! It is all from our Lord!
وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُوٱ ٱلأَلْبَابِ
wa ma yadhdhakkaru illa ulu al-albabi
None do mind except those having understanding.
رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا
rabbana la tuzigh qulubana ba`da idh hadaytana
Our Lord, make not our hearts deviate after You have guided us aright,
وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ ٱلْوَهَّابُ
wa hab lana min ladunka rahmatan innaka anta alwahhabu
and grant us mercy from You; surely, You are the most liberal Giver.
Shaykh al-Tusi says: It is recommended to observe fasting on the first nine days of Muharram.
Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned the merits of observing fasting during the whole month of Muharram adding that such a deed protects against committing any sin.

Third Muharram: On this day, Prophet Joseph was freed from his prison. Hence, if one observes fasting on this day, Almighty Allah will make easy any difficulty he may face and will relieve any trouble that may face him. According to a Hadith reported from the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), Almighty Allah will respond to the prayer of him who observes fasting on this day.