eTIQUETTES AND SUPPLICATIONS pertaining TO DEATH

from Mafatih -Baqiyqtus salehat                  

'Witness' Document      Ghusl       Kafan       Salat Mayyit       Burial        Talqeen

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When signs of death appear to someone, he more than anyone else must prepare himself for receiving it, because he will start a journey from which he will never return; namely, the journey to the Other World. In this journey, he requires suitable provisions. The first thing he must do is to confess of his sins, admit of failure to do what ought to be done, show regret at the wrongdoings he has done, declare pure repentance, weep for himself, implore the All-holy God for forgiveness, and pray Him to stand by him and not to leave him alone facing the imminent shocks and horrors.

As a second step, he must pay considerable attention to his will; he must therefore fulfill his liabilities and duties towards Almighty Allah and people and must not entrust others to do so on behalf of him. He will very soon lose any control over his properties; rather, he will not be able to do anything rather than watching sorrowfully how his properties will be spent. In fact, the devilish jinn and human beings will inspire evil things to his heirs in order to prevent them from absolving him from the financial liabilities and he will have not stratagem other than shouting, “My Lord, send me back haply I may do good in that which I have left!” Yet, this call will not be heard and regret will not be helpful anymore.

In this respect, one who feels his imminent departure of this life must bequeath one third of his properties to his relatives and to charitable purposes in a way that corresponds to the financial situation. Legally, a legator has no right to dispose of more than one third of his legacy.

The next step is that he must absolve himself from his obligations towards his brethren-in-faith, ask those whom he had backbitten, insulted, or injured to forgive him if he can contact with them, and ask his present brethren-in-faith to ask the absent ones to release him from any wrongdoing he had done to them.

He must then nominate somebody as his guardian over his immature sons and entrust a trustworthy person with managing the affairs of his children and family members. Of course, this step, as well as all other steps, must be preceded by putting full trust in Almighty Allah.

The next step is that he must prepare his shroud (i.e. grave-clothes), in case that he has not already prepared it, and to order that the  prayers and holy verses, which are too many to be mentioned in this thesis, must be written on his shroud with a liquid made of a mixture of water and soil taken from Imam al-°usayn’s holy tomb. However, a true believer must always have his shroud prepared. In this regard, Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) is reported to have said, “Whoever has his shroud kept in his house, will not be registered with the inadvertent ones and will be granted a reward whenever he looks at it.”

One who is near death must no longer think of the future of his family members, sons, and property; rather, he must think of nothing except the All-holy God and must understand that such transient matters will not help or save him neither in this world nor in the other world, and nothing will help except the kindness and mercy of Almighty Allah. Hence, if one puts his full trust in Almighty Allah, the affairs of his household will certainly go well. It must be also known for sure that no one, be he alive or dead, can provide any help or fend off any harm unless Almighty Allah wills so, since He, Who has created the beings, is more compassionate to His creatures than anyone else. As a result, one who is near death must be full of hope for the mercy of his Lord and must entertain expectation of the intercession of the Holy Prophet (¥) and the Holy Imams (`a) and wait for their coming at the hour of death. In fact, it must be known that they all come at the last hour of death to convey good tidings to their loyalists and to ask the Angel of Death to be lenient to the dead who has been faithful to them.

In Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, Shaykh al-±£s¢ says that it is recommended to pay much attention to the last will, which must not be belittled by every human being. In this respect, it is reported that one must not spend a single night without having his will placed under his head. This advice becomes more emphatic in cases of ailments. Hence, one must write down his will as excellently as possible and must absolve himself from the liabilities and responsibilities towards Almighty Allah and towards His servants.

The Holy Prophet (¥) is reported to have said, “Whoever fails to write his will sensibly before his death, lacks reason and manliness.” He (¥) was asked, “How should excellent writing of one’s will be, Allah’s Messenger?” He (¥) instructed: In the last hours of his lifetime and when people gather around him, he must say:

اَللَّهُمَّ فَاطِرَ ﭐلسَّمَاوَاتِ وَﭐلارْضِ

all¡humma f¡§ira alssam¡w¡ti wal-ar¤i

“O Allah! O Designer of the heavens and the earth!

عَالِمَ ﭐلْغَيْبِ وَﭐلشَّهَادَةِ

`¡lima alghaybi walshshah¡dati

O Knower of the unseen and seen!

ﭐلرَّحْمٰنَ ﭐلرَّحِيمَ

alrra¦m¡na alrra¦¢maa

O most Beneficent! O most Merciful!

إِنِّي اعْهَدُ إِلَيْكَ

inn¢ a`hadu ilayka

I confide in You

انِّي اشْهَدُ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ﭐللَّهُ

ann¢ ashhadu an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

that I bear witness that there is no god save Allah

وَحدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

alone, without Your having any associate.

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّىٰ ﭐللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa anna mu¦ammadan ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ `abduh£ wa ras£luh£

I bear witness that Mu¦ammad is His servant and messenger,

وَانَّ ﭐلسَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهَا

wa anna alss¡`ata ¡tiyatun l¡ rayba f¢h¡

that the Hour shall undoubtedly come,

وَانَّ ﭐللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي ﭐلْقُبُورِ

wa anna all¡ha yab`athu man f¢ alqub£ri

that Allah shall raise the dead from their graves,

وَانَّ ﭐلْحِسَابَ حَقٌّ

wa anna al¦is¡ba ¦aqqun

that the Interrogation is true,

وَانَّ ﭐلْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ

wa anna aljannata ¦aqqun

that Paradise is true,

وَانَّ مَا وُعِدَ فِيهَا مِنَ ﭐلنَّعِيمِ

wa anna m¡ wu`ida f¢h¡ min alnna`¢mi

that whatever is promised to be therein—such as bliss,

مِنَ ﭐلْمَاكَلِ وَﭐلْمَشْرَبِ وَﭐلنِّكَاحِ حَقٌّ

min alma'kali walmashrabi walnnik¡¦i ¦aqqun

eating, drinking and marriage—is true,

وَانَّ ﭐلنَّارَ حَقٌّ

wa anna alnn¡ra ¦aqqun

that Hellfire is true,

وَانَّ ﭐلإِيـمَانَ حَقٌّ

wa anna al-¢m¡na ¦aqqun

that faith is true,

وَانَّ ﭐلدِّينَ كَمَا وَصَفَ

wa anna aldd¢na kam¡ wa¥afa

that the religion is as exactly as He has described,

وَانَّ ﭐلإِسْلاَمَ كَمَا شَرَعَ

wa anna al-isl¡ma kam¡ shara`a

that Islam is exactly as He has established,

وَانَّ ﭐلْقَوْلَ كَمَا قَالَ

wa anna alqawla kam¡ q¡la

that all what He has said is exactly the truth,

وَانَّ ﭐلْقُرْآنَ كَمَا انْزَلَ

wa anna alqur'¡na kam¡ anzala

that the Qur'¡n is as exactly as what He has revealed,

وَانَّ ﭐللَّهَ هُوَ ﭐلْحَقُّ ﭐلْمُبِينُ

wa anna all¡ha huwa al¦aqqu almub¢nu

and that Allah is verily the Manifest Truth.

وَانِّي اعْهَدُ إِلَيْكَ فِي دَارِ ﭐلدُّنْيَا

wa ann¢ a`hadu ilayka f¢ d¡ri aldduny¡

I also confide in You in this world

انِّي رَضِيتُ بِكَ رَبّاً

ann¢ ra¤¢tu bika rabban

that I submit to You being my Lord,

وَبٱلإِسْلاَمِ دِيناً

wa bil-isl¡mi d¢nan

Islam being my religion,

وَبِمُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّىٰ ﭐللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ نَبِيّاً

wa bimu¦ammadin ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ nabiyyan

Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, being my Prophet,

وَبِعَلِيٍّ وَ لِيّاً

wa bi`aliyyin waliyyan

`Al¢ being my Imam,

وَبِٱلْقُرْآنِ كِتَاباً

wa bilqur'¡ni kit¡ban

the Qur'¡n being my Book,

وَانَّ اهْلَ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّكَ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ ائِمَّتِي

wa anna ahla bayti nabiyyika `alayhi wa `alayhim alssal¡mu a'immat¢

and Your Prophet’s Household—Your peace be upon him and them—being my Imams.

اَللَّهُمَّ انْتَ ثِقَتِي عِنْدَ شِدَّتِي

all¡humma anta thiqat¢ `inda shiddat¢

O Allah, in You I trust in tribulations,

وَرَجَائِي عِنْدَ كُرْبَتِي

wa raj¡'¢ `inda kurbat¢

You are my only hope in agonies,

وَعُدَّتِي عِنْدَ ٱلامُورِ ٱلَّتِي تَنْزِلُ بِي

wa `uddat¢ `inda al-um£ri allat¢ tanzilu b¢

You are my only provision when misfortunes befall me,

وَانْتَ وَلِيِّي فِي نِعْمَتِي

wa anta waliyy¢ f¢ ni`mat¢

You are my sponsor in my blessings,

وَإِلٰهِي وَإِلٰهُ آبَائِي

wa il¡h¢ wa il¡hu ¡b¡'¢

and You are my God and my ancestors’ God.

صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ

¥alli `al¡ mu¦ammadin wa ¡lih¢

So (please) send blessings upon Mu¦ammad and his Household

وَلاَ تَكِلْنِي إِلىٰ نَفْسِي طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ ابَداً

wa l¡ takiln¢ il¡ nafs¢ §arfata `aynin abadan

and do not make me depend on my own self even for the winking of an eye.

وَآنِسْ فِي قَبْرِي وَحْشَتِي

wa ¡nis f¢ qabr¢ wa¦shat¢

Please, entertain me in my grave and loneliness

وَٱجْعَلْ لِي عِنْدَكَ عَهْداً يَوْمَ الْقَاكَ مَنْشُوراً

waj`al l¢ `indaka `ahdan yawma alq¡ka mansh£ran

and keep my confidence in You active for the day on which I shall meet You.”

The Holy Prophet (¥) then added, “This is the covenant of the moribund when he makes his will, which is obligatory upon each Muslim individual.”

Commenting on this, Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) is reported to have said: Certifying this fact, Allah the All-blessed and All-exalted says in S£rah Maryam:

«لاَ يَمْلِكُونَ ٱلشَّفَاعَةَ إِلاَّ مَنِ ٱتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ عَهْداً.»

“They shall not control intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent Allah.”

The Holy Prophet (¥) then instructed Imam `Al¢ (`a) to learn this covenant and advise the members of his household and his adherents (i.e. Sh¢`ah) to learn it. He (¥) added, “I have been taught this by Archangel Gabriel.”

 

Burial –‘Witness’ document of Belief & Good of deceased

From Mafatih al Jinan – Shaikh Abbas Qummi   Word file /Jpg file/ pdf / pdf 1 pg

Shaykh al-±£s¢ has advised that an inscription should be written down on a document as a Witness of the belief & knowing only good of the deceased .This document is made/signed  by one witness & further attested by 40 Momins ( who can sign despite their knowledge of faults of the deceased)

This document is then folded enveloped & put with the palm-leaf stalk on the right side of the deceased. It is preferably written with camphor (i.e. water with which camphor is mixed) and non-aromatic aloe-wood, must be put on the dead person’s forehead

It is said that HE will forgive the deceased for his faults if 40 momins testify in this way

 

BEFORE signing the following dua is to be recited by the first witness:-

 

Before writing down this inscription, the writer is advised to say the following words:

 

بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

bismill¡hi alrra¦m¡ni alrra¦¢mi

In the Name of Allah; the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.

اشْهَدُ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

ashhadu an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

I bear witness that there is no god save Allah,

وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

One and Only Lord and having no associate with Him.

وَاشْهَدُ انَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa ashhadu anna mu¦ammadan `abduh£ wa ras£luh£

I also bear witness that Mu¦ammad is His servant and messenger,

صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ

¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢

May Allah bless him and his Household.

وَانَّ ٱلْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ

wa anna aljannata ¦aqqun

[I also bear witness that] Paradise is true,

وَانَّ ٱلنَّارَ حَقٌّ

wa anna alnn¡ra ¦aqqun

Hellfire is true,

وَانَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ حَقٌّ آتِيَةٌ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهَا

wa anna alss¡`ata ¦aqqun ¡tiyatun l¡ rayba f¢h¡

the Hour [of Resurrection] is true and is coming; there is no doubt about it,

وَانَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي ٱلْقُبُورِ

wa anna all¡ha yab`athu man f¢ alqub£ri

and Allah shall resurrect those who are in graves.

 

 

THE INSCRIPTION to be written & kept on the Right side of the dead body with a palm leaf?

 

بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

bismill¡hi alrra¦m¡ni alrra¦¢mi

In the Name of Allah; the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.

شَهِدَ ٱلشُّهُودُ ٱلْمُسَمَّوْنَ فِي هٰذَا ٱلْكِتَابِ

shahida alshshuh£du almusammawna f¢ h¡dh¡ alkit¡bi

The witnesses whose names are mentioned in this document-paper witness

انَّ اخَاهُمْ فِي ٱللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ…

anna akh¡hum f¢ all¡hi `azza wa jalla…

that their brother-in-Allah [__________________]

اشْهَدَهُمْ وَٱسْتَوْدَعَهُمْ وَاقَرَّ عِنْدَهُمْ

ash-hadahum wastawda`ahum wa aqarra `indahum

has asked them to witness for him, entrusted with them this statement, and confessed in their presence

انَّهُ يَشْهَدُ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

annah£ yashhadu an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

that he bears witness that there is no god save Allah,

وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

One and Only and having no associate with Him,

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa anna mu¦ammadan ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ `abduh£ wa ras£luh£

that Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is His servant and messenger,

وَانَّهُ مُقِرٌّ بِجَمِيعِ ٱلا نْبِيَاءِ وَٱلرُّسُلِ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

wa annah£ muqirrun bijam¢`i al-anbiy¡'i walrrusuli `alayhimu alssal¡mu

that he acknowledges all of the prophets and the messengers [of God], peace be upon them,

وَانَّ عَلِيّاً وَ لِيُّ ٱللَّهِ وَإِمَامُهُ

wa anna `aliyyan waliyyu all¡hi wa im¡muh£

that `Al¢ is the representative of Allah and the leader appointed by Him,

وَانَّ ٱلائِمَّةَ مِنْ وُلْدِهِ ائِمَّتُهُ

wa anna al-a'immata min wuldih¢ a'immatuh£

that the Imams from `Al¢’s progeny are his leaders,

وَانَّ اوَّلَهُمُ ٱلْحَسَنُ وَٱلْحُسَيْنُ

wa anna awwalahum al¦asanu wal¦usaynu

that they are in sequence are al-°asan, al-°usayn,

وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

wa `aliyyu ibnu al¦usayni

`Al¢ the son of al-°usayn,

وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammadu ibnu `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَجَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa ja`faru ibnu mu¦ammadin

Ja`far the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَمُوسَىٰ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ

wa m£s¡ ibnu ja`farin

M£s¡ the son of Ja`far,

وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَىٰ

wa `aliyyu ibnu m£s¡

`Al¢ the son of M£s¡,

وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammadu ibnu `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa `aliyyu ibnu mu¦ammadin

`Al¢ the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَٱلْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ

wal¦asanu ibnu `aliyyin

al-°asan the son of `Al¢,

وَٱلْقَائِمُ ٱلْحُجَّةُ

walq¡'imu al¦ujjatu

and the Rising Argument-person,

عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

`alayhimu alssal¡mu

peace be upon them all;

وَانَّ ٱلْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ

wa anna aljannata ¦aqqun

and that Paradise is true,

وَٱلنَّارَ حَقٌّ

walnn¡ra ¦aqqun

Hellfire is true,

وَٱلسَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهَا

walss¡`ata ¡tiyatun l¡ rayba f¢h¡

the Hour [of Resurrection] shall be coming; there is no doubt about it,

وَانَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي ٱلْقُبُورِ

wa anna all¡ha yab`athu man f¢ alqub£ri

and Allah shall resurrect those who are in graves;

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa anna mu¦ammadan ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ `abduh£ wa ras£luh£

and that Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is Allah’s servant and messenger;

جَاءَ بِٱلْحَقِّ

j¡'a bil¦aqqi

he has come with the truth,

وَانَّ عَلِيّاً وَ لِيُّ ٱللَّهِ

wa anna `aliyyan waliyyu all¡hi

that `Al¢ is the representative of Allah,

وَٱلْخَلِيفَةُ مِنْ بَعْدِ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ

walkhal¢fatu min ba`di ras£li all¡hi

the vicegerent after Allah’s Messenger,

صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ

¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢

may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Household,

وَمُسْتَخْلَفُهُ فِي امَّتِهِ

wa mustakhlafuh£ f¢ ummatih¢

and the one appointed by Allah’s Messenger to succeed him in his nation,

مُؤَدِّياً لاِمْرِ رَبِّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَىٰ

mu'addiyan li'amri rabbih¢ tab¡raka wa ta`¡l¡

carrying out the command of his Lord the All-blessed and All-exalted,

وَانَّ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتُ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ

wa anna f¡§imata bintu ras£li all¡hi

that F¡§imah is the daughter of Allah’s Messenger,

وَٱبْنَيْهَا ٱلْحَسَنَ وَٱلْحُسَيْنَ

wabnayh¡ al¦asana wal¦usayna

her two sons al-°asan and al-°usayn

ٱبْنَا رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ وَسِبْطَاهُ

ibn¡ ras£li all¡hi wa sib§¡hu

are the sons and grandsons of Allah’s Messenger,

وَإِمَامَا ٱلْهُدَىٰ

wa im¡m¡ alhud¡

the two leaders to the true guidance,

وَقَائِدَا ٱلرَّحْمَةِ

wa q¡'id¡ alrra¦mati

and the two principals of mercy,

وَانَّ عَلِيّاً وَمُحَمَّداً

wa anna `aliyyan wa mu¦ammadan

and that `Al¢, Mu¦ammad,

وَجَعْفَراً وَمُوسَىٰ

wa ja`faran wa m£s¡

Ja`far, M£s¡,

وَعَلِيّاً وَمُحَمَّداً

wa `aliyyan wa mu¦ammadan

`Al¢, Mu¦ammad,

وَعَلِيّاً وَحَسَناً

wa `aliyyan wa ¦asanan

`Al¢, al-°asan,

وَٱلْحُجَّةَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

wal¦ujjata `alayhimu alssal¡mu

and the Argument-person, peace be upon them all,

ائِمَّةٌ وَقَادَةٌ

a'immatun wa q¡datun

are Imams, leaders,

وَدُعَاةٌ إِلَىٰ ٱللَّهِ جَلَّ وَعَلاَ

wa du`atun il¡ all¡hi jalla wa `al¡

inviters to Allah the All-majestic and All-high,

وَحُجَّةٌ عَلَىٰ عِبَادِهِ

wa ¦ujjatun `al¡ `ib¡dih¢

and arguments [of Him] against His servants.

 

The writer of this document-paper should then address the witnesses with these words:

يَا… وَيَا… ٱلْمُسَمَّيْنَ فِي هٰذَا ٱلْكِتَابِ

y¡… wa y¡… almusammayna f¢ h¡dh¡ alkit¡bi

O…………………..       ] and

[………………………     ] whose names are mentioned in this document-paper,

اثْبِتُوٱ لِي هٰذِهِ ٱلشَّهَادَةَ عِنْدَكُمْ

athbit£ l¢ h¡dhih¢ alshshah¡data `indakum

certify for me this testimony of you

حَتَّىٰ تَلْقَوْنِي بِهَا عَلَىٰ ٱلْحَوْضِ

¦att¡ talqawn¢ bih¡ `al¡ al¦aw¤i

so that you will meet me carrying it at the Divine Pond.

As a reply, the witnesses should say:

يَا… نَسْتَوْدِعُكَ ٱللَّهَ

y¡… nastawdi`uka all¡ha

O […………………………………. we entrust you with Allah.

وَٱلشَّهَادَةُ وَٱلإِقْرَارُ وَٱلإِخَاءُ

walshshah¡datu wal-iqr¡ru wal-ikh¡'u

Our testimony, admission, and brotherhood

مَوْدُوعَةٌ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ

mawd£`atun `inda ras£li all¡hi

are entrusted with Allah’s Messenger,

صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ

¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢

may Allah bless him and his Household.

وَنَقْرَاعَلَيْكَ ٱلسَّلاَمَ

wa naqra'u `alayka alssal¡ma

We invoke upon you peace,

وَرَحْمَةَ ٱللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتِهِ

wa ra¦mata all¡hi wa barak¡tih¢

Allah’s mercy, and His blessings.

 

40 SIGNATURES

 

1                                                                                  39   40

2                                                                                 

3

 

 

One before whom death appears should face the kiblah direction with the sole of the feet. In his presence, there should be one who recites S£rah Y¡s¢n and S£rah al-¯¡ff¡t and instructs the moribund to say the two creeds of Islam, to confess following the Holy Imams by names, and to say the following  words of relief:

لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْحَلِيمُ ٱلْكَرِيمُ

il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu al¦al¢mu alkar¢mu

There is no god save Allah the All-forbearing and All-generous.

لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْعَلِيُّ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu al`aliyyu al`a¨¢mu

There is no god save Allah the All-high and All-great.

سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَاوَاتِ ٱلسَّبْعِ

sub¦¡na all¡hi rabbi alssam¡w¡ti alssab`i

All glory be to Allah the Lord of the seven heavens,

وَرَبِّ ٱلارَضِينَ ٱلسَّبْعِ

wa rabbi al-ara¤¢na alssab`i

the Lord of the seven layers of the earth,

وَمَا فِيهِنَّ وَمَا بَيْنَهُنَّ

wa m¡ f¢hinna wa m¡ baynahunna

whatever is in them, whatever is between them,

وَمَا فَوْقَهُنَّ وَمَا تَحْتَهُنَّ

wa m¡ fawqahunna wa m¡ ta¦tahunna

whatever is above them, and whatever is beneath them,

وَرَبِّ ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ

wa rabbi al`arshi al`a¨¢mi

and the Lord of the Great Throne.

وَٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ

wal¦amdu lill¡hi rabbi al`¡lam¢na

All praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds.

وَٱلصَّلاَةُ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ ٱلطَّيِّبِينَ

wal¥¥al¡tu `al¡ mu¦ammadin wa ¡lih¢ al§§ayyib¢na

Blessings be upon Mu¦ammad and his Immaculate Household.

 

The moribund must not be attended by ceremonially impure persons or menstruating women.

When he completes his vow by death, his eyes must be closed, his hands stretched out, his mouth shut, his legs extended, his jaws pulled, and his shrouds prepared. The shroud is required to consist of three pieces; an apron, a shirt, and a loincloth. However, it is recommended to add a fourth piece, which is a special wrap usually used by the people of Yemen, or any other loincloth. It is furthermore recommended to use a fifth piece of clothes with which the thighs and the hip are tied up. Moreover, it is recommended to used a sixth piece of clothes as a turban.

In addition, some camphor that has not been coped with fire may be added in a quantity ranging between thirteen and a third dirham, four mitigals, or one dirham at least. If this is unfeasible, any quantity may be used.

On each of these shrouds, the following words my be written down:

…يَشْهَدُ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

yashhadu an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

[so-and-so] bears witness that there is no god save Allah,

وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

One and Only and having no associate,

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ

wa anna mu¦ammadan ras£lu all¡hi

that Mu¦ammad is the messenger of Allah,

وَانَّ عَلِيّاً امِيرُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

wa anna `aliyyan am¢ru almu'min¢na

that `Al¢ is the commander of the believers,

وَٱلائِمَّةَ مِنْ وُلْدِهِ

wal-a'immata min wuldih¢

and that the Imams from his progeny:

ٱلْحَسَنَ وَٱلْحُسَيْنَ

al¦asana wal¦usayna

al-°asan, al-°usayn,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

wa `aliyya ibna al¦usayni

`Al¢ the son of al-°usayn,

وَمُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammada ibna `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَجَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa ja`fara ibna mu¦ammadin

Ja`far the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَمُوسَىٰ بْنَ جَعْفَرٍ

wa m£s¡ ibna ja`farin

M£s¡ the son of Ja`far,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَىٰ

wa `aliyya ibna m£s¡

`Al¢ the son of M£s¡,

وَمُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammada ibna `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa `aliyya ibna mu¦ammadin

`Al¢ the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَٱلْحَسَنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wal¦asana ibna `aliyyin

al-°asan the son of `Al¢,

وَٱلْقَائِمَ ٱلْحُجَّةَ

walq¡'imu al¦ujjatu

and the Rising Argument-person,

عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

`alayhimu alssal¡mu

peace be upon them all

ائِمَّتُهُ ائِمَّةُ ٱلْهُدَىٰ ٱلا بْرَارُ

a'immatuh£ a'immatu al-hud¡ al-abr¡ru

are his Imams. They are the pious leaders to true guidance.

 

This inscription may be written with water with which soil of Imam al-°usayn’s tomb or a¥ba` (apparently the soil of a certain mountain) is mixed. It must not be written with black color.


 

The Ritual Bathing of the Deceased

A dead person must be bathed three rital ghusls; first, with water of the leaves of lote( beri)-tree; second, with water of camphor; and third, with pure water.

Just like the ritual bathing after ceremonial impurity, the first organs of a dead person to be washed are the hands; they must be washed three times. Then, they may be rubbed dry with a little amount of moss (i.e. a kind of cotton-grass) three times. Then, the head should be washed with the foam of the water of lote-tree three times. The same thing should be then made to the right and then the left sides of the body. The hand of the bather (i.e. the person who bathes) must pass over the entire body with the water of the lote.

The vessels that have contained the water mixed with lote must be cast and another liquid, which is a mixture of water and (a little quantity of) camphor must be poured in the vessels. Then, the same previous process of washing must be repeated, yet with the mixture of water and camphor this time. Then, the vessels that have contained the mixture of water and camphor must be cast and re-filled with pure water with which the dead body must be washed in the same previous way.

The bather must stand to the right side of the dead body. At each time of bathing, the bather must repeat this word:

عَفْواً عَفْواً

`afwan `afwan

Pardon! Pardon!

Upon accomplishment, the dead body must be dried with a clean piece of cloth. It is then obligatory upon the bather to bathe himself, either immediately or afterwards. However, it is recommended to perform a ritual ablution (wu¤£') to the bathings of the dead body.

 

Enshrouding the Dead Body

Then comes the stage of enshrouding. The enshrouding person may spread out the fifth piece of cloth, put a little quantity of cotton over it, disperse a little quantity of crumbs (of either the leaves of lote-tree or powdered incense) over it, put some of the crumbs on the two private parts of the dead person, and stuff the anus with little cotton. Then, the buttocks and the thighs must be tied up firmly with the (fifth) piece of cloth. Then, the apron must be tied up from the navel downwards. Then, the dead body must be dressed the shirt over which the wrapper is dressed and over it the special wrap, or the other piece of clothes that replaces it, must be dressed.

With the dead body, two palm-leaf stalks, or stalks of any other tree, must be put. These two stalks must be wet and must be in the size of the arm bone. One of the stalks must be put to the right side of the dead body and stuck to the skin near the loin. The other stalk must be put to the left side between the shirt and the apron. The organs of prostration (i.e. the forehead, the palms of the hands, the knees, and the fingers of the feet) must be stained with camphor. If any amount of camphor remains, it must be put on the chest. Then, the wrapper must be restored to its position and knotted from the sides of the head and the feet. When the dead body is buried, these knots must be unfastened. Then, the dead body must be carried on the bedstead to the prayer-place, where the ritual prayer of the deceased is performed.


 

The Deceased Prayer SALAT MAYIT

The following is quoted, yet briefly, from the book entitled Z¡d al-Ma`¡d by `All¡mah al-Majlis¢, may Allah show him mercy, under the title: Chapter: the Deceased Prayer:

The performance of the ritual Deceased Prayer is obligatory upon every Muslim individual who knows about the death of somebody. If one Muslim performs this prayer, the other Muslims will be exempted from this obligatory duty. Unanimously agreed by all scholars, the Deceased Prayer is obligatory upon all mature Twelver Sh¢`ites. However, it is most famous and most acceptable that this prayer is obligatory upon even the immature who are more than six year old. Apparently, it is sufficiently acceptable to intend seeking nearness to Almighty Allah (rather than pronouncing the words of intention). To perform the Deceased Prayer for the dead bodies of the less than six month year old babies who have been born alive is deemed highly recommended by some scholars, but deemed heretic by some others. However, it is precautious to neglect performing this prayer for these babies.

According to the religious law, the foremost people to perform the Deceased Prayer are the nearest to the deceased people and who deserve the largest quantity of his/her inheritance. This is the most familiar law. Thus, a husband must precede others in performing the Deceased Prayer of his wife.

The performer of the Deceased Prayer must face the kiblah direction and stand to the right side of the head of the dead body, which must be laid down on the back.

Validity of the Deceased Prayer is not conditional upon ceremonial purity; therefore, it is valid for the ceremonially impure, the menstruating women, and those who have not performed the ritual ablution (wu¤£') to perform such prayers, although it is recommended for the performers of this prayer to have performed the ritual ablution. If water is not available, there is something prevents from using water, or there is not enough time to perform the ritual ablution, it is then highly recommended, according to traditions, to perform the dry ablution (i.e. tayammum). However, it is understood from the apparent meanings of some traditions that dry ablution should be used even if there is nothing prevents from performing the ritual ablution.

It is also traditional that the performer of the Deceased Prayer should stand in the middle of the dead body of a man and in front of the breast of the dead body of a woman. This is the most familiar rule. Besides, the performer of the Deceased Prayer should take off the shoes and must intend performing the Deceased Prayer. He must then repeat the takb¢r statement five times. It is also traditional that he raises his hands to the level of his ears while uttering these statements

Familiarly, he should say the following words after uttering the first takb¢r statement:

اشْهَدُ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

ashhadu an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

I bear witness that there is no god save Allah

وَاشْهَدُ انَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ

wa ashhadu anna mu¦ammadan ras£lu all¡hi

and I bear witness that Mu¦ammad is Allah’s messenger.

 

These words should be advisably said after uttering the second takb¢r statement:

اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

all¡humma ¥alli `al¡ mu¦ammadin wa ¡li mu¦ammadin

O Allah, (please) send blessings upon Mu¦ammad and the Household of Mu¦ammad.

These words should be advisably said after uttering the third takb¢r statement:

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

all¡humma ighfir lilmu'min¢na walmu'min¡ti

O Allah, (please) forgive the believing men and women.

 

These words should be advisably said after uttering the fourth takb¢r statement:

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱغْفِرْ لِهٰذَا ٱلْمَيِّتِ

all¡humma ighfir lih¡dh¡ almayyiti

O Allah, (please) forgive this dead person.

 

Then, the fifth takb¢r statement should be uttered, and thus the prayer has been accomplished utterly and acceptably.

 

As another method, it is better to say these words immediately after determining the intention of performing the Deceased Prayer:

اللَّه اكْبَرُ

all¡hu akbaru

(1) Allah is the Most Great.

اشْهَدُ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

ashhadu an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

I bear witness that there is no god save Allah,

وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

One and Only and having no associate,

وَاشْهَدُ انَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa ashhadu anna mu¦ammadan `abduh£ wa ras£luh£

and I bear witness that Mu¦ammad is His servant and messenger;

ارْسَلَهُ بِٱلْحَقِّ بَشِيراً وَنَذِيراً

arsalah£ bil¦aqqi bash¢ran wa nadh¢ran

He has sent him with the truth as conveyor of good tidiness and warner (against His chastisement)

بَيْنَ يَدَيِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ

bayna yaday alss¡`ati

before the coming of the Hour (of Resurrection).

 

After that, it is recommended to say these words:

اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ

all¡hu akbaru

(2) Allah is the Most Great.

اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

all¡humma ¥alli `al¡ mu¦ammadin wa ¡li mu¦ammadin

O Allah, (please) send blessings upon Mu¦ammad and the Household of Mu¦ammad,

وَبَارِكْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa b¡rik `al¡ mu¦ammadin wa ¡li mu¦ammadin

send benedictions upon Mu¦ammad and the Household of Mu¦ammad,

وَٱرْحَمْ مُحَمَّداً وَآلَ مُحَمَّدٍ

war¦am mu¦ammadan wa ¡la mu¦ammadin

and show mercy to Mu¦ammad and the Household of Mu¦ammad,

كَا فْضَلِ مَا صَلَّيْتَ وَبَارَكْتَ وَتَرَحَّمْتَ

ka'af¤ali m¡ ¥allayta wa b¡rakta wa tara¦¦amta

in the most favorable way You have sent blessings, benedictions, and mercy

عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ

`al¡ ibr¡h¢ma wa ¡li ibr¡h¢ma

to Abraham and the Household of Abraham.

إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

innaka ¦am¢dun maj¢dun

Verily, You are praiseworthy and All-glorious.

وَصَلِّ عَلَىٰ جَمِيعِ ٱلانْبِيَاءِ وَٱلْمُرْسَلِينَ

wa ¥alli `al¡ jam¢`i al-anby¡'i walmursal¢na

And (please) send blessings upon all the prophets and messengers.

 

After that, it is recommended to say these words:

اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ

all¡hu akbaru

(3) Allah is the Most Great.

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

all¡humma ighfir lilmu'min¢na wal-mu'min¡ti

O Allah, (please) forgive the believing men and women

وَٱلْمُسْلِمِينَ وَٱلْمُسْلِمَاتِ

wal-muslim¢na wal-muslim¡ti

and the Muslim men and women,

ٱلاحْيَاءِ مِنْهُمْ وَٱلامْوَاتِ

al-a¦y¡'i minhum wal-amw¡ti

both the alive and the dead.

تَابِعْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمْ بِٱلْخَيْرَاتِ

t¡bi` baynan¡ wa baynahum bilkhayr¡ti

(Please) combine between them and us in bliss and happiness.

إِنَّكَ مُجِيبُ ٱلدَّعَوَاتِ

innaka muj¢bu aldda`aw¡ti

Verily, You are the responding to the prayers.

إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

innaka `al¡ kulli shay'in qad¢run

Verily, You have power over all things.

 

After that, it is recommended to say these words:

اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ

all¡hu akbaru

(4) Allah is the Most Great.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّ هٰذَا عَبْدُكَ

all¡humma inna h¡dh¡ `abduka

O Allah, this is Your servant

وَٱبْنُ عَبْدِكَ وَٱبْنُ امَتِكَ

wabnu `abdika wabnu amatika

and the son of Your servant and Your she-servant;

نَزَلَ بِكَ

nazala bika

he is now Your guest

وَانْتَ خَيْرُ مَنْزُولٍ بِهِ

wa anta khayru manz£lin bih¢

and You are the ever best of all those who receive guests.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا لاَ نَعْلَمُ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ خَيْراً

all¡humma inn¡ na`lamu minhu ill¡ khayran

O Allah, we know about him nothing but goodness

وَانْتَ اعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنَّا

wa anta a`lamu bih¢ minn¡

while You know about him better than we do.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كَانَ مُحْسِناً

all¡humma in k¡na mu¦sinan

O Allah, if he is good-doer,

فَزِدْ فِي إِحْسَانِهِ

fazid f¢ i¦s¡nih¢

then (pleas) grant him more good turns from You,

وَإِنْ كَانَ مُسِيئاً

wa in k¡na mus¢'an

and if he is wrongdoer,

فَتَجَاوَزْ عَنْهُ وَٱغْفِرْ لَهُ

fataj¡waz `anhu waghfir lah£

then (pleas) excuse and forgive him.

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱجْعَلْهُ عِنْدَكَ فِي اعْلَىٰ عِلِّيِّينَ

all¡humma ij`alhu `indaka f¢ a`l¡ `illiyy¢na

O Allah, (please) place him with You in the highest point of the Highest Position,

وَٱخْلُفْ عَلَىٰ اهْلِهِ فِي ٱلْغَابِرِينَ

wakhluf `al¡ ahlih¢ f¢ algh¡bir¢na

make those of his family members who remained behind him to take his place,

وَٱرْحَمْهُ بِرَحْمَتِكَ

war¦amhu bira¦matika

and have mercy on him with Your mercy.

يَا ارْحَمَ ٱلرَّاحِمِينَ

ar¦ama alrr¡¦im¢na

O most merciful of all those who show mercy.

The performer of the Deceased Prayer should then say one more takb¢r statement and finish the prayer.

 

If the dead person is female, the following words should be said by the performer of the Deceased Prayer instead:

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّ هٰذِهِ امَتُكَ

all¡humma inna h¡dhih¢ amatuka

O Allah, this is Your she-servant

وَٱبْنَةُ عَبْدِكَ وَٱبْنَةُ امَتِكَ

wabnatu `abdika wabnatu amatika

and the daughter of Your servant and Your she-servant;

نَزَلَتْ بِكَ

nazalat bika

she is now Your guest

وَانْتَ خَيْرُ مَنْزُولٍ بِهِ

wa anta khayru manz£lin bih¢

and You are the ever best of all those who receive guests.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا لاَ نَعْلَمُ مِنْهَا إِلاَّ خَيْراً

all¡humma inn¡ na`lamu minh¡ ill¡ khayran

O Allah, we know about her nothing but goodness

وَانْتَ اعْلَمُ بِهَا مِنَّا

wa anta a`lamu bih¡ minn¡

while You know about her better than we do.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كَانَتْ مُحْسِنَةً

all¡humma in k¡nat mu¦sinatan

O Allah, if she is good-doer,

فَزِدْ فِي إِحْسَانِهَا

fazid f¢ i¦s¡nih¡

then (pleas) grant her more good turns from You,

وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُسِيئَةً

wa in k¡nat mus¢'atan

and if she is wrongdoer,

فَتَجَاوَزْ عَنْهَا وَٱغْفِرْ لَهَا

fataj¡waz `anh¡ waghfir lah¡

then (pleas) excuse and forgive her.

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱجْعَلْهَا عِنْدَكَ فِي اعْلَىٰ عِلِّيِّينَ

all¡humma ij`alh¡ `indaka f¢ a`l¡ `illiyy¢na

O Allah, (please) place her with You in the highest point of the Highest Position,

وَٱخْلُفْ عَلَىٰ اهْلِهَا فِي ٱلْغَابِرِينَ

wakhluf `al¡ ahlih¡ f¢ algh¡bir¢na

make those of her family members who remained behind her to take her place,

وَٱرْحَمْهَا بِرَحْمَتِكَ

war¦amh¡ bira¦matika

and have mercy on her with Your mercy.

يَا ارْحَمَ ٱلرَّاحِمِينَ

ar¦ama alrr¡¦im¢na

O most merciful of all those who show mercy.

 

If the dead person is of those whom are deemed enfeebled, then the performer of the Deceased Prayer should say these words:

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُوٱ

all¡humma ighfir lilladh¢na t¡b£

O Allah, (please) forgive those who have repented

وَٱتَّبَعُوٱ سَبِيلَكَ

wattaba`£ sab¢laka

and followed Your Path

وَقِهِمْ عَذَابَ ٱلْجَحِيمِ

wa qihim `adh¡ba alja¦¢mi

and protect them against the chastisement of Hellfire.

 

If the dead person is an immature child, the performer of the Deceased Prayer should say these words:

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱجْعَلْهُ لاِبَوَيْهِ وَلَنَا

all¡humma ij`alhu li-abawayhi wa lan¡

O Allah, (please) make for his parents and for us

سَلَفاً وَفَرَطاً وَاجْراً

salafan wa fara§an wa ajran

a progeny, a precedence, and a reward.

It is also tradition that the performers of the Deceased Prayer, especially the leader, should stop in their places until the funeral is raised.

According to a reported tradition, when the Deceased Prayer is accomplished, these words should be said:

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي ٱلدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً

rabban¡ ¡tin¡ f¢ aldduny¡ ¦asanatan

Our Lord! Grant us good in this world

وَفِي ٱلآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً

wa f¢ al-¡khirati ¦asanatan

and good in the hereafter,

وَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ

wa qin¡ `adh¡ba alnn¡ri

and save us from the chastisement of the fire.

 

Merits of Attending Funerals

Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) is reported to have said that it is recommended to inform the brethren-in-faith about the death of their brother so that they will present themselves in the funeral ceremonies, offer prayers on his dead body, and implore Almighty Allah’s forgiveness for him. Once they do so, both they and the dead person will be awarded.

According to another acceptably reported tradition, Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) has said, “When a faithful believer is entered into the grave, he hears a caller saying to him: Verily, the first of Your gifts is Paradise and the first of the gifts of those who followed you (in your funeral ceremony) is forgiveness.”

According to another tradition, Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) has said, “The first gift of a faithful believer in his grave is that all those who have followed his funeral will be forgiven.”

According to another tradition, Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) has said, “Whoever follows the funeral of a faithful believer to the grave, Almighty Allah will order seventy angels to escort him on the Resurrection Day and to implore Allah’s forgiveness for him from the grave to the situation of the Judgment.”

The Imam (`a) is also reported to have said, “Whoever participates in carrying the coffin of a dead faithful believer, Almighty Allah will forgive twenty-five of his grand sins. If he carries the four legs (consecutively) of the coffin, all his sins will be forgiven.”


 

Carrying the dead person and the Coffin

The coffin should be carried by four men and it is better for the one who escorts the deceased to start with carrying the dead body from the side of the right hand, which is situated to the left side of the coffin. Then, he should carry the body from the side of the right leg. Turning to the backside of the coffin, he should then carry the side of the left leg on the left shoulder and then the side of the left hand on the left shoulder. If he intends to take another tour, he must avoid passing from the front side of the coffin; rather, he must turn from its backside. Hence, this tour starts with carrying the side of the right hand of the deceased in the same previous way. However, this way is contradictory to the instruction of the majority of scholars, who have instructed that the point from which a coffin should be carried begins with the right side of the front of the coffin followed by carrying the right side of the coffin from the backside. Then, the left side is carried from the backside and then from the front side.

However, the earlier way is in fact corresponding with the most validly reported traditions. Most preferably, the two ways may be followed.

It is also most preferable to walk either behind or to the two side of the coffin rather than in front of it. Yet, the majority of traditions apparently maintain that it is better to walk in front of the coffin of the faithful believers and it is disapproved to walk in front of the coffin of the dead person who follows another sect (i.e. non-Sh¢`ite), for the angel receives the coffin with chastisement. Finally, it is discommended to follow a funeral riding.

The Holy Prophet (¥) is reported to have said that whoever sees a funeral procession and says these words, all the angels in the heavens will weep as a sign of showing mercy to him:

اللَّهُ اكْبَرُ

all¡hu akbaru

Allah is the Most Great.

هٰذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

h¡dh¡ wa`adan¡ all¡hu wa ras£luh£

This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us,

وَصَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa ¥adaqa all¡hu wa ras£luh£

and Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth.

اَللَّهُمَّ زِدْنَا إِيمَاناً وَتَسْلِيماً

all¡humma zidn¡ ¢m¡nan wa tasl¢man

O Allah, (please) increase us faith and submission (to You).

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي تَعَزَّزَ بِٱلْقُدْرَةِ

al¦amdu lill¡hi alladh¢ ta`azzaza bilqudrati

All praise be to Allah Who has been almighty due to His omnipotence

وَقَهَرَ ٱلْعِبَادَ بِٱلْمَوْتِ

wa qahara al`ib¡da bilmawti

and Who has overpowered the servants (of Him) by death.

Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) is reported to have instructed the bearers of a coffin to say these words:

بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ وَبِٱللَّهِ

bismill¡hi wa bill¡hi

In the Name of Allah (I begin) and in Allah (I put my trust).

اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

all¡humma ¥alli `al¡ mu¦ammadin wa ¡li mu¦ammadin

O Allah, (please) send blessings upon Mu¦ammad and the Household of Mu¦ammad

وَٱغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

waghfir lilmu'min¢na walmu'min¡ti

and forgive the believing men and women.

Imam Zayn al-`ªbid¢n (`a) is reported to have used to said these words whenever he would see a funeral procession:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي لَمْ يَجْعَلَنِي مِنَ ٱلسَّوَادِ ٱلْمُخْتَرَمِ

al¦amdu lill¡hi alladh¢ lam yaj`alan¢ min alssaw¡di almukhtarami

All praise be to Allah Who has not included me with the extinct beings.

It is not traditional that women follow funerals. It is also discommended for those who follow a funeral to laugh or to utter nonsensical words.

 

In his book entitled al-°ilyah, `All¡mah al-Majlis¢, may Allah have mercy upon him, quotes the Holy Prophet (¥) as saying, “Whoever performs a prayer for a deceased, seventy thousand angels will pray for him and Almighty Allah will forgive him his past and coming sins. If he remains until the deceased is buried and soil completely covers his grave, then he will be granted a carat of reward for each step he has made. One carat is equal to the weight of Mount U¦ud.”

The Holy Prophet (¥) is also reported to have said, “Any faithful believer who performs a prayer for a deceased person will be awarded Paradise incumbently unless he is hypocrite or impious to the parents.”

 

Through a valid chain of authority, Imam al-¯¡diq (`a) is reported to have said, “When a faithful believer dies and his funeral is attended by forty faithful believers who says these words about him, Almighty Allah will say to them: Your testimony is admitted and I will forgive him what you do not known about him but I do:”

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا لاَ نَعْلَمُ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ خَيْراً

all¡humma inn¡ na`lamu minhu ill¡ khayran

O Allah, we do not know about him but goodness,

وَانْتَ اعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنَّا

wa anta a`lamu bih¢ minn¡

while You know him better than we do.

According to another validly reported tradition, the Holy Prophet (¥) has said, “The first title of a faithful believer’s Record of Deeds is what people say about him after his death. If they say good things, then his Record is good; but if they say evil things, then his Record is evil.”

Burial

In his book entitled Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, Shaykh al-±£s¢ says:

It is recommended to carry a coffin from the four sides, beginning with the right side of the hand, the right side of the leg, the left side of the leg, and ending with the left side of the hand. Thus should the four sides of a coffin be carried. Hence, the bearer should turn around a coffin just like the turning of a hand mill.

When the coffin is brought to the grave, it must be left at the backside of it. Then, it must be approached towards the grave in three stages. If the dead person is a woman, then the coffin must be put in front of the greave towards the kiblah direction. Then, the dead person’s heir or the person deputized by the heir to do so may go down the grave. Meanwhile, he is recommended to say this prayer:

اَللَّهُمَّ ٱجْعَلْهَا رَوْضَةً مِنْ رِيَاضِ ٱلْجَنَّةِ

all¡humma ij`alh¡ raw¤atan min riy¡¤i aljannati

O Allah, (please) make this grave to be one of the gardens of Paradise,

وَلاَ تَجْعَلْهَا حُفْرَةً مِنْ حُفَرِ ٱلنَّارِ

wa l¡ taj`alh¡ ¦ufratan min ¦ufari alnn¡ri

but do not make it to be one of the holes of the Fire.

The burier is required to go down to the grave barefooted, bareheaded, and having the buttons of his shirt unfastened. Receiving the dead body, he should begin with the head to take it down to the grave. Meanwhile, he should say these words:

بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ وَبِٱللَّهِ

bismill¡hi wa bill¡hi

In the Name of Allah, in Allah,

وَفِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ

wa f¢ sab¢li all¡hi

on the way of Allah,

وَعَلَىٰ مِلَّةِ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ

wa `al¡ millati ras£li all¡hi

and following the principles of Allah’s Messengers.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِيمَاناً بِكَ

all¡humma ¢m¡nan bika

O Allah, (this is on the basis of the) belief in You 

وَتَصْدِيقاً بِكِتَابِكَ

wa ta¥d¢qan bikit¡bika

and giving credence to Your Book.

هٰذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

h¡dh¡ wa`adan¡ all¡hu wa ras£luh£

This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us,

وَصَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa ¥adaqa all¡hu wa ras£luh£

and Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth.

اَللَّهُمَّ زِدْنَا إِيمَاناً وَتَسْلِيماً

all¡humma zidn¡ ¢m¡nan wa tasl¢man

O Allah, (pleas) increase us faith and submission (to You).

 

Then, the burier should make the dead body lie down on the right side facing the kiblah direction. He should then unknot the knots of the shrouds from the sides of the head and the legs. He should then put the cheek of the dead person on the soil. It is recommended to put with the dead body an amount of soil taken from the tomb of Imam al-°usayn (`a). He should then line up bricks on the dead body and say these words meanwhile:

اَللَّهُمَّ صِلْ وَحْدَتَهُ

all¡humma ¥il wa¦datah£

O Allah, (please) maintain (communion) his loneliness,

وَآنِسْ وَحْشَتَهُ

wa ¡nis wa¦shatah£

entertain his lonesomeness,

وَٱرْحَمْ غُرْبَتَهُ

war¦am ghurbatah£

have mercy upon his seclusion,

وَاسْكِنْ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِكَ

wa askin ilayhi min ra¦matika

put with him part of Your mercy

رَحْمَةً يَسْتَغْنِي بِهَا عَنْ رَحْمَةِ مَنْ سِوَاكَ

ra¦matan yastaghn¢ bih¡ `an ra¦mati man siw¡ka

due to which he will dispense with the mercy of any one other than You,

وَٱحْشُرْهُ مَعَ مَنْ كَانَ يَتَوَلاَّهُ

wa¦shurhu ma`a man k¡na yatawall¡hu

and resurrect him with those to whom he has been loyal;

مِنَ ٱلائِمَّةِ ٱلطَّاهِرِينَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

min al-a'immati al§§¡hir¢na `alayhim alssal¡mu

namely, the Immaculate Imams, peace be upon them.


 

Prompting the Dead

Before lining up bricks, it is recommended to prompt the dead person to say the two creeds of Islam and the Holy Imams by names. Hence, the prompter, addressing the dead person, should say:

يَا… بنَ…

y¡… ibna…

O [so-and-so] the son of [so-and-so]

ٱذْكُرِ ٱلْعَهْدَ ٱلَّذِي خَرَجْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ دَارِ ٱلدُّنْيَا

udhkur al`ahda alladh¢ kharajta `alayhi min d¡ri aldduny¡

remember the covenant on which you have departed the abode of this world:

شَهَادَةَ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

shah¡data an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

the profession that there is no god save Allah,

وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

One and Only and having no associate,

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa anna mu¦ammadan `abduh£ wa ras£luh£

that Mu¦ammad is His servant and messenger,

وَانَّ عَلِيّاً امِيرَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

wa anna `aliyyan am¢ra almu'min¢na

and that `Al¢ the Commander of the Faithful,

وَٱلْحَسَنَ وَٱلْحُسَيْنَ

wal¦asana wal¦usayna

al-°asan, al-°usayn,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

wa `aliyya ibna al¦usayni

`Al¢ the son of al-°usayn,

وَمُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammada ibna `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَجَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa ja`fara ibna mu¦ammadin

Ja`far the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَمُوسَىٰ بْنَ جَعْفَرٍ

wa m£s¡ ibna ja`farin

M£s¡ the son of Ja`far,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسَىٰ

wa `aliyya ibna m£s¡

`Al¢ the son of M£s¡,

وَمُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammada ibna `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa `aliyya ibna mu¦ammadin

`Al¢ the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَٱلْحَسَنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wal¦asana ibna `aliyyin

al-°asan the son of `Al¢,

وَٱلْقَائِمَ ٱلْحُجَّةَ

walq¡'imu al¦ujjatu

and the Rising Argument-person,

عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

`alayhimu alssal¡mu

peace be upon them all

ائِمَّتُكَ ائِمَّةُ ٱلْهُدَىٰ ٱلابْرَارُ

a'immatuka a'immatu al-hud¡ al-abr¡ru

are your Imams. They are the pious leaders to true guidance.

Upon accomplishing lining up the bricks, the burier, as well as all the attendants advisably using the backsides of their hands, should pour down dust on the dead body. Meanwhile, they are recommended to say these words:

إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ

inn¡ lill¡hi wa inn¡ ilayhi r¡ji`£na

We are Allah’s and to Him shall we return.

هٰذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

h¡dh¡ wa`adan¡ all¡hu wa ras£luh£

This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us,

وَصَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

wa ¥adaqa all¡hu wa ras£luh£

and Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth.

اَللَّهُمَّ زِدْنَا إِيمَاناً وَتَسْلِيماً

all¡humma zidn¡ ¢m¡nan wa tasl¢man

O Allah, (please) increase us faith and submission (to You).

 

When the burier finishes and intends to come out of the grave, he should come out from the legs’ side. He should then cover the grave with dust raising it four fingers higher than the level of the ground. He must not put in the grave any dust that does not belong to the hole itself. At the side of the head, he should put a brick or a tablet. Then, he should pour water on the grave beginning with the side of the head. He then turn to the four sides of the grave and return to the side of the head. If any amount of water remains, he may pour it on the middle of the grave.

When the grave is leveled, any one may put his hand on it, open the fingers, press them on the grave, and pray for the dead person, saying:

اَللَّهُمَّ آنِسْ وَحْشَتَهُ

all¡humma ¡nis wa¦shatah£

O Allah, (please) entertain his lonesomeness,

وَٱرْحَمْ غُرْبَتَهُ

war¦am ghurbatah£

have mercy upon his seclusion,

وَاسْكِنْ رَوْعَتَهُ

wa askin raw`atah£

calm down his fear,

وَصِلْ وَحْدَتَهُ

wa ¥il wa¦datah£

maintain (communion) his loneliness,

وَاسْكِنْ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِكَ

wa askin ilayhi min ra¦matika

put with him part of Your mercy

رَحْمَةً يَسْتَغْنِي بِهَا عَنْ رَحْمَةِ مَنْ سِوَاكَ

ra¦matan yastaghn¢ bih¡ `an ra¦mati man siw¡ka

due to which he will dispense with the mercy of any one other than You,

وَٱحْشُرْهُ مَعَ مَنْ كَانَ يَتَوَلاَّهُ

wa¦shurhu ma`a man k¡na yatawall¡hu

and resurrect him with those to whom he has been loyal.

 

When people leave, the nearest relative of the dead person should remain there, praying Almighty Allah’s mercy on the dead person. If nothing prevents from so, this person should call at the dead loudly and say these words:

يَا… بْنَ…

y¡… ibna…

O [so-and-so] the son of [so-and-so]!

اللَّهُ رَبُّكَ

all¡hu rabbuka

Allah is your lord,

وَمُحَمَّدٌ نَبِيُّكَ

wa mu¦ammadun nabiyyuka

Mu¦ammad is your prophet,

وَٱلْقُرْآنُ كِتَابُكَ

walqur'¡nu kit¡buka

the Qur'¡n is your book,

وَٱلْكَعْبَةُ قِبْلَتُكَ

walka`batu qiblatuka

the Ka`bah is your direction,

وَعَلِيٌّ إِمَامُكَ

wa `aliyyun im¡muka

`Al¢ is your Imam,

وَٱلْحَسَنُ وَٱلْحُسَيْنُ

wal¦asanu wal¦usaynu

and al-°asan, al-°usayn,

وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

wa `aliyyu ibnu al¦usayni

`Al¢ the son of al-°usayn,

وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammadu ibnu `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَجَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa ja`faru ibnu mu¦ammadin

Ja`far the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَمُوسَىٰ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ

wa m£s¡ ibnu ja`farin

M£s¡ the son of Ja`far,

وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَىٰ

wa `aliyyu ibnu m£s¡

`Al¢ the son of M£s¡,

وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammadu ibnu `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa `aliyyu ibnu mu¦ammadin

`Al¢ the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَٱلْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ

wal¦asanu ibnu `aliyyin

al-°asan the son of `Al¢,

وَٱلْقَائِمُ ٱلْحُجَّةُ

walq¡'imu al¦ujjatu

and the Rising Argument-person,

عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ

`alayhimu alssal¡mu

peace be upon them all

ائِمَّتُكَ ائِمَّةُ ٱلْهُدَىٰ ٱلابْرَارُ

a'immatuka a'immatu al-hud¡ al-abr¡ru

are your Imams. They are the pious leaders to true guidance.

 

With the exception of moribund condition, it is recommended to prompt the dead person on two occasions:

(1) when the body is placed in the grave; in this case, it is better to grasp the right shoulder of the dead with the right hand of the prompter and the left shoulder with the left hand. Then, the prompter should move the body and say the words to be prompted.

(2) after burying; the nearest relative of the dead person should sit to the side of the head, after all others leave, and prompt the dead in a loud voice. It is better to put the two palms on the grave and approach the mouth towards it. However, there is no objection if the nearest relative deputizes another person to prompt the dead person.

According to reported traditions, when a dead person is prompted these words, Munkar and Nak¢r (the two angels who interrogate the dead in the graves) will say, “This dead person has been prompted; therefore, there is no need to interrogate him. Let us leave.” Hence, they leave without interrogating the dead.

 

`All¡mah al-Majlis¢, may Allah have mercy upon him, says: The all-comprehensive form of prompting the dead is as follows:

إِسْمَعْ إِفْهَمْ يَا… ٱبْنَ…

isma` ifham y¡… ibna…

Listen! Understand! O [so-and-so] the son of [so-and-so]!

هَلْ انْتَ عَلَىٰ ٱلْعَهْدِ ٱلَّذِي فَارَقْتَنَا عَلَيْهِ

hal anta `al¡ al`ahdi alladh¢ f¡raqtan¡ `alayhi

Are you still keeping the covenant on which you have departed us:

مِنْ شَهَادَةِ انْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إلاَّ ٱللَّهُ

min shah¡dati an l¡ il¡ha ill¡ all¡hu

that you bear witness that there is no god save Allah,

وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ

wa¦dah£ l¡ shar¢ka lah£

One and Only and having no associate,

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ

wa anna mu¦ammadan ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢

that Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household,

عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

`abduh£ wa ras£luh£

is his servant, messenger,

وَسَيِّدُ ٱلنَّبِيِّينَ

wa sayyidu alnnabiyy¢na

the chief of the Prophets,

وَخَاتَمُ ٱلْمُرْسَلِينَ

wa kh¡tamu almursal¢na

and the seal of the Messengers,

وَانَّ عَلِيّاً امِيرُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

wa anna `aliyyan am¢ru almu'min¢na

that `Al¢ is the commander of the faithful believers,

وَسَيِّدُ ٱلْوَصِيِّينَ

wa sayyidu alwa¥iyy¢na

the chief of the Prophet’s successors,

 وَإِمَامٌ ٱفْتَرَضَ ٱللَّهُ طَاعَتَهُ عَلَىٰ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ

wa im¡mun iftara¤a all¡hu §¡`atah£ `al¡ al`¡lam¢na

and the Imam the obedience to whom has been made obligatory upon all people by Allah,

وَانَّ ٱلْحَسَنَ وَٱلْحُسَيْنَ

wa anna al¦asana wal¦usayna

and that al-°asan, al-°usayn,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ

wa `aliyya ibna al¦usayni

`Al¢ the son of al-°usayn,

وَمُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammada ibna `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَجَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa ja`fara ibna mu¦ammadin

Ja`far the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَمُوسَىٰ بْنَ جَعْفَرٍ

wa m£s¡ ibna ja`farin

M£s¡ the son of Ja`far,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُوسىٰ

wa `aliyya ibna m£s¡

`Al¢ the son of M£s¡,

وَمُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wa mu¦ammada ibna `aliyyin

Mu¦ammad the son of `Al¢,

وَعَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ

wa `aliyya ibna mu¦ammadin

`Al¢ the son of Mu¦ammad,

وَٱلْحَسَنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ

wal¦asana ibna `aliyyin

al-°asan the son of `Al¢,

وَٱلْقَائِمَ ٱلْحُجَّةَ ٱلْمَهْدِيَّ

walq¡'ima al¦ujjata almahdiyya

and the Rising, Argument, and well-guided Imam,

صَلَوَاتُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ

¥alaw¡tu all¡hi `alayhim

may Allah’s blessings be upon them all,

ائِمَّةُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

a'immatu almu'min¢na

are the leaders of the faithful believers,

وَحُجَجُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَىٰ ٱلْخَلْقِ اجْمَعِينَ

wa ¦ujaju all¡hi `al¡ alkhalqi ajma`¢na

the arguments of Allah against all of the creatures,

وَائِمَّتَكَ ائِمَّةُ هُدىًٰ ابْرَارٌ

wa a'immataka a'immatu hudan abr¡run

and your Imams; the immaculate leaders to true guidance.

يَا… بْنَ…

y¡… ibna…

O [so-and-so] the son of [so-and-so]!

إِذَا اتَاكَ ٱلْمَلَكَانِ ٱلْمُقَرَّبَانِ

idh¡ at¡ka almalak¡ni almuqarrab¡ni

When the two archangels come to you

رَسُولَيْنِ مِنْ عِنْدِ ٱللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَىٰ

ras£layni min `indi all¡hi tab¡raka wa ta`¡l¡

as two messengers from Allah the All-blessed and All-exalted,

وَسَالاَكَ عَنْ رَبِّكَ

wa sa'al¡ka `an rabbika

and asked you about your lord,

وَعَنْ نَبِيِّكَ وَعَنْ دِينِكَ

wa `an nabiyyika wa `an d¢nika

your prophet, your religion,

وَعَنْ كِتَابِكَ وَعَنْ قِبْلَتِكَ

wa `an kit¡bika wa `an qiblatika

your book, your direction,

وَعَنْ ائِمَّتِكَ فَلاَ تَخَفْ

wa `an a'immatika fal¡ takhaf

and your Imams, then do not be scared;

وَقُلْ فِي جَوَابِهِمَا

wa qul f¢ jaw¡bihim¡

rather, you should, answering them, say,

ٱللَّهُ جَلَّ جَلاَلُهُ رَبِّي

all¡hu jalla jal¡luh£ rabb¢

“Allah, Whose majesty is all-majestic, is my Lord,

وَمُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ نَبِيِّي

wa mu¦ammadun ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ nabiyy¢

Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is my prophet,

وَٱلإِسْلاَمُ دِينِي

wal-isl¡mu d¢n¢

Islam is my religion,

وَٱلْقُرْآنُ كِتَابِي

walqur'¡nu kit¡b¢

the Qur'¡n is my book,

وَٱلْكَعْبَةُ قِبْلَتِي

walka`batu qiblat¢

the Ka`bah is my direction,

وَامِيرُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ ابِي طَالِبٍ إِمَامِي

wa am¢ru almu'min¢na `aliyyu ibnu ab¢ §¡libin im¡m¢

the Commander of the Faithful `Al¢ the son of Ab£-±¡lib is my Imam,

وَٱلْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ ٱلْمُجْتَبَىٰ إِمَامِي

wal¦asanu ibnu `aliyyin almujtab¡ im¡m¢

al-°asan the son of `Al¢ the well-chosen is my Imam,

وَٱلْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ ٱلشَّهِيدُ بِكَرْبَلاَءَ إِمَامِي

wal¦usaynu ibnu `aliyyin alshshah¢du bikarbal¡'a im¡m¢

al-°usayn the son of `Al¢ the martyred in Karbal¡' is my Imam,

وَعَلِيٌّ زَيْنُ ٱلْعَابِدِينَ إِمَامِي

wa `aliyyun zaynu al`¡bid¢na im¡m¢

`Al¢ the adornment of the worshippers is my Imam,

وَمُحَمَّدٌ بَاقِرُ عِلْمِ ٱلنَّبِيِينَ إِمَامِي

wa mu¦ammadun b¡qiru `ilmi alnnabiyy¢na im¡m¢

Mu¦ammad who split the knowledge of the Prophets is my Imam,

وَجَعْفَرٌ ٱلصَّادِقُ إِمَامِي

wa ja`farun al¥¥¡diqu im¡m¢

Ja`far the veracious is my Imam,

وَمُوسَىٰ ٱلْكَاظِمُ إِمَامِي

wa m£s¡ alk¡¨imu im¡m¢

M£s¡ the suppressor of rage is my Imam,

وَعَلِيٌّ ٱلرِّضَا إِمَامِي

wa `aliyyun alrri¤¡ im¡m¢

`Al¢ the amicable is my Imam,

وَمُحَمَّدٌ ٱلْجَوَادُ إِمَامِي

wa mu¦ammadun aljaw¡du im¡m¢

Mu¦ammad the magnanimous is my Imam,

وَعَلِيٌّ ٱلْهَادِي إِمَامِي

wa `aliyyun alh¡d¢ im¡m¢

`Al¢ the guide is my Imam,

وَٱلْحَسَنُ ٱلْعَسْكَرِيُّ إِمَامِي

wal¦asanu al`askariyyu im¡m¢

al-°asan the resident of `Askar city is my Imam,

وَٱلْحُجَّةُ ٱلْمُنْتَظَرُ إِمَامِي

wal¦ujjatu almunta¨aru im¡m¢

and the Awaited argument-person is my Imam.

هٰؤُلاَءِ صَلَوَاتُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ اجْمَعِينَ ائِمَّتِي

h¡'ul¡'i ¥alaw¡tu all¡hi `alayhim ajma`¢na a'immat¢

These, may Allah’s blessings be upon all of them, are my Imams,

وَسَادَتِي وَقَادَتِي وَشُفَعَائِي

wa s¡dat¢ wa q¡dat¢ wa shufa`¡'¢

my chiefs, my leaders, and my interceders.

بِهِمْ اتَوَلَّىٰ

bihim atawall¡

I am loyal to them

وَمِنْ اعْدَائِهِمْ اتَبَرَّا

wa min a`d¡'ihim atabarra'u

and I repudiate their enemies

فِي ٱلدُّنْيَا وَٱلآخِرَةِ

f¢ aldduny¡ wal-¡khirati

in the world and the Hereafter.”

ثُمَّ ٱعْلَمْ يَا… ٱبْنَ…

thumma i`lam y¡… ibna…

Be it known to you, O [so-and-so] the son of [so-and-so],

انَّ ٱللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالىٰ نِعْمَ ٱلرَّبُّ

anna all¡ha tab¡raka wa ta`¡l¡ ni`ma alrrabbu

that Allah the All-blessed and All-exalted is the most excellent Lord,

وَانَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ نِعْمَ ٱلرَّسُولُ

wa anna mu¦ammadan ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ ni`ma alrras£lu

Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is the most excellent Messenger,

وَانَّ امِيرَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ ابِي طَالِبٍ

wa anna am¢ra almu'min¢na `aliyya ibna ab¢ §¡libin

the Commander of the Faithful `Al¢ the son of Ab£-±¡lib

وَاوْلاَدَهُ ٱلائِمَّةَ ٱلاحَدَ عَشَرَ نِعْمَ ٱلائِمَّةُ

wa awl¡dah£ al-a'immata al-a¦ada `ashara ni`ma al-a'immatu

and the eleven Imams who are his descendants are the most excellent Imams,

وَانَّ مَا جَاءَ بِهِ مُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ حَقٌّ

wa anna m¡ j¡'a bih¢ mu¦ammadun ¥all¡ all¡hu `alayhi wa ¡lih¢ ¦aqqun

whatever has been conveyed by Mu¦ammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is true,

وَانَّ ٱلْمَوْتَ حَقٌّ

wa anna almawta ¦aqqun

death is true,

وَسُؤَالَ مُنْكَرٍ وَنَكِيرٍ فِي ٱلْقَبْرِ حَقٌّ

wa su'¡la munkarin wa nak¢rin f¢ alqabri ¦aqqun

the interrogation of Munkar and Nak¢r in the grave is true,

وَٱلْبَعْثَ حَقٌّ

walba`tha ¦aqqun

the raising from the dead is true,

وَٱلنُّشُورَ حَقٌّ

walnnush£ra ¦aqqun

the Resurrection is true,

وَٱلصِّرَاطَ حَقٌّ

wal¥¥ir¡§a ¦aqqun

the Discriminating Bridge is true,

وَٱلْمِيزَانَ حَقٌّ

walm¢z¡na ¦aqqun

the Scale is true,

وَتَطَايُرَ ٱلْكُتُبِ حَقٌّ

wa ta§¡yura alkutubi ¦aqqun

the dispersion of the records is true,

وَٱلْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ

waljannata ¦aqqun

Paradise is true,

وَٱلنَّارَ حَقٌّ

walnn¡ra ¦aqqun

the Fire is true,

وَانَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهَا

wa anna alss¡`ata ¡tiyatun l¡ rayba f¢h¡

the Hour (of Resurrection) shall come; there is no doubt about it,

وَانَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي ٱلْقُبُورِ

wa anna all¡ha yab`athu man f¢ alqub£ri

and Allah shall resurrect those who are in graves.

Then, the prompter should ask:

افَهِمْتَ يَا…

afahimta y¡

Do you understand, O [so-and-so]?

According to a reported tradition, when a dead person is addressed these words, he answers, “Yes, I understand.”

The prompter should then say these words:

ثَبَّتَكَ ٱللَّهُ بِٱلْقَوْلِ ٱلثَّابِتِ

thabbataka all¡hu bilqawli althth¡biti

May Allah confirm you with the sure word.

هَدَاكَ ٱللَّهُ إِلىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ

had¡ka all¡hu il¡ ¥ir¡§in mustaq¢min

May Allah guide you to a straight path.

عَرَّفَ ٱللَّهُ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ اوْلِيَائِكَ

`arrafa all¡hu baynaka wa bayna awliy¡'ika

May Allah introduce you to your leaders

فِي مُسْتَقَرٍّ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ

f¢ mustaqarrin min ra¦matih¢

in a resting-place of His mercy.

He may then add the following words:

اَللَّهُمَّ جَافِ ٱلارْضَ عَنْ جَنْبَيْهِ

all¡humma j¡fi al-ar¤a `an janbayhi

O Allah, (please) take the earth away lest it touches his two sides,

وَٱصْعَدْ بِرُوحِهِ إِلَيْكَ

wa¥`ad bir£¦ih¢ ilayka

elevate his soul towards You,

وَلَقِّهِ مِنْكَ بُرْهَاناً

wa laqqih¢ minka burh¡nan

and make him find demonstration from You.

اَللَّهُمَّ عَفْوَكَ عَفْوَكَ

all¡humma `afwaka `afwaka

O Allah, [I beseech for] Your pardon! [I beseech for] Your pardon!