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Battle of Badr
The battle of Badr was the most horrific among the other battles, the first trial of Muslims, and the one taking place vehemently between the Holy Prophet and the atheists of Quraysh.
God Almighty states about the trial of Muslims: “Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, though a party of the believers were surely averse; They disputed with you about the truth after it had become clear, and they went forth as if they were being driven to death while they saw it.” (8:5-6). This battle happened eighteen months after the immigration of the Holy Prophet (s.a) to Medina and `Ali was twenty seven years old.
The atheists of Quraysh insisted on fighting this battle, for they outnumbered the Muslims, though among them, there were far-sighted men who were not ignorant of the consequences of this battle, had taken part reluctantly, had been forced into the battle and challenged only their peers. The Messenger of Allah too warned his army not to fight them, saying: They only challenge their peers. Hence, the first person who was given mission to fight them was `Ali and his match was Walid ibn `Utbah, a man of courage and valor but he was killed by `Ali after a short fighting.
Al-`As ibn Sa`id ibn al-`As was a man of courage and horror. For this reason, no one was ready to fight him. He too was killed by `Ali. 
وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لاَ يَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ. الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْفَائِزُونَ…﴾ إلَى قَوْلِهِ: ﴿أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ﴾ فَصَدَقَ اللهُ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي دَعْواهُ وَشَهِدَ لَهُ بِالإيمانِ وَالمُهاجَرَةِ وَالجِهادِ.
فَفِي غَزاةِ بَدْرٍ:
قَالَ أَبُو اليَقْظانِ: إنَّهُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ غِفارٍ رَهْطِ أَبِي ذَرٍّ الغِفارِيِّ.
وَقالَ الشِّعْبِيُّ: (بَدْرٌ) بِئْرٌ كَانَتْ لِرَجُلٍ يُسَمّى بَدْراً.
وَهَذِهِ الغَزاةُ هِيَ الدَّاهِيَةُ العُظْمى وَأَوَّلُ حَرْبٍ كَانَ بِهِ الإمْتِحانُ حَيْثُ قَالَ الله تَعالَى: ﴿كَمَا أَخْرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَيْتِكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَكَارِهُونَ. يُجَادِلُونَكَ فِي الْحَقِّ بَعْدَ مَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى الْمَوْتِ وَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ.﴾
كَانَتْ عَلَى رَأْسِ ثَمانِيَةَ عَشَرَ شَهْراً مِنْ قُدومِهِ الْمَدينَةَ وَعُمْرُ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ سَبْعَ عَشرَةَ سَنَةً. وَكَانَ الْمُشْرِكونَ قَدْ أَصَرُّوا عَلَى القِتالِ لِكَثْرَتِهِمْ وَقِلَّةِ المُسْلِمينَ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ خَرَجَ كارِهاً. فَتَحَدَّتْهُمْ قُرَيْشٌ بِالبِرازِ وَاقْتَرَحَتِ الأَكْفاءَ. فَمَنَعَهُمُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ إنَّ القَوْمَ طَلَبوا الأَكْفاءَ. ثُمَّ أَمَرَ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَبْرُزُ إِلَيْهِمْ، فَبارَزَهُ الوَليدُ بْنُ عُتْبَةَ، وَكَانَ شُجاعاً جَريئاً، فَقَتَلَهُ.
وَقَتَلَ العَاصَ بْنَ سَعيدِ بْنِ العاصِ بَعْدَ أنْ أحْجَمَ عَنْهُ النَّاسُ لأَنَّهُ كَانَ هَوْلاً عِظيماً.
Hanzalah ibn Abi-Sufyan too fought `Ali but he was killed. `Ali injured ibn `Adi, too. Then, Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid, who was highly-esteemed and obeyed by people of Quraysh, entered the battle. Nawfal was very clever and a mischief-maker and the one who had tied down Abu-Bakr and Talhah with a rope and had tortured them till he set them free with the mediation of others.
Once the Messenger of Allah found out that Nawfal had taken part in this battle, he raised his hands in prayer, saying: O Lord, eradicate him. Soon, he was killed by Imam `Ali in a hand to hand fighting. After Nawfal’s perdition, the Holy Prophet said: Who will bring me the news of Nawfal? `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, I killed him. While rejoicing and saying: Allah is the Greatest, the Holy Prophet said: Thanks Lord who answered my prayer.
Imam `Ali was in the front line of the battle fighting the atheists of Quraysh and killing them one after the other. In this battle, seventy of Quraysh leaders were killed by `Ali and the rest were killed by Muslims and three thousand angels who had taken part in the battle.
Following the killing of seventy courageous men of Quraysh, the Holy Prophet (s.a) threw a handful of small sands on them, saying: May your faces turn ugly thereby they were all defeated and started fleeing.
The Battle of Uhud
The battle of Uhud took place in the month of Shawwal and `Ali was hardly nineteen years old then.
The battle of Uhud was waged to make up for the defeat of leaders of Quraysh in the battle of Badr. Therefore, they plotted to annihilate Muslims by spending much money and informed Abu-Sufyan of the plot. Abu-Sufyan, after counseling with his aides, decided to besiege Medina in order to kill the Messenger of Allah and his aides. The Holy Prophet (s.a) was informed of Quraysh’s move, so he exchanged views with his companions and decided that the fighting to take place outside Medina and moved towards Uhud with the Muslims. One third of crowd who were hypocrites returned to Medina, half way. So the Holy Prophet (s.a) headed for the place of martyrdom along with seven hundred people. In this relation, God Almighty states: “And when you did go forth early in the morning from your family to lodge the believers in encampments for war…” (3:121). 
وَبَرَزَ إلَيْهِ حَنْظَلَةُ بْنُ أَبِي سُفْيانَ فَقَتَلَهُ.
وَطَعَنَ ابْنَ عَدِيٍّ ثُمَّ نَوْفَلَ بْنَ خُوَيْلِدٍ وَكَانَ مِنْ شَياطِينِ قُرَيْشٍ وَكانَتْ تُقَدِّمُهُ وَتُعَظِّمُهُ وَتُطيعُهُ وَكَانَ قَدْ قَرَنَ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَطَلْحَةَ قَبْلَ الْهِجْرَةِ بِمَكَّةَ وَأَوْثَقَهُما بِحَبْلٍ وَعَذَّبَهُما يَوْماً حَتَّى سُئِلَ فِي أَمْرِهِما.
وقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لَمَّا عَلِمَ بِحُضورِ نَوْفَلٍ بَدْراً قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إكْفِنِي نَوْفلاً. فَلَمَّا قَتَلَهُ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ: مَنْ لَهُ عِلْمٌ بِنَوْفَلٍ؟ قَالَ: أنَا قَتَلْتُهُ يَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَكَبَّرَ وَقالَ: الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي أَجابَ دَعْوَتِي فِيهِ.
وَلَمْ يَزَلْ يَقْتُلُ واحِداً بَعْدَ واحِدٍ حَتَّى قَتَلَ نِصْفَ الْمَقْتولينَ وَكانوا سَبْعينَ، وَقَتَلَ الْمُسْلِمونَ كافَّةً وَثَلاثَةُ آلافٍ مِنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ الْمُسَوِّمينَ النِّصْفَ الآخَرَ.
ثُمَّ رَمَى رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِكَفٍّ مِنَ الْحَصا وَقالَ: شَاهَتِ الوُجُوهُ. فَانْهَزَموا جَمِيعاً.
وَفي غَزاةِ أُحُدٍ:
وَكانَتْ فِي شَوَّالٍ وَلَمْ يَبْلُغْ عُمْرُ أَمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ تِسْعَ عَشرَةَ سَنَةً.
وَسَبَبُها أنَّ قُرَيْشاً لَمَّا كُسِروا يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ وَقُتِلَ رُؤَساؤُهُمْ بَذَلوا الأَمْوالَ لإسْتِئْصالِ الْمُؤْمِنينَ. وَتَوَلَّى ذَلِكَ أَبُو سُفْيانَ لِيَقْصُدوا النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنينَ بِالْمَدينَةِ. وَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي جَماعَةٍ مِنَ المُسْلِمينَ فَرَجَعَ قَريبٌ مِنْ ثُلُثِهِمْ إلَى الْمَدينَةِ وَبَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي سَبْعِمِائَةٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمينَ. وَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ تَعالَى: ﴿وَإِذْ غَدَوْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ تُبَوِّئُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَقَاعِدَ لِلْقِتَالِ…﴾
The Holy Prophet (s.a) on that day lodged the encampments, organized then in a long line, appointed fifty men of Ansar under the command of a man by the name of `Abdullah ibn `Umar ibn Khiram to be stationed at the top of the mountain, dangerous for the enemy’s hidden attack, ordering them not to move from their places and to closely watch the enemy’s moves even if all Muslims were killed, for it was a strategic place. If there was any possible attack, it would start from the same place. Therefore, it had to be safeguarded, for the enemy might besiege Muslims from the same position.
The Holy Prophet (s.a) entrusted the standard of Muslims to `Ali. The enemy’s standard bearer was Talhah ibn Abi-Talhah whom they called Kabsh al-Katibah. `Ali plucked out his eyes from its sockets with one blow. He made a loud cry and the standard of atheism fell down from his hand. He was then killed and his brother, Mus`ab, carrying the standard on his shoulder prepared himself for fighting but `Asim ibn Thabit killed him by throwing an arrow. Then their male servant whose name was Sawwab and was the most agile and strong picked up the standard and prepared himself for fighting but `Ali cut off his right arm with a single blow. Sawwab wielded the standard in his left hand but `Ali cut off his left arm too with another blow. When his two arms were cut off, Sawwab stuck the standard on his chest with the help of his remaining arms but `Ali struck a blow on his head with his sword, making him fall down on the ground and die. Having lost their standard bearers, the enemy was frightened, Muslims who were rejoicing for the enemy’s escape and their victory, were engaged in gathering war booties.
Those Muslims stationed on the order of the Holy Prophet at the top of the mountain overlooking the battle front, seeing the enemy’s defeat and gathering of the was booties, asked their commanders to give them permission to come to the scene of fighting so that they will not be deprived of war booties! `Abdullah said: The Messenger of Allah has ordered me not to move from this place even one step. Therefore, we should not leave our position. They said: You are right. The Holy Prophet’s order was right but he did not know that we could achieve victory so quickly. Hence, they collectively entered the scene to gather war booties, leaving `Abdullah by himself! Khalid ibn Walid attacked him from behind and martyred
وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ صَفَّ الْمُسْلِمينَ صَفّاً طَويلاً وَجَعَلَ عَلَى الشِّعْبِ خَمْسينَ رَجُلاً مِنَ الأَنْصارِ وَأَمَّرَ عَلَيْهِمْ رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ يُقالُ لَهُ: عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ خِرَمٍ. وَقالَ: لاَ تَبْرَحوا مِنْ مَكانِكُمْ وَإنْ قُتِلْنا عَنْ آخِرِنا فَإنَّما نُؤْتَى مِنْ مَوْضِعِكُمْ هَذَا.
وَجَعَلَ لِواءَ الْمُسْلِمينَ بِيَدِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَلَوْاءُ الكُفَّارِ بِيَدِ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، وَكَانَ يُسَمَّى كَبْشَ الكَتيبَةِ. ضَرَبَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَنَدَرَتْ عَيْنُهُ وَصاحَ صَيحَةً عَظيمَةً وَسَقَطَ اللِّواءُ مِنْ يَدِهِ. فَأَخَذَهُ أخوهُ مُصْعَبٌ فَرَماهُ عاصِمُ بْنُ ثابِتٍ فَقَتَلَهُ. فَأَخَذَهُ عَبْدٌ لَهُمْ اسمُهُ صَوَّابٌ وَكَانَ مِنْ أَشَدِّ النَّاسِ فَقَطَعَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَدَهُ اليُمْنَى، فَأَخَذَ اللِّواءَ بِاليُسْرى فَقَطَعَها أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، فَأَخَذَ اللِّواءَ عَلَى صَدْرِهِ وَجَمَعَ عَلَيْهِ يَدَيْهِ وَهُما مَقْطوعَتانِ، فَضَرَبَهُ أمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَى أُمِّ رَأْسِهِ فَسَقَطَ صَريعاً فَانْهَزَمَ القَوْمُ. وَأَكَبَّ الْمُسْلِمونَ عَلَى الْغَنائِمِ.
وَرَأى أَصْحَابُ الشِّعْبِ النَّاسَ يَغْتَنِمونَ فَخَافُوا فَوْتَ الْغَنيمَةِ فَاسْتَأْذَنوا رَئيسَهُمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ بْنِ خِرَمٍ فِي أَخْذِ الغَنَائِمِ. فَقالَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَمَرَنِي إلاَّ أبْرَحَ مِنْ مَوْضِعي. فَقَالُوا: إنَّهُ قَالَ ذَلِكَ وَهُوَ لاَ يَدْري أنَّ الأَمْرَ يَبْلُغُ مَا تَرَى. وَمَالوا إلَى الغَنائِمِ وَتَرَكُوهُ. فَحَمَلَ عَلَيْهِ خالِدُ بْنُ الوَليدِ فَقَتَلَهُ. وَجَـاءَ مِنْ ظَـهْرِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ
him, attacking the Holy Prophet and his aides from behind. Addressing those who had left their positions, the Holy Prophet said with a sad tone: Here is what you were after! So the enemy in a solid column attacked on Muslims with swords, spears, arrows and stones, launching a hard fighting. Seeing this, the companions of the Holy Prophet gathered around him, trying to protect him from the enemy but seventy Muslims were martyred.
In this battle, `Ali remained steadfast, defended the Holy Prophet and his divine mission, and was prepared to sacrifice himself for the Holy Prophet from every side the enemies attacked him. When the Holy Prophet opened his eyes after fainting as a result of the enemy’s brutal attack, he saw no one but `Ali, saying: O `Ali! What did these people do and where have they gone to? `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! They have broken their promises and by escaping from the battle scene, have taken shelter on the mountain! The Holy Prophet (s.a) said: O `Ali, repel this fierce group which attacked me. `Ali launched a hard attack, dispersed all of them, and returned to the Holy Prophet. The enemy invaded from another direction but `Ali defeated them again with his matchless resistance.
Those how escaped from the scene, though seeing the Holy Prophet was being attacked, remained on the mountain except fourteen of them who returned.
At that time, sad news which was heart-rending spread in Medina and that was the news on the martyrdom of the Holy Prophet (s.a).
Hind, the daughter of `Utbah, who had lost her relatives in the battle of Badr promised Wahshi (a slave) that she would provide him with a great sum of money if he could kill the Holy Prophet, `Ali, or Hamzah (the Holy Prophet’s uncle). Accepting the act, Wahshi said: Forget about killing the Prophet, for I can in no way kill him, for he is being circled by his companions. As for `Ali, I cannot play any trick to kill him either, for when fighting, he is careful about himself from every side, repelling the enemy’s attack. So I am only hopeful of killing Hamzah, for when he is fighting and angry, he does not see even before himself. Wahshi martyred Hamzah Hind came and ordered to tear Hamzah’s belly and give her his liver. She then lynched his body. His nose and ears were two broken. 
عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ لأَصْحابِهِ: دُونَكُمْ هَذَا الَّذِي تَطْلُبونَ. فَحَمَلوا عَلَيْهِ حَمْلَةَ رَجُلٍ واحِدٍ ضَرْباً بِالسُّيُوفِ وَطَعْناً بِالرِّمَاحِ وَرَمْياً بِالنِّبَالِ وَرَضْخاً بِالْحِجَارَةِ. وَجَعَلَ أصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ يُقَاتِلونَ عَنْهُ حَتَّى قُتِلَ مِنْهُمْ سَبْعونَ رَجُلاً.
وَثَبَتَ أمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَواتُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ يَدْفَعُ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَفَتَحَ عَيْنَهُ وَكَانَ قَدْ أُغْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ فَنَظَرَ إلَى عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ: يَا عَلِيُّ، مَا فَعَلَ النَّاسُ؟ فَقالَ: نَقَضُوا العَهْدَ وَوَلَّوُا الدُّبُرَ. فَقالَ: فَاكْفِنِي هَؤلاءِ الَّذينَ قَصَدوا نَحْوي.
فَحَمَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَكَشَفَهُمْ. ثُمَّ عَادَ إلَيْهِ وَقَدْ قَصَدُوهُ مِنْ جِهَةٍ أُخْرَى فَكَشَفَهُمْ.
وَرَجَعَ مِنَ الْمُنْهَزِمينَ أرْبَعَةَ عَشَرَ رَجُلاً وَصَعَدَ البَاقونَ الْجَبَلَ.
وَصاحَ صائِحٌ بِالْمَدِينَةِ: قُتِلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَانْخَلَعَتِ القُلُوبُ.
وَجَعَلَتْ هِنْدُ بِنْتُ عُتْبَةَ لِوَحْشِيٍّ جَعْلاً عَلَى أنْ يَقْتُلَ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أوْ عَلِيَّاً أوْ حَمْزَةَ. فَقالَ: أمَّا مُحَمَّدُ فَلا حِيلَةَ فِيهِ لأَنَّ أصْحابَهُ يَطُوفونَ بِهِ. وَأمَّا عَلِيٌّ فَإنَّهُ إذَا قَاتَلَ أَحْذَرُ مِنَ الذِّئْبِ. وَأمَّا حَمْزَةُ فَأَطْمَعُ فِيهِ لأَنَّهُ إذَا غَضِبَ لاَ يُبْصِرُ مَـا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ.
فَقَتَلَهُ وَحْشِيٌّ. وَجاءَتْ هِنْدُ فَأَمَرَتْ بِشَقِّ بَطْنِهِ وَقَطْعِ كَبِدِهِ وَالتَّمْثيلِ بِهِ، فَجَدَعوا أَنْفَهُ وَأُذُنَيْهِ.
In this battle, Gabriel brought the deed of honor of “There is no man more valorous than `Ali and there is no sword sharper than Dhu’l-Fiqar” for the great man, `Ali and read it with a loud voice to people so that they heard it all.
At this time, Gabriel said: O Messenger of Allah, the angels are surprised at `Ali’s self-sacrifice for you and hailed his great help. The Messenger of Allah said: Why they should not be when `Ali is from me and I am from him. Gabriel took pride in this and said: I am from you too.
The atheists of Quraysh who were killed in the battle of Uhud by `Ali’s sword were a great number. Muslims’ final victory and their returning to the Messenger of Allah was due to `Ali’s steadfastness and courage in the battlefield.
وَقالَ جِبْريلُ: لاَ سَيْفَ إلاَّ ذُو الفِقارِ وَلا فَتَى إلاَّ عَلِيٌّ.
وَسَمِعَ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ ذَلِكَ. وَقالَ جِبْرِيلُ: يَا رَسولَ اللهِ، قَدْ عَجِبَتِ الْمَلائِكَةُ مِنْ حُسْنِ مُواسَاةِ عَلِيٍّ لَكَ بِنَفْسِهِ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا يَمْنَعُهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَهُوَ مِنّي وَأَنا مِنْهُ. فَقالَ جِبْريلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: وَأنَا مِنْكُما.
وَكَانَ جُمْهورُ قَتْلَى أُحُدٍ مَقْتولِينَ بِسَيْفِ أمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. وَكَانَ الفَتْحُ وَرُجُوعُ النَّاسِ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِثَباتِ أمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ.
Ali’s Courage in the Battle of Khandaq (The Ditch)
In this battle, Quraysh and its collaborators from the family of Kinanah, the inhabitants of Tihamah with ten thousands men as well as the tribe of Ghatafan from Najd rushed to help Quraysh putting Muslims in a corner. The Messenger of Allah who knew their decision beforehand, ordered Muslims to dig a ditch around the city of Medina. Following this act, the sworn enemies of Islam surrounded the city from every side.
In this connection, the Holy Qur’an states: “…When they came upon you from above you and from below you…” (33:10). To fight the enemy, the Messenger of Allah rose for defense with three thousand Muslims behind the ditch and within the city. Amid this, the Jews inside the city were allied with the atheists so as to defeat the Holy Prophet and Muslims. Hence, the enemy pressured the people of Medina from inside and outside, adding to their worries. The horse-riders of Quraysh, including `Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl and `Amr ibn `Abd-Wudd who, in their wishful thinking, dreamt of a quick victory stood in the front line, asking for a challenger and declared a hand to hand fighting. Among Muslims, the first man who responded him was `Ali, saying: O Messenger of Allah, I am prepared to fight him! The Messenger of Allah said, “He is `Amr,” and kept silent. Asking for a challenger for the second time, `Amr said: Where is the paradise you promise with martyrdom? Why don’t you come to the field to be
وَفي غَزاةِ الخَنْدَقِ:
لَمَّا فَرِغَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ حَفْرِ الْخَنْدَقِ أَقْبَلَتْ قُرَيْشٌ وَأَتْباعُها مِنْ كِنانَةَ وَأَهْلِ تِهامَةَ فِي عَشَرَةِ آلافٍ وَأَقْبَلَتْ غَطَفانُ وَمَنْ يَتْبَعُها مِنْ أهْلِ نَجْدٍ فَنَزَلوا مِنْ فَوْقِ الْمُسْلِمينَ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنْهُمْ.
كَمَا قَالَ تَعالَى: ﴿إِذْ جَاءُوكُمْ مِنْ فَوْقِكُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنْكُمْ.﴾ فَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بالْمُسْلِمينَ وَهُمْ ثَلاثَةُ آلافٍ وَجَعَلوا الْخَنْدَقَ بَيْنَهُمْ. وَاتَّفَقَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ مَعَ اليَهودِ وَاشْتَدَّ الأَمْرُ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمينَ. وَرَكِبَ فَوارِسُ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ مِنْهُمْ عَمْرُو بْنُ عَبْدِ وُدٍّ وَعِكْرِمَةُ بْنُ أَبِي جَهْلٍ. فَقالَ عَمْرٌو: مَنْ يُبارِزُ؟ فَقالَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أنَا. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّهُ عَمْرٌو. فَسَكَتَ. فَقالَ عَمْرٌو: هَلْ مِنْ مُبارِزٍ؟ أيْنَ جَنَّتُكُمُ الَّتِي تَزْعُمونَ أنَّهُ مَنْ قُتِلَ مِنْكُمْ دَخَلَهَا؟ أَفَلا يَبْرُزُ إلَيَّ رَجُلٌ؟ فَقالَ عَلِيٌّ: أنَا لَهُ يَا رَسولَ
martyred and to go to paradise, is there no one to fight me? `Ali said: I will fight him. The Holy Prophet, at this time too due to an exigency and to prevent others from saying `Ali does not give others any chance and that he acts hastily, said: He is `Amr and kept silent.
On the third time when `Amr boldly cried out: Who is your fighter? Again `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, I will fight him though he is `Amr! At this time, the Holy Prophet gave `Ali permission to fight, saying: Now Islam in its entirety is standing against atheism in its entirely implying that if `Ali achieves victory, Islam will be victorious and if `Amr overcomes, then there will be no name of Islam. Addressing `Amr after going to the battlefield, `Ali said: You have pledged that if a man of Quraysh calls you to two things, you will accept. `Amr said: It is so. `Ali said: I invite you first to God, His messenger and Islam. `Amr said: Forget it, I will never accept Islam! `Ali said: I am on foot, you better dismount your horse so as to fight hand to hand. `Amr who was feeling death, out of pity said: O son of my brother! I do not desire to kill you, for you are an honorable man and your father was an old friend of me! `Ali said: But by God, I desire to kill you. `Amr was disturbed by these words and dismounted his horse. `Ali threw him on the ground after an hour of hand to hand fighting `Ali killed him and his son too. Seeing this fatal scene, `Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl and other atheist took to their heels, leaving the battlefield. God returned their anger back to them, so the enemies found no benefit in continuing the fighting and thus were defeated.
Seeing `Amr killed, `Umar ibn Khattab said to `Ali: He had a good coat of mail, why didn’t you take it off his body for there is no cuirass like it? `Ali said: It was not fair to leave him naked on the ground.
`Abdullah ibn Mas`ud used to recite the verse “…and Allah sufficed the believers in fighting; and Allah is Strong Mighty” (33:25) about `Ali.
Rabi`ah al-Sa`di reports: I went to Hudhayfah ibn Yaman, saying: Whenever I relate a Hadith on the excellence of `Ali, the people of Basrah reject us, saying: You are exaggerating and going to extremes about `Ali. Is there any Hadith which I can relate and the enemies cannot deny? Hudhayfah said: O Rabi`ah! Which merits of `Ali should
اللهِ. فَقالَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّهُ عَمْرٌو. فَسَكَتَ.
فَنَادَى ثالِثَةً. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أنَا لَهُ يَا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَقالَ: إنَّهُ عَمْرٌو. فَقالَ: وَإنْ كَانَ. فَأَذِنَ لَهُ وَقالَ: خَرَجَ الإسْلامُ كُلُّهُ إلَى الشِّرْكِ كُلِّهِ. فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا عَمْرُو إنَّكَ قَدْ عَاهَدْتَ اللهَ تَعالَى أَلاَّ يَدْعُوَكَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ إلَى إحْدَى خِصْلَتَيْنِ إلا إخْتَرْتَها مِنْهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: أَجَلْ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَإنِّي أَدْعُوكَ إلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالإسْلامِ. فَقالَ: لاَ حَاجَةَ لِي بِذَلِكَ. فَقالَ: إنِّي أَدْعُوكَ إلَى النِّزَالِ. فَقالَ لَهُ: يَا ابْنَ أَخي، فَوَاللهِ إنِّي لاَ أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَكَ وَأَنْتَ كَرِيمٌ وَأَبوكَ لِي نَديمٌ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ: وَلَكِنِّي وَاللهِ أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَكَ. فَحَمَى عَمْرٌو وَنَزَلَ عَنْ فَرَسِهِ ثُمَّ تَجَاوَلا ساعَةً. فَضَرَبَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ وَقَتَلَ وَلَدَهُ أيْضاً. وَانْهَزَمَ عِكْرِمَةُ بْنُ أَبِي جَهْلٍ وَباقِي المُشْرِكِينَ وَرَدَّهُمُ اللهُ بِغَيْظِهِمْ لَمْ يَنَالوا خَيْراً وَكَفَى اللهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتالَ.
وَقالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ لِعَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: هَلاّ سَلَبْتَهُ دِرْعَهُ، فَمَا لأَحَدٍ دِرْعٌ مِثْلُهَا. فَقالَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إنِّي إسْتَحْيَيْتُ أَنْ أَكْشِفَ عَنْ سَوْءَةِ ابْنِ عَمِّي.
وَكَانَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ يَقْرَأُ: وَكَفَى اللهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ بِعَلِيٍّ وَكَانَ اللهُ قَوِيَّاً عَزِيزاً.
قَالَ رَبِيعَةُ السَّعْدِيُّ: أَتَيْتُ حُذَيْفَةَ بْنَ اليَمانِ فَقُلْتُ: يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ، إنَّا لَنُحَدِّثُ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ وَمَناقِبِهِ فَيَقُولُ لَنا أهْلُ البَصْرَةِ إنَّكُمْ لَتُفَرِّطونَ فِي عَلِيٍّ، فَهَلْ أَنْتَ مُحَدِّثُنِي فِيهِ بِحَدِيثٍ؟ فَقالَ حُذَيْفَةُ: يَا رَبِيعَةُ، وَما تَسْأَلُنِي عَنْ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ وُضِعَ
I recount? By Lord in whose hand my life rests, if the deeds of the aides of Muhammad from the day he was ordained as prophet till the Day of Judgment are put on a pan of a scale and `Ali’s deeds are put on the other pan of scale, beyond doubt, `Ali’s deeds are heavier. Rabi`ah said: This is a Hadith for which one cannot sit or stand, implying that it is hard to accept and more hard to recount. Hudhayfah said: O fool! How can you say that this Hadith is hard to accept when the Messenger of Allah said the same thing on the day of the battle of the Ditch!
Then he added: Where were Abu-Bakr, `Umar, Hudhayfah, and all the companions of the Holy Prophet on the day when `Amr ibn `Abd-Wudd was yelling and challenging a fighter? All the crowds on that day were at a loss, creeping in a corner. It was only `Ali who responded to him, went to fight and killed him. By God in whose power my life is, the reward of `Ali’s deed on that day is more than the reward of the deeds of Muhammad’s companions till the Day of Judgment.
Following the defeat of allies on the day of the battle of Ditch, the Messenger of Allah decided to suppress the Jews of Banu-Qurayzah who had allied with Quraysh, so gave `Ali the mission to inspect their situation from close with thirty men of Khazraj tribe, saying: O `Ali, see what state Banu-Qurayzah are in? Have they left their forts on not? Going on his mission, `Ali accompanied by his aides reached near the enemy’s position, seeing that they were stationed in their forts and had blocked entrances and exits, swearing at the Holy Prophet (s.a). `Ali immediately went to the Holy Prophet informing him of the situation and went directly to carry out his mission. Seeing `Ali, one of them said: The killer of `Amr has come and the others confirmed it. Hearing the name of `Ali, Banu-Qurayzah took to his heels, leaving his position. By advancing into the big fort, `Ali installed the standard of Islam. The running Jews were swearing at the Holy Prophet and speaking ill of him. The Messenger of Allah said: O the brothers of pigs and monkeys, where are you fleeing? When we confront our enemies, we will ruin their life and make the bright day dark for them. They said: O Abu-al-Qasim! You were not tyrant or foulmouthed. Hearing this, the Messenger of Allah turned back, ashamed and kept them under siege for twenty five nights. Since
جَمِيعُ أَعْمالِ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ السَّلامُ فِي كَفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ مُنْذُ بَعَثَ اللهُ مُحَمَّداً إلَى يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ وَوُضِعَ عَمَلُ عَلِيٍّ فِي الكَفَّةِ الأُخْرى لَرَجَحَ عَمَلُ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَى جَميعِ أعْمالِهِمْ. فَقالَ رَبيعَةُ: هَذَا الَّذِي لاَ يُقامُ لَهُ وَلا يُقْعَدُ.
فَقالَ حُذَيْفَةُ: يَا لُكَعُ، وَكَيْفَ لاَ يُحْمَلُ وَأَيْنَ كَانَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ وَحُذَيْفَةُ وَجَميعُ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ يَوْمَ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَبْدِ وُدٍّ، وَقَدْ دَعا إلَى البِرازِ فَأَحْجَمَ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ مَا خَلا عَلِيَّاً، فَإنَّهُ بَرَزَ إلَيْهِ فَقَتَلَهُ؟ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ حُذَيْفَةَ بِيَدِهِ، لَعَمَلُهُ ذَلِكَ اليَوْمِ أَعْظَمُ أَجْراً مِنْ عَمَلِ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ إلَى يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ.
وَلَمَّا إنْهَزَمَ الأَحْزابُ قَصَدَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بَنِي قُرَيْظَةَ وَأَنْفَذَ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي ثَلاثِينَ مِنَ الخَزْرَجِ وَقالَ: أُنْظُرْ بَنِي قُرَيْظَةَ هَلْ نَزَلوا حُصونَهُمْ؟ فَلَمَّا شَارَفَها سَمِعَ مِنْهُمْ الهَجْرَ. فَرَجِعَ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَخْبَرَهُ. وَسارَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّى دَنا مِنْ سُورِهِمْ، فَأَبْصَرَهُ شَخْصٌ فَنادَى: قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ قَاتِلُ عَمْرٍو. وَقالَ آخَرُ كَذَلِكَ فَانْهَزَمُوا. وَرَكَزَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ الرَّايَةَ فِي أَصْلِ الْحِصْنِ وَاسْتَقْبَلُوهُ يَسُبُّونَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَنَادَاهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: يَا إخْوَةَ القِرَدَةِ وَالْخَنازِيرِ، إنَّا إذَا نَزَلْنا بِسَـاحَةِ قَوْمٍ فَساءَ صَبَاحُ الْمُنْذَرِينَ. فَقَالُوا: يَـا أَبَـا القَاسِمِ مَا كُنْتَ جَهُولاً وَلا سَبَّاباً. فَاسْتَحْيَى صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَرَجَعَ القَهْقَرَى، وَحَاصَرَهُمْ خَمْس
they could not resist, they suggested to surrender and bowed to Sa`d ibn Mu`adh’s arbitration. The Messenger of Allah too accepted it. Sa`d ibn Mu`adh ruled their men to be killed, their women and children to be taken captive and their property to be divided among Muslims. At this time, the Holy Prophet (s.a) ordered the men of Banu-Qurayzah amounting to nine hundred to be put under watch in the houses of Banu’l-Najjar tribe. Then, he ordered the watchmen to bring them one by one near the ditch through the exit way of the neighborhood and ordered `Ali to behead them one after the other and to throw their bodies in the ditch. `Ali carried out the instructions, beheaded them all and threw them in the ditch.
In the battle of Banu’l-Mustalaq in which `Ali was a pioneer, Muslims eventually gained the victory. In this battle, Malik and his son who were among the enemy leaders were killed by `Ali, and Juwayriyyah, the daughter of Harith ibn Abi-Dirar was taken captive and brought to the presence of the Messenger of Allah, who chose her for himself. After the battle, the father of Juwayriyyah came to the Holy Prophet, saying: O Messenger of Allah! My daughter must not be taken captive, for she is dignified and brought up in a respectable family! The Holy Prophet said: Go to your daughter and ask her if she wishes to be with us or she will be free to return with you. Harith hailed the Holy Prophet’s magnanimity and greatness, and conveyed the Holy Prophet’s message to his daughter but Juwayriyyah opted for God and His messenger, saying: God and His messenger are better than everyone and everything else! After this event, the Holy Prophet set her free, then married her and she became one the wives of the Messenger of Allah.
In the battle of Hudaybiyah which led to peace treaty, the one who drew up and wrote the peace treaty between the Messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn `Amr was `Ali. In this connection, two merits were added to his virtues no one shared with him.
One of those two merits is that when the Messenger of Allah decided to perform minor Hajj of Hudaybiyah, he, along with a group of his companions, went to Juhfah to become Muhrim but there was no water in that area. So, the Messenger of Allah ordered Sa`d ibn Malik to take water skins and water-carrying camels to search for water. After a short time, Sa`d returned, saying: Since this region is
وَعِشْرينَ لَيْلَةً حَتَّى سَأَلُوهُ النُّزُولَ عَلَى حُكْمِ سَعْدِ بْنِ مُعاذٍ. فَحَكَمَ سَعْدٌ بِقَتْلِ الرِّجَالِ وَسَبْيِ الذَّرارِي وَالنِّسَاءِ وَقِسْمَةِ الأَمْوالِ. فَأَمَرَ النَّبِيُّ بِإنْزالِ الرِّجالِ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ فِي بَعْضِ دُورِ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ وَكَانوا تِسْعَمِائَةٍ، وَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ بَعْضِ الدُّرُوبِ وَأَمَرَ بِإخْراجِهِمْ وَتَقَدَّمَ إلَى أمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِقَتْلِهِمْ فِي الْخَنْدَقِ فَفَعَلَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَا أُمِرَ بِهِ.
وَفِي غَزاةِ بَنِي الْمُصْطَلَقِ كَانَ الفَتْحُ لَهُ. وَقَتَلَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَالِكاً وَابْنَهُ وَسَبَى جُوَيْرِيَّةَ بِنْتَ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ أَبِي ضِرارٍ فَاصْطَفَاها النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لِنَفْسِهِ. فَجَاءَ أَبُوها بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ وَقالَ: يَا رَسولَ اللهِ، إن ابْنَتِي لاَ تُسْبَى، إنَّها إمْرَأَةٌ كَريمَةٌ. قَالَ: إذْهَبْ وَخَيِّرْها. قَالَ: لَقَدْ أَحْسَنَتْ وَأَجْمَلَتْ فَاخْتارَتِ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ. فَأَعْتَقَها رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَجَعَلَها فِي جُمْلَةِ أَزْواجِهِ.
وَفي غَزاةِ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ: كَانَ أمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ هُوَ الَّذِي كَتَبَ بَيْنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَبَيْنَ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو حينَ طَلَبَ الصُّلْحَ عِنْدَما رَأى تَوَجُّهَ الأَمْرِ عَلَيْهِمْ. وَلَهُ فِي هَذِهِ الغَزاةِ فَضيلَتانِ: إحْداهُما: إنَّهُ لَمَّا خَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَى غَزاةِ الحُدَيْبِيَةِ نَزَلَ الْجُحْفَةَ فَلَمْ يَجِدْ بِهَا مَاءً، فَبَعَثَ سَعْدَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ بِالرَّوَايا فَغَابَ قَريباً وَعَادَ وَقالَ: لَمْ أَقْدِرْ عَلَى الْمُضِيِّ خَوْفاً مِنَ القَوْمِ. فَبَعَثَ آخَـرَ فَفَعَلَ كَذَلِكَ. فَبَعَثَ عَـلِيَّاً عَلَيْـهِ
under the enemy’s control, I fear to fetch water! The Holy Prophet assigned another person to fetch water. Like Sa`d, he too returned quickly and repeated what Sa`d had said. At this time, the Messenger of Allah ordered `Ali to do the work. After searching, `Ali found out that water was in a spot controlled by the enemy. Hence, without fearing the enemy, `Ali went to the same spot, filled the water skins, fastened them unto camels and brought them for the Holy Prophet (s.a) who praised his valuable deed and prayed for him.
`Ali’s second merit is that when the peace treaty was being concluded, Suhayl ibn `Amr turned to the Holy Prophet, saying: O Muhammad, give back to us these slaves of ours who have joined you. The Holy Prophet was so annoyed with this request, that too, with bold tone that signs of anger could be seen in his face, for it is not right to entrust Muslims to atheists. Besides, his impolite tone implied domineering. Hence, the Holy Prophet said: O group of Quraysh! Stop your hostile attitude otherwise God will send to punish and behead you for the promotion of religion a person whose heart He has tried with faith. Those who were present said: O Messenger of Allah, who is he? The Holy Prophet said: The one who is mending my shoes in the room. To know the man with such a merit, people rushed to the room and found that it was `Ali ibn Abi-Talib.
At a time one of the pair of shoes of the Holy Prophet was torn and had to be mended, he called `Ali to mend it. Then while walking a short space in his odd shoe, he turned to his companions, saying: One of you will fight for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an in the same way that he fights along with me for its revelation. Abu-Bakr said: Is it me? The Holy Prophet said: No. The companions kept silent, looking at one another, asking themselves whom the Holy Prophet meant. Breaking the silence and pointing to `Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: He is the one who is presently mending my shoe, for he is the only person who stands against deviators and fight for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an and those Sunnahs of me which will be abandoned. This is at a time when the book of Allah will be distorted and wrongdoers will interfere in religion. It is with `Ali’s fighting that God’s religion will gain a new life and he will cut their hands off religion.
السَّلامُ بِالرَّوايَا فَوَرَدَ وَاسْتَسْقَى وَجَاءَ بِهَا إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَدَعا لَهُ بِخَيْرٍ.
وَالثَّانِيَةُ: أَقْبَلَ سُهَيْلُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو فَقالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ إنَّ أَرِقَّاءَنا لَحِقُوا بِكَ فَارْدُدْهُمْ عَلَيْنا. فَغَضِبَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ حَتَّى ظَهَرَ الْغَضَبُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَتَنْتَهُنَّ يَا مَعْشَرَ قُرَيْشٍ أَوْ لَيَبْعَثُنَّ اللهُ عَلَيْكُمْ رَجُلاً إمْتَحَنَ اللهُ قَلْبَهُ بِالإيمَانِ يَضْرِبُ رِقابَكُمْ عَلَى الدِّينِ. فَقالَ بَعْضُ الحَاضِرينَ: مَنْ هُوَ يَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ: خَاصِفُ النَّعْلِ فِي الحُجْرَةِ. فَتَبادَروا إلَيْها لِيَعْرِفوا مَنْ هُوَ، فَإذَا هُوَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَكَانَ قَدِ إنْقَطَعَ شِسْعُ نَعْلِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَدَفَعَها إلَى عَلِيٍّ يُصْلِحُها. ثُمَّ مَشَى فِي نَعْلٍ وَاحِدٍ غُلْوَةَ سَهْمٍ. ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَى أَصْحابِهِ فَقالَ: إنَّ بَيْنَكُمْ مَنْ يُقاتِلُ عَلَى التَّأْويلِ كَمَا قَاتَلْتُ عَلَى التَّنْزِيلِ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: أنَا يَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ فَقالَ: لاَ. فَقالَ عُمَرُ: فَأَنَا؟ فَقالَ: لاَ. فَأَمْسَكُوا وَنَظَرَ بَعْضُهُمْ إلَى بَعْضٍ. فقَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: لَكِنَّهُ خَاصِفُ النَّعْلِ، وَأَوْمَأَ إلَى عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، فَإنَّهُ يُقاتِلُ عَلَى التَّأْوِيلِ إذَا تُرِكَتْ سُنَّتِي وَنُبِذَتْ وَحُرِّفَ كِتابُ اللهِ وَتَكَلَّمَ فِي الدِّينِ مَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، فَيُقاتِلُهُمْ عَلَى إحْياءِ دِينِ اللهِ.
In the battle of Khaybar, which took place in the seventh year A.H., it was `Ali who achieved victory for Islam. The Holy Prophet besieged for twenty and odd nights the Jews of Khaybar who had dug a huge ditch round their fort, taking sanctuary in it.
Eventually, one day the Jews opened the gate of the fort. Marhab and his aides came out of the fort, declaring their combat readiness. At this time, the Messenger of Allah called Abu-Bakr and gave the standard of Islam to him, placing a group of immigrants (Muhajir) under his command. Abu-Bakr who was facing defeat soon returned along with those accompanying him.
On the second day, the Messenger of Allah gave the standard of Islam to `Umar, appointing him the commander of the army. He went a few steps forward but not being able to advance and facing defeat, he too returned. Seeing the defeat of the two, the Holy Prophet said: Where is `Ali? Tell him to come to me. It was said he had sore eye. The Holy Prophet said for a second time: Tell `Ali to come here, for he is a man who loves God and His messenger and God and His messenger too love him. He has never abandoned the battlefield and has defeated his enemy with his successive attacks. He is the one who carries the banner of Islam and adds to its glory.
The companions rushed to `Ali conveying the Holy Prophet’s message. Unable to see before him, `Ali in compliance with the Holy Prophet’s order was brought to the Messenger of Allah who asked: What is the problem? `Ali said: I have sore eye and a bad headache. The Holy Prophet said: Sit down and put your head on my lap. Then, putting his saliva on the head and eyes of `Ali the Holy Prophet prayed for him. `Ali immediately opened his eyes and there was no sign of headache in him. Giving then the white banner to `Ali, the Holy Prophet said: By carrying this banner, victory will be yours, for Gabriel will accompany you and victory awaits you. You will cast such a horror in hearts that they will have no option other than surrender. In their book, Torah they have read that the one who will overcome them and will destroy their fort is a man by the name of Ilya. Once you get near to their fort, tell them: I am the son of Abu-Talib and my name is `Ali. This word is the sign of their humiliation. With Allah’s Grace, you will achieve victory soon. To carry out the Holy Prophet’s order, `Ali set out for the Jews’ fort. Wearing a cuirass, having
وَفي غَزاةِ خَيْبَرَ:
وَكانَتْ فِي سَنَةِ سَبْعٍ مِنَ الهِجْرَةِ، كَانَ الفَتْحُ فِيهَا لأَمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. حَاصَرَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِضْعاً وَعِشْرينَ لَيْلَةً. فَفي بَعْضِ الأَيَّامِ فَتَحوا البَابَ وَكانوا قَدْ خَنْدَقُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ خَنْدَقاً وَخَرَجَ مَرْحَبُ بِأَصْحابِهِ يَتَعَرَّضُ لِلْحَرْبِ. فَدَعا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَأَعْطاهُ الرَّايَةَ فِي جَمْعٍ مِنَ المُهَاجِرِينَ فَانْهَزَمَ. فَلَمَّا كَانَ مِنَ الغَدِ أَعْطاهَا عُمَرَ، فَسَارَ غَيْرَ بَعيدٍ ثُمَّ انْهَزَمَ. فَقالَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: إئْتُونِي بِعَلِيٍّ. فَقيلَ: إنَّهُ أرْمَدُ. فَقالَ لأُوتَيَنَّهُ تَرَوْنِي رَجُلاً يُحِبُّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيُحِبُّهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، كَرَّارٌ غَيْرُ فَرَّارٍ يَأْخُذُها بِحَقِّهَا. فَجاؤوا بِعَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقُودُونَهُ إلَيْهِ. فَقالَ: يَا عَلِيُّ مَا تَشْتَكِي؟ قَالَ: رَمَداً مَا أُبْصِرُ مَعَهُ وَصُدَاعاً بِرَأْسِي. فَقالَ: إجْلِسْ وَضَعْ رَأْسَكَ عَلَى فَخِذِي. ثُمَّ تَفَلَ فِي يَدِهِ وَمَسَح بِهَا عَلَى عَيْنَيْهِ وَرَأْسِهِ وَدَعَا لَهُ، فَانْفَتَحَتْ عَيْناهُ وَسَكَنَ الصُّدَاعُ. وَأَعْطاهُ الرَّايَةَ وَكَانَتْ بَيْضاءَ وَقالَ: إمْضِ بِهَا، فَجَبْرَئيلُ مَعَكَ وَالنَّصْرُ أَمامَكَ، وَالرُّعْبُ مَبْثوثٌ فِي صُدُورِ القَوْمِ، وَاعْلَمْ يَا عَلِيُّ أَنَّهُمْ يَجِدونَ فِي كِتابِهِمْ أنَّ الَّذِي يُدَمِّرُ عَلَيْهِمْ رَجُلٌ اسْمُهُ إلْيا، فَإذا لَقِيتَهُمْ فَقُلْ: أنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ. فَإنَّهُمْ يُخْذَلونَ إنْ شَاءَ اللهُ. فَمَضـى عَـلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّى أتَى الْحِصْـنَ، فَخَرَجَ مَرْحَبٌ وَعَلَيْهِ دِرْعٌ وَمَغْفَرَةٌ
a helmet with a stone in it on his head and prepared for fighting, Marhab came out of the fort. After a short while and in a hand to hand fighting `Ali with a strike of a sword, cut his helmet into two, cleaving the stone and his head to his teeth. Marhab fell on the ground and went to the hell.
A Jewish rabbi reports: When `Ali said: I am `Ali ibn Abi-Talib, a heavy horror fell on the hearts of the Jews and whoever accompanied Marhab escaped into the fort, closing its gate tightly. With the divine power, `Ali took off the gate of the fort, making it a bridge for the Muslims to cross it and to enter the fort. Muslims gained huge booties in this way.
When the Muslims gave up taking the booties, `Ali threw the gate a few meters away. The gate was so heavy that forty men helped one another to close it. It also required seventy men to take it off its place. At this time, a man asked `Ali: How did you take off a gate like this? `Ali said: The gate was not as heavy as the shield I wield in my hand. Then, he said: By God, I did not take it off with my physical power. Rather, it was a divine force which helped me to take it off and to place it as a bridge for Muslims to cross over.
In the conquest of Mecca when God promised the Holy Prophet victory, stating: “When there comes the help of Allah and victory” (110:1), the banner of Islam was in `Ali’s hand.
When entering Mecca, the Messenger of Allah took a pledge from the pride-taking army of Islam not to fight anyone unless they start to fight. Only a few people who had harassed the Holy Prophet had been made exceptions to this command. One of them was Huwayrith ibn Nufayl ibn Ka`b who harassed the Holy Prophet in Mecca and was punished and killed by `Ali on the order of the Holy Prophet.
When the Messenger of Allah entered the sacred mosque, there were three hundred and sixty idols chained together with a rope. The Holy Prophet ordered `Ali to bring him a handful of small sands. `Ali too complied with the Holy Prophet’s order and prepared the small sands. Aiming at all the idols, the Messenger of Allah recited: “Say: the truth has come and the falsehood has vanished; surely falsehood is a vanishing thing” (17:81) and ordered all the idols to be toppled, thrown away from the mosque and be broken.
وَحَجَرٌ قَدْ ثَقَبَهُ مِثْلَ البَيْضَةِ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ، فَاخْتَلَفا بِضَرْبَتَيْنِ فَبَدَرَ بِهِ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِضَرْبَةٍ هاشِمِيَّةٍ فَقَدَّ الْحَجرَ وَالْمَغْفَرَ وَرَأْسَهُ حَتَّى وَقَعَ السَّيْفُ عَلَى أَضْراسِهِ وَخَرَّ صَريعاً.
وَقالَ حَبْرٌ مِنْهُمْ: لَمَّا قَالَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طالِبٍ خَامَرَهُمْ رُعْبٌ شَديدٌ وَانْهَزَمَ مَنْ كَانَ تَبِعَ مَرْحَباً وَأَغْلَقُوا بَابَ الحِصْنِ. فَعَالَجَهُ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَفَتَحَهُ وَأَخَذَ البابَ وَجَعَلَهُ جِسْراً عَلَى الْخَنْدَقِ حَتَّى عَبَرَ عَلَيْهِ المُسْلِمونَ فَظَفَروا بِالحِصْنِ وَأَخَذوا الغَنائِمَ. وَلَمَّا انْصَرَفُوا رَمَى بِهِ بِيُمْناهُ أَذْرُعاً، وَكَانَ يُغْلِقُهُ عِشْرونَ رَجُلاً. وَرَامَ الْمُسْلِمونَ حَمْلَ ذَلِكَ البَابِ فَلَمْ يَنْقُلْهُ إلاَّ سَبْعونَ رَجُلاً.
وَقالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: وَمَا قَلَعْتُ بَابَ خَيْبَرَ بِقُوَّةٍ جِسْمَانِيَّةٍ وَلَكِنْ بِقُوَّةٍ رَبَّانِيَّةٍ.
وَفي غَزاةِ الفَتْحِ:
الَّتِي وَعَدَ اللهُ تَعالَى نَبِيَّهُ بِنَصْرِهِ فَقالَ: ﴿إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللهِ وَالْفَتْحُ﴾ كَانَتِ الرَّايَةُ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَكَانَ عَهِدَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أنْ لاَ يُقَاتِلوا بِمَكَّةَ إلاَّ مَنْ قَاتَلَهَمْ سِوَى نَفَرٍ كَانُوا يُؤْذُونَهُ. فَقَتَلَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ الحَارِثَ بْنَ نُفَيْلِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ وَكَانَ يُؤْذِي رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِمَكَّةَ. وَلَمَّا دَخَلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مَكَّةَ، دَخَلَ المَسْجِدَ فَوَجَدَ فِيهِ ثَلاثَمِائَةٍ وَسِتِّينَ صَنَماً بَعْضُها مَشْدودٌ بِبَعْضٍ بِالرَّصَاصِ فَقالَ: يَا عَلِيُّ أَعْطِنِي كَفَّاً مِنَ الحَصَا فَنَاوَلَهُ كَفَّاً مِنَ الحَصَى فَرَماهَا بِهِ وَهُوَ يَقولُ: ﴿قُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقاً﴾ فَلَمْ يَبْقَ فِيهَا صَنَمٌ إلاَّ خَرَّ لِوَجْهِهِ وَأُخْرِجَتْ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ وَكُسِرَتْ.
In the battle of Hunayn, the Messenger of Allah supported by ten thousand Muslims left Medina for Hunayn. At that time, Abu-Bakr self-admiringly said: We will never be defeated in this battle because of shortage in human force, but in the climax of conflict, they all fled save nine persons from Banu-Hashim and the tenth person was Ayman ibn Ummi-Ayman who was martyred and the verse “then you turned back retreating; Then Allah sent down His tranquility upon His apostle and upon the believers” (9:25-26) was revealed about those who retreated. Believers in this verse include `Ali and those who remained steadfast with him.
At a time when `Ali was defending with his unsheathed sword in front of the Holy Prophet, `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib was on the right side, Fadl Ibn `Abbas on the left side, Abu-Sufyan ibn Harith holding the reins of his horse, Nawfal and Rabi`ah, the two sons of Harith, `Abdullah ibn Zubayr ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, `Utbah ibn Mu`it, two sons of Abi- Lahab had circled round the Messenger of Allah and were protecting him.
The Messenger of Allah said to his uncle, `Abbas who had an audible voice to call with loud voice those who were fleeing and to remind them of the divine pledge they had with the Holy Prophet. Therefore, `Abbas cried loudly: O followers of the Messenger of Allah who expressed your allegiance with him under the tree, O companions of Surah Baqarah, where are you fleeing? Why have you forgotten the pledge you have given to God and His messenger? Come back and be steadfast! The people who had fled in the dark of the night leaving the Messenger of Allah alone among the enemy, by hearing his voice and considering that he was watching them flee and knew them, came down from the adjacent hills, while being encouraged gathered around the Holy Prophet and bravely broke the siege of the enemy.
In the thick of the fight, a man from the tribe of Hawazin, names Abu-Jarwal, carrying a black banner with the intention to kill the Holy Prophet was killed by `Ali. With his killing the atheists took to their heels. While they were fleeing, `Ali killed forty others of them. Thereafter, the army of atheism was defeated and a number of them were taken captive by Muslims.
وَفي غَزاةِ حُنَيْنٍ:
إسْتَظْهَرَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِكَثْرَةِ الْجَمْعِ فَخَرَجَ فِي عَشَرَةِ آلافٍ مِنَ المُسْلِمينَ فَأَعْجَبَ أَبَا بَكْرٍ الكَثْرَةُ وَقالَ: لَنْ نُغْلَبَ اليَوْمَ مِنْ قِلَّةِ فِعالِهِمْ. فَلَمَّا التَقَوْا إنْهَزَموا جَمِيعاً وَلَمْ يَبْقَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمينَ سِوَى تِسْعَةِ نَفَرٍ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَعَاشِرُهُمْ أيْمَنُ بْنُ أُمِّ أَيْمَنَ فَقُتِلَ وَبَقِيَتِ التِّسْعَةُ. فَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ تَعالَى ﴿ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُمْ مُدْبِرِينَ ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ اللهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ.﴾ يُرِيدُ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَمَنْ ثَبَتَ مَعَهُ. وَكَانَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَائِماً بِالسَّيْفِ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَالعَبَّاسُ عَنْ يَمينِهِ وَالفَضْلُ بْنُ العَبَّاسِ عَنْ يَسارِهِ، وَأَبو سُفْيانَ بْنُ الحَارِثِ مُمْسِكٌ بِسَرْجِهِ وَنَوْفَلُ وَرَبِيعَةُ ابْنا الحَارِثِ وَعَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِالمُطَّلِبِ وَعُتْبَةُ وَمُعَتَّبُ ابْنا أَبِي لَهَبٍ حَوْلَهُ. فَقالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لِلْعَبَّاسِ وَكَانَ جَهُورِيَّ الصَّوْتِ: نَادِ فِي النَّاسِ وَذَكِّرْهُمُ العَهْدَ. فَنادَى: يَا أَهْلَ بَيْعَةِ الشَّجَرَةِ! يَا أصْحَابَ سُورَةِ البَقَرَةِ! إلَى أَيْنَ تَفُرُّونَ؟ إذْكُروا العَهْدَ الَّذِي عَاهَدْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ رَسُولَ اللهِ! وَالقَوْمُ قَدْ وَلَّوْا مُدْبِريِنَ وَكَانَتْ لَيْلَةً ظَلْماءَ وَرَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي الوَادِي وَالمُشْرِكُونَ قَدْ خَرَجُوا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ شِعابِ الوَادِي بِسُيُوفِهِمْ فَنَظَرَ إلَى النَّاسِ بِبَعْضِ وَجْهِهِ فَأَضاءَ كَأَنَّهُ القَمَرُ ثُمَّ نَادَى: أَيْنَ مَا عَاهَدْتُمُ اللهَ عَلَيْهِ؟ فَأَسْمَعَ أَوَّلَهُمْ وَآخِرَهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْمَعْها رَجُلٌ إلاَّ رَمَى نَفْسَهُ إلَى الأرْضِ فَانْحَدَروا حَتَّى لَحِقُوا العَدُوَّ. وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ هَوازِنَ اسْمُهُ أَبُو جَزْوَلَ وَمَعَهُ رَايَةٌ سَوْداءُ فَقَتَلَهُ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَكَانَتْ هَزيمَةُ المُشْرِكينَ بِقَتْلِ أَبِي جَزْوَلَ. وَقَتَلَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَواتُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَرْبَعينَ رَجُلاً فَكَمُلَتِ الْهَزِيمَةُ وَحَصَلَ الأَسْرُ.
In the battle of Tabuk, God revealed to the Holy Prophet there was no need for fighting, and that the only duty of him and Muslims aimed at intimidating the enemy was to move towards Rome, as it was the time of gathering the fruits of palm trees, and people feared confrontation with the powerful enemy, most people refused to take part in the battle. The Messenger of Allah who had taken march towards Tabuk seriously, to carry out God’s order, departed with a group of believers toward Tabuk, appointing `Ali as his successor to protect Medina and to act as guardians of families, saying to him: The security of this city will not be guarded by anyone except you and me.
The Messenger of Allah knew that the Arabs residing around Mecca and those who had suffered life losses in the battles were looking for a chance to invade Mecca when the Holy Prophet was not in that city. It was due to this reason that he vigilantly endeavored to safeguard it. Now that the Holy Prophet was in the battle, he appointed `Ali to safeguard Medina which was feared to face chaos in the absence of the Messenger of Allah. Hearing this, the blind-hearted hypocrites and gossipmongers inside Medina were extremely worried and jealous of `Ali, for they knew that with the presence of `Ali no danger could threaten Medina and in this way their plot was foiled. Hence, they started the so-called cold war, spreading the rumor by saying: As the presence of `Ali in this battle is heavy for the prophet, he does not wish to take him with himself. Therefore, he leaves `Ali in Medina which means he does not honor `Ali, though they knew how much the Holy Prophet was interested in `Ali!
This kind of rumors was heavy for `Ali. So he immediately left Medina for meeting the Messenger of Allah. He informed the Holy Prophet of the rumors, saying: Hypocrites have this impression that appointing me as your successor in Medina is not aimed at honoring me but it is because you don’t like me to accompany you! Fondling `Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: O my brother, go back to Medina, for Medina has no security without me and you. Your position to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except that there will come no prophet after me. In my absence, you will be caliph and successor for my kinsmen.
وَفي غَزاةِ تَبُوكٍ:
أَوْحَى اللهُ تَعالَى إلَى نَبِيِّهِ أنَّهُ لاَ يَحْتاجُ إلَى القِتالِ وَكَلَّفَهُ المَسِيرَ بِنَفْسِهِ وَاسْتِنْفَارَ النَّاسِ مَعَهُ. فَاسْتَنْفَرَهُمُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَى بِلادِ الرُّومِ وَقَدْ أَيْنَعَتْ ثِمارُهُمْ وَاشْتَدَّ الحَرُّ، فَأَبْطَأَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ عَنْ طاعَتِهِ حِرْصاً عَلَى الْمَعيشَةِ وَخَوْفاً مِنَ الحَرِّ وَلِقاءِ العَدُوِّ وَنَهَضَ بَعْضُهُمْ. وَاسْتَخْلَفَ أمِيرَ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ وَعَلَى أهْلِهِ بِهَا وَحَريمِهِ. وَقالَ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: إنَّ الْمَدِينَةَ لاَ تَصْلُحُ إلاَّ بِي أَوْ بِكَ، لأنَّهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَلِمَ مَا عَلَيْهِ الأَعْرَابُ الَّذينَ حَوْلَ مَكَّةَ وَغَزاهُمْ وَسَفَكَ دِمَاءَهُمْ، فَأَشْفَقَ أنْ يَطَأُوا عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ عِنْدَ نَأْيِهِ عَنْها فَمَتَى لَمْ يُقِمْ فِيهَا مَنْ يُماثِلُهُ وَقَعَ الفَسَادُ فِيهَا. وَلَمَّا عَلِمَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ إسْتِخْلافَهُ لَهُ حَسَدُوهُ وَعَلِمُوا أنَّ الْمَدِينَةَ تَتَحَفَّظُ بِهِ وَيَنْقَطِعُ طَمَعُهُمْ وَطَمَعُ العَدُوِّ فِيهَا، وَغَبَطُوهُ عَلَى الدَّعَةِ عِنْدَ أَهْلِهِ فَأَرْجَفُوا بِهِ وَقَالوا: إنَّهُ لَمْ يَسْتَخْلِفْهُ إِكْراماً لَهُ وَإجْلالاً، بَلْ إسْتِقْلالاً بِهِ وَاسْتِثْقالاً بِهِ، مَعَ عِلْمِهِمْ بِأَنَّهُ أَحَبُّ النَّاسِ إلَيْهِ. فَلَحِقَ بالنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: إنَّ الْمُنافِقِينَ زَعَمُوا أَنَّكَ خَلَّفْتَنِي إسْتِثْقالاً بِي. فَقالَ: إِرْجِعْ يَا أَخِي إلَى مَكَانِكَ، فَإنَّ الْمَدينَةَ لاَ تَصْلُحُ إلاَّ بِي أوْ بِكَ. فَأَنْتَ خَلِيفَتِي فِي أَهْلِي وَدَارِ هِجْرَتِي وَقَوْمِي. أَمَا تَرْضَى أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنِّي بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى إلاَّ أَنَّهُ لاَ نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي؟
When the Messenger of Allah returned to Medina from Tabuk, `Amr ibn Ma`dyakrib Zubaydi came to him. The Holy Prophet spoke to him about belief in God and His messenger, and he too along with his tribe accepted Islam. At this time the man’s eye fell on Ubay ibn Athath Khath`ami who had killed his father. Taking him by the neck, `Amr brought him to the Holy Prophet, saying: This is the killer of my father. Let me punish him with retribution. The Messenger of Allah said: Bloodshed in the time of ignorance has no value in Islam. `Amr who took pride in his belief and had the impression that the Holy Prophet would issue the order of retribution because of his belief, gave up Islam and became an apostate, for his demand had not been met.
The Messenger of Allah sent `Ali to the tribe of `Amr (Banu-Zubayd) to either arrest or kill him. As soon as the tribesmen saw `Ali with his special anger said to `Amr: O Bathur, what would you feel if this youth of Quraysh defeats you and you have to pay heavily for your act implying that you will be disgraced among your tribesmen. `Amr proudly said: It is in fighting that he will understand who I am and who he is! Saying this, `Amr asked for challenger, `Ali stood opposite him and made a loud cry. Hearing `Ali’s loud cry, `Amr left the scene and took to his heels! In the thick of the fight `Ali killed `Amr’s brother, his nephews, and took his wife and the women of Banu-Zubayd captives. After achieving victory at the end of fighting, `Ali returned to Medina, appointing Khalid ibn Sa`id over them to give amnesty to those who embrace Islam and to collect their alms. When peace prevailed, `Amr resorted to Khalid, embraced Islam once again and spoke to him about his wife and children, asking for their freedom. Khalid too freed `Amr’s wife and children. When taking the girls of Bani-Zubayd, `Ali chose one of those girls for himself but Khalid ibn Walid who was among the army of Islam, because of his rancor against `Ali, told Buraydah Aslami to rush to Medina to inform the Messenger of Allah before the arrival Islam’s army. Reaching the house of the Holy Prophet, Khalid saw `Umar and informed him of the affair to know his opinion. `Umar who was looking for such a chance confirmed his opinion and asked him to go to the Messenger of Allah as soon as possible, thinking that the Holy Prophet would get angry with `Ali’s act because of his daughter, Fatimah. Buraydah went to the presence of the Holy Prophet and
وَلَمَّا رَجِعَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ تَبُوكٍ إلَى المَدِينَةِ وَرَدَ عَلَيْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ مَعْدِيَكْرُبَ الزُّبَيْدِيُّ فَوَعَظَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَأَسْلَمَ هُوَ وَقَوْمُهُ. وَنَظَرَ إلَى ابْنِ عَثْعَثَ الخَثْعَمِيِّ فَأَخَذَ بِرَقَبَتِهِ ثُمَّ جَاءَ بِهِ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: هَذَا قَتَلَ وَالِدِي. فَقالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَهْدَرَ الإسْلامُ مَا كَانَ فِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ. فَارْتَدَّ عَمْرٌو فَأَنْفَذَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أمِيرَ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إلَى بَنِي زُبَيْدٍ فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ قَالوا لِعَمْرٍو: كَيْفَ أَنْتَ يَا أَبَا ثَوْرٍ إذَا لَقِيَكَ هَذَا الغُلامُ القُرَشِيُّ فَأَخَذَ مِنْكَ الإتَاوَةَ؟ فَقالَ: سَيَعْلَمُ أنّي إنْ لَقِينَي. وَخَرَجَ عَمْرٌو وَقالَ: مَنْ يُبَارِزُ؟ فَخَرَجَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَصَاحَ بِهِ فَانْهَزَمَ فَقَتَلَ أَخاهُ وَابْنَ أَخِيهِ وَأَخَذَ امْرَأَتَهُ وَسَبَى مِنْهُمْ نِسْوانٌ كَثيرَةٌ. وَانْصَرَفَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَخَلَّفَ عَلَى بَنِي زُبَيْدٍ خَالِدَ بْنَ سَعِيدٍ لِيَقْبِضَ صَدَقَاتِهِمْ وَيُؤْمِنَ مَنْ يَعُودُ إلَيْهِ مُسْلِماً. فَرَجِعَ عَمْرُو بْنُ مَعْديَكْرُبَ إلَى خَالِدٍ وَأَسْلَمَ وَكَلَّمَهُ فِي إمْرَأَتِهِ وَأَوْلادِهِ فَوَهَبَهُمْ لَهُ. وَكَانَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَدِ إصْطَفَى مِنَ السَّبْيِ جَارِيَةً. فَبَعَثَ خَالِدُ بْنُ الوَليدِ بُرَيْدَةَ الأسْلَمِيَّ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قَبْلَ الجَيْشِ وَقالَ: أَعْلِمْهُ بِالإصْطِفَاءِ. فَلَمَّا وَصَلَ إلَى بَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لَقِيَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ فَحَكَى لَهُ فَقالَ لَهُ: إمْضِ لِمَا جِئْتَ لَهُ، فَإنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ سَيَغْضَبُ لإبْنَتِهِ.
read Khalid’s letter hoping that he will be angry with `Ali’s act. But contrary to his expectation, the Holy Prophet was angry with Khalid’s letter. Although Buraydah noticed how angry the Holy Prophet was in order to realize his objective, he corrected Khalid’s writing, saying: O Messenger of Allah, if you give permission to people to choose whomever they want and whatever property they wish, before the division of booties, there will be a chaos in the division of booties and no one can attain his right. Being angry with Khalid’s letter and Buraydah’s saying, the Messenger of Allah said: O Buraydah, woe to you! Has the dark veil of hypocrisy covered your eyes that you are saying this about `Ali? Whatever is permissible for me in booties is also permissible for `Ali. That is, in the same way that it is permissible for me to devote a female slave or other property to myself before division of booties, so is it for `Ali. Then, he added `Ali ibn Abi-Talib is the best of people whom I will appoint as successor among my Ummah. Admonishing Buraydah with a short sentence, the Holy Prophet said: Beware not to be hostile to `Ali, for you will be hostile to God and God will be hostile to you. Being informed of `Ali’s supreme position, Buraydah regretted what he had said, repented and asked for forgiveness.
In the battle of Salsalah, a Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah saying: A group of Arabs in Wadi al-Raml are intent to invade Medina at night. Addressing his companions, the Messenger of Allah said: Are there enough people to defend? A group of the people of Suffah rose up, saying: O Messenger of Allah, we are prepared to fight them. Assign a commander for us. Another group said the same. The Messenger of Allah decided to draw lots which fell upon eighty persons. The Messenger of Allah assigned Abu-Bakr as their commander, telling them to move towards the tribe of Banu-Salim (the invaders) in the heart of Wadi al-Raml. It was not long before Abu-Bakr returned to Medina, defeated and with casualties. Then, he assigned `Umar as their commander, gave the banner of Islam to him and sent them to Wadi al-Raml. This time too, `Umar returned to Medina while being defeated. These successive defeats saddened the Holy Prophet. `Amr ibn al-`As expressing his readiness said: O Messenger of Allah, give this mission to me. The Holy Prophet accepted his request assigning him as the commander of the army but it was not long before that he returned to Medina, defeated while
فَدَخَلَ بُرَيْدَةُ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِكِتابِ خَالِدِ بْنِ الوَلِيدِ فَجَعَلَ بُرَيْدَةُ يَقْرَأُهُ وَوَجْهُ النَّبِيِّ يَتَغَيَّرُ. وَقالَ بُرَيْدَةُ: يَا رَسولَ اللهِ إنْ رَخَّصْتَ لِلنَّاسِ فِي مِثْلِ هَذَا ذَهَبَ فِيهِمْ. فَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِيّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: وَيْحَكَ يَا بُرَيْدَةُ، أَحْدَثْتَ نِفَاقاً. إنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طالِبٍ يَحِلُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْفَيْءِ مَا يَحِلُّ لِي. إنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طالِبٍ خَيْرُ النَّاسِ لَكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ وَخَيْرُ مَنْ أُخَلِّفُهُ بَعْدي لِكَافَّةِ أُمَّتِي. يَا بُرَيْدَةُ إحْذَرْ أَنْ تُبْغِضَ عَلِيَّاً فَيُبْغِضُكَ اللهُ. فَاسْتَغْفَرَ بُرَيْدَةُ.
وَفي غَزاةِ السَّلْسَلَةِ:
جَاءَ أَعْرابِيٌّ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ: إنَّ جَماعَةً مِنَ الْعَرَبِ قَدِ إجْتَمَعوا بِوادِي الرَّمْلِ عَلَى أنْ يُبَيِّتُوكَ بِالمَدِينَةِ. فَقالَ النَّبِيُّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لأَصْحابِهِ: مَنْ لِهَؤلاءِ؟ فَقَامَ جَماعَةٌ مِنْ أهْلِ الصُّفَّةِ وَقَالوا: نَحْنُ، فَوَلِّ عَلَيْنا مَنْ شِئْتَ. فَأَقْرَعَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَخَرَجَتِ القُرْعَةُ عَلَى ثَمانِينَ رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ وَمِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ. فَأَمَرَ أَبَا بَكْرٍ أنْ يَأْخُذَ اللِّواءَ وَيَمْضِي إلَى بَنِي سُلَيْمٍ وَهُمْ بِبَطْنِ الوَادِي فَهَزَمُوهُ وَقَتَلوا جَمْعاً كَثِيراً مِنَ المُسْلِمينَ وَانْهَزَمَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ. فَعَقَدَ لِعُمَرَ وَبَعَثَهُ فَهَزَمُوهُ، فَسَـاءَ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ ذَلِكَ. فَقالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ: إبْعَثْنِي يَـا رَسولَ اللهِ. فَأَنْفَذَهُ فَـهَزَمُوهُ وَقَتَلوا جَماعَةً مِنْ أَصْحابِهِ وَبَقِيَ النَّبِيُّ
two persons were killed and a number of them were injured. Following the defeat of these people, being depressed and cursing the enemies, the Messenger of Allah called for `Ali, entrusted the commandership of the army to him, saw him off to the mosque of Ahzab, and prayed for his victory. As ordered by the Holy Prophet, Abu-Bakr, `Umar and `Amr ibn al-`As accompanied `Ali. Enjoying a special vision and knowing the military tactic, `Ali and the army moved forward at the nights and hid themselves at the days till they reached the headquarters of the invaders. Blocking the entrance and exit of the headquarters, they encircled the enemy. Given the plan and the speedy victory of Muslim, `Amr ibn al-`As spoke to Abu-Bakr and `Umar to dissuade `Ali from his skillful military act to deprive him of victory. This suggestion was accepted by Abu-Bakr. So he came to `Ali saying: This is the land of ferocious animals and it is harder for us to act than in the enemy’s headquarter. Therefore, we would better to transfer this camp further up to be safe from the enemy and ferocious animals. `Ali listened but gave no answer. Abu-Bakr went to `Umar and `Amr ibn al-`As informed them of the case. `Amr advised `Umar with the same words saying: You speak to `Ali; perhaps he will accept what you say. `Umar conveyed the same to `Ali but `Ali gave no answer and kept silent. Putting the army on alert, `Ali launched his heroic attack on the enemy at dawn, made them flee within a short space of time and achieved the victory. Concurrent with the victory of the army of Islam under the leadership of `Ali, Gabriel appeared to the Messenger of Allah, reciting to the Holy Prophet the Surah “I swear by the runners breathing pantingly” (100) as a sign of victory. Being informed of this victory through revelation, the Messenger of Allah rushed to welcome `Ali. Seeing the Holy Prophet, `Ali dismounted his horse and hugged him. The Holy Prophet who was extremely happy said: If I was not afraid a group of my followers to say about you what the Christians said about Jesus, the son of Mary, I would say something about you that anytime you pass by people they would take the dust under your feet as a blessing and rub it against their eyes. Now, mount your horse with the honor, for God and His Messenger are pleased with you. As `Ali, the great man of history, had an active presence in the battlefields on the order of God and His messenger, he went through trials by tolerating a lot of sufferings and calamities to be worthy of his position.
صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أيَّاماً يَدْعو عَلَيْهِمْ. ثُمَّ دَعَا بِأمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَبَعَثَهُ إِلَيْهِمْ وَدَعا لَهُ وَخَرَجَ مَعَهُ مُشَيِّعاٍ إلَى مَسْجِدِ الأَحْزابِ وَأَنْفَذَ جَماعَةً مَعَهُ مِنْهُمْ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ وَعَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ.
فَسَارَ اللَّيْلَ وَكَمِنَ النَّهارَ حَتَّى إسْتَقْبَلَ مِنْ فَمِهِ. فَلَمْ يَشُكَّ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ فِي الفَتْحِ لَهُ فَقالَ لأَبِي بَكْرٍ: إنَّ هَذِهِ أَرْضٌ ذاتُ ضِباعٍ وَذِئابٍ وَهِيَ أَشَدُّ عَلَيْنا مِنْ بَنِي سُلَيْمٍ وَالمَصْلَحَةُ أنْ نَعْلُوَ الوَادِي. وَأرَادَ إفْسَادَ الحَالِ وَأَمَرَهُ بِأنْ يَقولَ ذَلِكَ لأمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ لَهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَلَمْ يُجِبْهُ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِحَرْفٍ وَاحِدٍ. فَرَجِعَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَقالَ: وَاللهِ مَا أَجَابَنِي حَرْفاً واحِداً. فَقالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الخَطَّابِ: إمْضِ أَنْتَ إلَيْهِ فَخَاطِبْهُ. فَفَعَلَ فَلَمْ يُجِبْ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِشَيْءٍ. فَلَمَّا طَلَعَ الفَجْرُ كَبَسَ عَلَى القَوْمِ.
وَنَزَلَ جَبْرَئيلُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِالْحَلْفِ بِخَيْلِهِ فَقالَ: ﴿وَالْعَادِيَاتِ ضَبْحاً﴾. فَاسْتَبْشَرَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَاسْتَقْبَلَ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَنَزَلَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، وَقالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ: لَوْلا أنْ أُشْفِقَ أَنْ تَقُولَ فِيكَ طَوائِفُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي مَا قَالَتِ النَّصَارَى فِِي الْمَسِيحِ لَقُلْتُ فِيكَ اليَوْمَ مَقالاً لاَ تَمُرُّ بِمَلأٍ مِنْهُمْ إلاَّ أَخَذوا التُّرابَ مِنْ تَحْتِ قَدَمَيْكَ. إرْكَبْ فَإنَّ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ عَنْكَ رَاضِيَانِ.
Following the departure of the Holy Prophet, Imam `Ali spent most of his lifetime in wars.
In the battle of camel, Talhah and Zubayr breached their homage to Imam `Ali, the Commander of the Faithful. Before people had pledged their allegiance to `Ali, `A’ishah in Medina repeatedly provoked people to kill `Uthman. She is said to be the only person who was severely opposing `Uthman’s behavior. She used to rally people to kill `Uthman. Her habitual phrase was: Kill Na`thal! May Allah kill him. These garments of the Messenger of Allah have not yet grown old; nevertheless, `Uthman has rotten the Prophet’s tradition. Following successive warnings, she left Medina for Mecca as a sign of protest. However, after the killing of `Uthman, she speedily decided to return to Medina to achieve her goal. On her way to Medina, she was told that following `Uthman’s killing, people pledged allegiance with `Ali. So she changed her route and went back to Mecca speaking of the unfair killing of `Uthman and saying: I will revenge myself on `Ali for the unfair killing of `Uthman!
Talhah and Zubayr left Medina and asked permission of Imam `Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, to go on Umrah. Knowing their true aim, Imam `Ali addressed them in this way: By God, you are not going on Umrah; rather, you are going on conspiracy. At any rate, Talhah and Zubayr headed for Mecca. Having reached there, they met with `A’ishah and persuaded her to leave for Basrah for fighting against Imam `Ali. Imam `Ali prepared himself to travel after them and he wrote a letter to `A’ishah and the other two, asking them to refrain from doing what God would not accept and to return to their allegiance to him. But they did not accept the Imam’s advice. At this time, `Ali raised his hands towards the heaven and cursed them, saying: O Lord! This is Talhah ibn `Ubaydullah who put his hand in my hand with his heart’s consent and pledged allegiance to me and then broke it. Take my revenge on him! O Lord! Zubayr ibn `Awwam broke his ties of relationship with me, took back his allegiance with me, showed blatant hostility to me and waged war against me while he knows he has been unjust to me. O Lord! Take his evil away from me as You consider proper.
The two armies lined up and armed themselves. Wearing a shirt and cloak and having a black turban on his head, `Ali stood between the
وَأمَّا بَعْدَ وَفاةِ الرَّسُولِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَإنَّهُ ابْتُلِيَ أَكْثَرَ عُمْرِهِ بِالْحُرُوبِ أيْضاً.
فَفِي وَقْعَةِ الْجَمَلِ نَكَثَ طَلْحَةُ وَالزُّبَيْرُ بَيْعَتَهُما لأمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. وَكَانَتْ عائِشَةُ بِالْمَدِينَةِ تُحَرِّضُ النَّاسَ عَلَى قَتْلِ عُثْمانَ وَتَقُولُ: أُقْتُلُوا نَعْثَلاً! قَتَلَ اللهُ نَعْثَلاً، فَلَقَدْ أَبْلَى سُنَّةَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَهَذِهِ ثِيَابُهُ لَمْ تُبَلَّ. وَخَرَجَتْ إلَى مَكَّةَ وَقُتِلَ عُثْمانُ وَعَادَتْ إلَى بَعْضِ الطَّرِيقِ فَسَمِعَتْ بِقَتْلِهِ وَأنَّهُمْ بَايَعُوا عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. فَرَجِعَتْ وَقَالَتْ: لأَطْلُبَنَّ بِدَمِهِ.
وَخَرَجَ طَلْحَةُ وَالزُّبَيْرُ مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ فَأَظْهَرا إرَادَةَ العُمْرَةِ وَاسْتَأْذَنا أمِيرَ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ: وَاللهِ مَا تُرِيدانِ العُمْرَةَ بَلِ الغَدْرَةَ. فَلَمَّا وَصَلا مَكَّةَ إلَى عَائِشَةَ أَخْرَجَاهَا إلَى البَصْرَةِ.
وَتَرَحَّلَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِطَلَبِهِمْ وَكَتَبَ إلَيْهِمَا وَإلَى عَائِشَةَ بِالرُّجُوعِ عَمَّا يَكْرَهُهُ اللهُ تَعالَى وَالدُّخُولِ فِي مَا عَاهَدَاهُ بِهِ فَامْتَنَعُوا. فَرَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ إلَى السَّمَاءِ وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إنَّ طَلْحَةَ بْنَ عُبَيْدِ اللهِ أَعْطانِي صَفْقَةً بِيَمينِهِ طائِعاً ثُمَّ نَكَثَ بَيْعَتِي. اللَّهُمَّ فَعَاجِلْهُ وَلا تُمْهِلْهُ. وإنَّ الزُّبَيْرَ بْنَ العَوَّامِ قَطَعَ قَرابَتِي وَنَكَثَ عَهْدي وَظَاهَرَ عَدُوِّي وَنَصَبَ الْحَرْبَ لِي وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ ظالِمٌ. اللَّهُمَّ فَاكْفِنِيهِ كَيْفَ شِئْتَ وَأَنَّى شِئْتَ.
ثُمَّ تَصَــافُّوا وَتَقَـارَبُوا لابِسِي الأَسْلِحَةِ وَأمِيـرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بَيْنَ الصَّفَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ
two armies, calling Zubayr with a loud voice. Hearing his name, Zubayr came to `Ali who said: What is the reason for your presence in this riot? Why are you drawing sword against me? Zubayr said: To avenge `Uthman’s blood! Imam `Ali said: You and your aides have killed `Uthman. Therefore take revenge on yourself. By the motto “there is no god but Him”, do you remember the day the Holy Prophet (s.a) said to you: Do you love `Ali and you said: Yes, indeed why should I not love him? He is my cousin. The Messenger of Allah said: It will not be long before you rebel against him while you are unjust and he is just. Zubayr said: I very well remember that! Then Imam `Ali said: For the sake of God, do you remember the day the Messenger of Allah and you while your hand was in his hand were coming from the house of `Abd al-Rahman ibn Auf, I rushed to welcome the Messenger of Allah and greeted him. He smiled at me and I smiled at him. You said: The son of Abu-Talib does not stop taking pride in himself! The Messenger of Allah said: Zubayr! Calm down. `Ali does not take pride in himself. It will not be long when you will rise against him while you are unjust and he is just.
Zubayr said: Yes, it was so. You reminded me of what I had forgotten! So it is not late to give up fighting you. I would not take part in this riot if I remembered it. Saying this, Zubayr went to `A’ishah. His son `Abdullah said: What has happened? Zubayr said: `Ali reminded me of what the Messenger of Allah had said about him and I had forgotten. So I do not consider fighting against him fair. `Abdullah said: This is not the whole story. You fear the sword of `Ali ibn Abi-Talib!
Getting angry with his son, Zubayr attacked the army. `Ali said: Give him a chance of maneuver, for he does not mean to fight rather he wishes to show his combat capability to his son. Zubayr went out of `Ali’s army with a courageous move. Addressing his son, Zubayr said: Did you see what I did? Does a timid person display such a pomp and power? I would not have done so if I had feared. He then went through the lines of his army and joined a group of Banu-Tamim tribe outside the city of Basrah. This act of Zubayr was heavy for `Amr ibn Jurmuz Mujashi`i, a member of the tribe who was aware of Basrah riot. So he killed Zubayr in sleep though Zubayr was his guest. Hence, Imam `Ali’s prayer about him was answered.
قَميصٌ وَرِداءٌ وَعَلَى رَأْسِهِ عِمامَةٌ سَوْداءُ. فَلَمَّا رَأى أنَّهُ لاَ بُدَّ مِنَ الحَرْبِ نَادَى بِأَعْلَى صَوْتِهِ: أيْنَ الزُّبَيْرُ بْنُ العَوَّامِ فَلْيَخْرُجْ إلَيَّ؟ فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ وَدَنَا مِنْهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى مَا صَنَعْتَ؟ فَقالَ: الطَّلَبُ بِدَمِ عُثْمانَ. فَقالَ: أَنْتَ وَأَصْحَابُكَ قَتَلْتُمُوهُ فَيَجِبُ عَلَيْكَ أنْ تَقيدَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ. وَلَكِنْ أُنْشِدُكَ اللهَ الَّذِي لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ هُوَ أمَا تَذْكُرُ يَوْماً قَالَ لَكَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: يَا زُبَيْرُ أَتُحِبُّ عَلِيَّاً؟ فَقُلْتُ: وَما يَمْنَعُنِي مِنْ حُبِّهِ وَهُوَ ابْنُ خَالِي؟ فَقالَ لَكَ: أمَا إنَّكَ لَتَخْرُجُ عَلَيْهِ يَوْماً وَأَنْتَ ظَالِمٌ لَهُ. فَقالَ الزُّبَيْرُ: اللَّهُمَّ بَلَى. فَقَدْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ. فَقالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَأُنْشِدُكَ اللهَ أمَا تَذْكُرُ يَوْماً جَاءَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ وَأَنْتَ مَعَهُ وَهُوَ آخِذٌ بِيَدِكَ فَاسْتَقْبَلْتُهُ أنَا فَسَلَّمْتُ فَضَحِكَ فِي وَجْهِي وَضَحِكْتُ أنَا لَهُ فَقُلْتَ أَنْتَ: لاَ يَدَعُ ابْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ زَهْوَهُ أَبَداً. فَقالَ لَكَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَهْلاً يَا زُبَيْرُ، فَلَيْسَ بِهِ زَهْوٌ وَلَتَخْرُجَنَّ عَلَيْهِ يَوْماً وَأَنْتَ ظَالِمٌ لَهُ. فَقالَ الزُّبَيْرُ: اللَّهُمَّ بَلَى وَلَكِنّي أُنْسِيتُ، وَأمَّا إذْ ذَكَّرْتَنِي ذَلِكَ فَلأَنْصَرِفَنَّ عَنْكَ، وَلَوْ ذَكَرْتُ هَذَا لَمَا خَرَجْتُ عَلَيْكَ. ثُمَّ رَجِعَ إلَى عَائِشَةَ. فَقالَ لَهُ ابْنُهُ: مَا رَدَّ بِكَ؟ فَقالَ: أَذْكَرَنِي حَدِيثاً مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي حَقِّهِ كُنْتُ أُنْسِيتُهُ. فَقالَ لَهُ: بَلْ جَبُنْتَ وَخِفْتَ مِنْ سُيُوفِ ابْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ. فَرَجَعَ مُغْضِباً إلَى صَفِّ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لِلْقِتَالِ، فَقالَ أَمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَفْرِجُوا لَهُ، فَإنَّهُ مُحْرَجٌ. فَدَخَلَ فِي الصَّفِّ وَخَرَجَ، وَقالَ لِوَلَدِهِ: رَأَيْتَ مَا صَنَعْتُ. لَوْ كُنْتُ خَائِفاً مَا فَعَلْتُ ذَلِكَ؟ ثُمَّ شَقَّ الصُّفُوفَ وَخَرَجَ مِنْ بَيْنِهِمْ وَنَزَلَ عَلَى قَوْمٍ مِنْ بَنِي تَميمٍ، فَقَامَ إلَيْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ جُرْمُوزٍ الْمُجَاشِعِيُّ فَقَتَلَهُ حينَ نَوْمِهِ، وَكَانَ فِي ضِيافَتِهِ. فَنَفِذَتْ فِيهِ دَعْوَةُ أمِير المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ.
As for Talhah, the warmonger, when he was fighting, suddenly an arrow hit him in the leg and he died immediately. Then the fighting began with intensity.
At this time a man by the name of `Abdullah who was one of the rioters of the battle of camel, parading between two armies said: Where is Abul Hasan? Standing in front of him, `Ali attacked on him and cut off his shoulder with one blow of sword. `Abdullah died immediately. Then another man blocked the way to `Ali, challenging him. With a slight attack and the blow `Ali struck on his face, half of the man’s head was cut off. He died too immediately. Thereafter, ibn Abi-Khalaf Khuza`i was prepared for fighting, saying: O `Ali, do you like to fight me? `Ali said: I do not reject it but woe to you! What comfort do you seek in death though you know who I am? He said: O son of Abu-Talib, put aside this pride of yours in battles and come closer to me to see who will kill who! `Ali directed his horse towards him. `Abdullah tried to strike a blow but `Ali repelled it with his special skill and cut off his right hand with the first blow of sword and cut off his head with the second blow. He too died immediately.
When the fighting intensified, `Ali ordered to hamstring the camel of `A’ishah and the camel fell down on the earth. In this bloody battle, started by `A’ishah, sixteen thousand seven hundred and ninety persons of her thirty thousand strong army were killed and out of `Ali’s twenty thousand strong army, only one thousand and seventy persons accompanying Imam `Ali were martyred.
In this battle, a man by the name of Mikhraq ibn `Abd al-Rahman from Mu`awiyah’s army entered the battle, asking for a challenger. From `Ali’s army, a man by the name of Mu’ammal ibn `Ubayd Muradi responded and stood before him. The man from Syria martyred him. Then, a youth from the tribe of Azd fought him and he was martyred too. At this time `Ali stood before him as a disguised man and killed him. Another rider came to the battlefield but he was killed too. Fighting continued till the seventh man from the army of Mu`awiyah was killed. Seeing the killed persons, the army of Syria left the battlefield but `Ali remained in the battlefield unknown.
To boost the morale of his army, Mu`awiyah ordered his slave whose
وَأمَّا طَلْحَةُ فَجَاءَهُ سَهْمٌ وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ لِلْقِتالِ فَقَتَلَهُ. ثُمَّ إلْتَحَمَ القِتَالُ.
فَتَقَدَّمَ رَجُلٌ يُقالُ لَهُ عَبْدُ اللهِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَمَلِ فَجَالَ بَيْنَ الصُّفُوفِ وَقالَ: أيْنَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ؟ فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَشَدَّ عَلَيْهِ وَضَرَبَهُ بِالسَّيْفِ فَأَسْقَطَ عَاتِقَهُ وَوَقَعَ قَتِيلاً. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ رَجُلٌ وَتَعَرَّضَ لِعَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ وَضَرَبَهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ فَسَقَطَ نِصْفُ قُحْفِ رَأْسِهِ. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ ابْنُ أَبِي خَلَفٍ الخُزاعِيُّ وَقالَ: هَلْ لَكَ يَا عَلِيُّ فِي المُبارَزَةِ؟ فَقالَ عَلِيٌّ: مَا أَكْرَهُ ذَلِكَ وَلَكِنْ وَيْحَكَ يَا بْنَ أَبِي خَلَفٍ، مَا رَاحَتُكَ فِي القَتْلِ وَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَنْ أنَا؟ فَقالَ: ذَرْنِي يَا بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ مِنْ كِبَرِكَ وَادْنُ مِنّي لِتَرَى أيَّنَا يَقْتُلُ صَاحِبَهُ. فَثَنَّى عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عِنَانَ فَرَسِهِ إلَيْهِ فَبَدَرَهُ ابْنُ أَبِي خَلَفٍ بِضَرْبَةٍ فَأَخَذَها أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي الجُحْفَةِ ثُمَّ عَطَفَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَطَعَ يَمِينَهُ ثُمَّ ثَنَّى فَأَطارَ قُحْفَ رَأْسِهِ. وَاسْتَعَرَتِ الحَرْبُ حَتَّى عُقِرَ الجَمَلُ وَسَقَطَ. وَكَانَ عِدَّةُ مَنْ قُتِلَ مِنْ جُنْدِ الجَمَلِ سِتَّةَ عَشَرَ ألفاً وَسِتَّمِائَةٍ وَتِسْعِينَ وَكانُوا ثَلاثينَ ألْفاً. وَمِنْ أصْحَابِ أمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ ألَفاً وَسَبْعينَ رَجُلاً وَكَانوا عِشْرينَ ألْفاً.
وَفِي وَقْعَةِ صِفِّينَ خَرَجَ مِنْ عَسْكَرِ مُعاوِيَةَ المِخْرَاقُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَطَلَبَ البِرازَ، فَخَرَج إلَيْهِ مِنْ عَسْكَرِ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ المُؤمَّلُ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ اللهِ المُرادِيُّ، فَقَتَلَهُ الشَّامِيُّ. فَخَرَجَ فَتًى مِنَ الأزْدِ، فَقَتَلَهُ الشَّامِيُّ فَتَنَكَّرَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَخَرَجَ، وَالشَّامِيُّ يَطْلُبُ البِرازَ فَقَتَلَهُ. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فارِسٌ فَقَتَلَهُ وَهَكَذا حَتَّى قَتَلَ سَبْعَةً، فَأَحْجَمَ عَنْهُ النَّاسُ وَلَمْ يَعْرِفوهُ. فَقالَ
name was Harb and unrivaled in bravery, to prepare himself for fighting against the lone rider of the battlefield and to kill him! The slave who had seen the killing of several men said to Mu`awiyah: Beyond doubt, he will kill me but you can opt for sending me to the battlefield to be killed or keeping me for harder days. Mu`awiyah accepted the slave’s suggestion and said: Stop for the moment. `Ali remained in the battlefield, waiting for a challenger. Finding that he had no challenger, `Ali returned to his army camp.
Sometime later, another brave man of the army of Syria by the name of Kurayb ibn Sabbah entered the battlefield and asked for challenger. Mubarqa` Jawlani, one of `Ali’s aides went to fight him but he was martyred in this hand to hand fighting. Another struggler faced him but he was martyred too. This time, `Ali entered the battlefield for a hand to hand fighting saying: Spare your life and fear God. Kurayb said: Who are you? The answer was: I am `Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Kurayb said: come closer. `Ali stood opposite him. Blows of sword were exchanged between them but it was not long before `Ali sent him to hell with a speedy blow of his sword. Another man from the army of Mu`awiyah replaced Kurayb but after a few moments, he was killed too. The third and fourth men came to the battlefield but they were killed by `Ali one after the other.
At this time, Amir al-Mu’minin sent a message to Mu`awiyah saying: Let us fight each other and put an end to the battle so no more Arabs are killed from the two sides. Mu`awiyah said: Forget about this request, for I will never fight you. At this time, `Urwah ibn Dawud, one the army leaders of Syria, who had a desire to fight `Ali entered the battlefield and proudly said: O `Ali! If Mu`awiyah is not willing to fight you I am prepared to fight you. He had hardly finished saying these words when `Ali struck a blow on him with his sword and killed him. With the coming of evening, the army of Syria left the battlefield.
Being disguised, `Ali came to the battlefield the following day and asked for a challenger. To obtain an honor in the army of Syria, the tricky `Amr ibn al-`As accepted the challenge, for he did not know who the challenger was. Knowing him well and in order to keep him away from the army, `Ali speedily moved away from before him. `Amr chased him but soon found out that it was `Ali. So he decided
مُعَاوِيَةُ لِعَبْدٍ لَهُ يُقالُ لَهُ حَرْباً وَكَانَ شُجاعاً: أُخْرُجْ إلَى هَذَا الفَارِسِ فَاكْفِنِي أمْرَهُ. فَقالَ أنَا أَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ سَيَقْتُلُنِي فَإنْ شِئْتَ خَرَجْتُ إلَيْهِ وَإنْ شِئْتَ فَاسْتَبْقِنِي لِغَيْرِهِ. فَقالَ لَهُ: لاَ تَخْرُجْ.
ثُمَّ رَجَعَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ إلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ إلَى عَسْكَرِهِ فَخَرَجَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أبْطالِ الشَّامِ اسْمُهُ كُرَيْبُ بْنُ الصَّبَّاحِ يَطْلُبُ البِرازَ فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ المُبَرْقَعُ الجَوْلانِيُّ فَقَتَلَهُ الشَّامِيُّ. وَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ آخَرُ فَقَتَلَهُ أيْضاً. فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقالَ لَهُ: إتَّقِ اللهَ وَاحْفَظْ نَفْسَكَ. قَالَ: مَنْ أَنْتَ؟ قَالَ: أنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طالِبٍ. قَالَ: ادْنُ مِنّي. فَمَشَى إلَيْهِ فَاخْتَلَفا بِضَرْبَتَيْنِ فَبَدَرَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ. فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ آخَرُ فَقَتَلَهُ حَتَّى قَتَلَ أرْبَعَةً مِنَ الأبْطالِ.
ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا مُعَاوِيَةُ هَلُمَّ إلَى مُبارَزَتِي وَلا تَقْتُلِ العَرَبَ بَيْنَنا. فَقالَ مُعَاوِيَةُ: لاَ حَاجَةَ لِي فِي ذَلِكَ.
فَخَرَجَ عُرْوَةُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ فَقالَ: يَا عَلِيُّ إنْ كَانَ مُعَاوِيَةُ قَدْ كَرِهَ مُبارَزَتَكَ فَهَلُمَّ إلَى مُبارَزَتِي. فَضَرَبَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَوَقَعَ قَتيلاً.
ثُمَّ جَاءَ اللَّيْلُ وَخَرَجَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَوْماً آخَرَ مُتَنَكِّراً وَطَلَبَ البِرازَ فَخَرَجَ إلَيْهِ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ وَهُوَ لاَ يَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ عَلِيٌّ. وَعَرَفَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَاطَّرَدَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ لِيُبْعِدَهُ عَنْ عَسْكَرِهِ فَتَبِعَهُ عَمْرٌو ثُمَّ عَرِفَهُ فَوَلّى رَاكِضاً فَلَحِقَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَطَعَنَهُ فَوَقَعَ الرُّمْحُ فِي فُضُولِ دِرْعِهِ فَسَقَطَ وَخَشِيَ أنْ يَقْتُلَهُ فَرَفَعَ رِجْلَيْهِ فَبَدَتْ سَوْءَتُهُ فَصَرَفَ
to flee the scene but this time `Ali chased him, throwing a spear at him which hit his cuirass. `Amr fell off his horse and seeing himself in the claws of death, unveiled his private parts. So `Ali turned his face away from him. Taking the opportunity, `Amr rose up immediately and took to his heels. `Ali too returned to his army camp. `Amr who had escaped death, rejoicingly went back to Mu`awiyah finding him laughing. `Amr said: By God, if what happened to me had happened to you, you would have been struck with `Ali’s sword, your children would have been made orphans and your property would have been looted! Mu`awiyah said: What you are saying is right but your shameless act will remain in history forever.
Busr ibn Arta’ah was one of the most evil men in the army of Mu`awiyah and he had a rancor against `Ali. He was impudent in committing sin and in disobeying God. Hearing that `Ali had challenged Mu`awiyah, Busr said: I will fight him. Coming to the battlefield, he stood opposite `Ali who attacked him immediately making Busr fall from his horse. Seeing himself in the claws of death, like `Amr ibn al-`As, Busr too raised his legs, unveiling his private parts. `Ali turned his face away from him. Taking the opportunity, Busr fled from the battlefield. Mu`awiyah who was closely watching this scene burst into laughter. Amid this, a brave youth of Kufah cried loudly: Shame on you O shameless people who instead of fighting in the battlefield unveil your private parts like what `Amr ibn As did.
In Laylat al-Harir when the army men of Mu`awiyah were howling like dogs from the intensity of war, `Ali was present in the battlefield and every time he killed an army man of Mu`awiyah, he would loudly say: Allah is the Greatest. At that night the number of Takbir amounted to five hundred and twenty three. At that night six thousand men were killed till dawn.
Following that historic night, `Ali’s companions saw victory of their army before their eyes. To conclude the affairs, Malik Ashtar together with `Ali’s army launched a lightning attack, chasing Mu`awiyah’s army and pushed them back to their army camp. Seeing this scene, `Amr ibn `As was sure that the war would end in favor of `Ali. For this reason, he went to Mu`awiyah to think of a solution,
أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْهُ وَجْهَهُ وَانْصَرَفَ إلَى عَسْكَرِهِ. وَجاءَ عَمْرٌو إلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ فَضَحِكَ مِنْهُ. قَالَ: مِمَّ تَضْحَكُ؟ وَاللهِ لَوْ بَدا لِعَلِيٍّ مِنْ صَفْحَتِكَ مَا بَدا لَهُ مِنْ صَفْحَتِي إذاً لأَوْجَعَ قِذالَكَ وَأَيْتَمَ عِيالَكَ وَانْتَهَبَ مَالَكَ. فَقالَ مُعَاوِيَةُ: لَكِنْ حَصَلَتْ لَكَ فَضيحَةُ الأَبَدِ.
وَكَانَ بُسْرُ بْنُ أرْطَأَةَ مِنْ أصْحَابِ مُعَاوِيَة مِنْ شَرِّ النَّاسِ وَأَقْدَمِهِمْ عَلَى مَعاصِي اللهِ، لَمَّا سَمِعَ طَلَبَ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مُبارَزَةَ مُعَاوِيَةَ قَالَ: أنَا أَخْرُجُ إلَيْهِ. فَخَرَجَ فَحَمَلَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْهِ فَسَقَطَ بُسْرٌ عَنْ فَرَسِهِ عَلَى قِفَاهُ وَرَفَعَ رِجْلَيْهِ فَانْكَشَفَتْ سَوْءَتُهُ فَرَجَعَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنْهُ وَضَحِكَ مُعَاوِيَةُ وَصَاحَ فَتًى مِنْ أهْلِ الكُوفَةِ: وَيْلَكُمْ يَا أَهْلَ الشَّامِ! أمَا تَسْتَحُونَ؟ لَقَدْ عَلَّمَكُمُ ابْنُ العَاصِ كَشْفَ الأَسْتاهِ الحُرُوبَ.
وَفي لَيْلَةِ الهَريرِ بَاشَرَ الْحَرْبَ بِنَفْسِهِ خَاصَّةً وَكَانَ كُلَّما قَتَلَ قَتيلاً كَبَّرَ، فَعُدَّ تَكْبِيرُهُ فَبَلَغَ خَمْسَمِائَةٍ وَثَلاثاً وَعِشْرينَ تَكْبيرَةً وَعُدَّ قَتْلى الفَريقَيْنِ فِي صَبيحَةِ تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ فَبَلَغَتْ سِتَّةً وَثلاثِينَ ألْفَ قَتيلٍ. وَاسْتَظْهَرَ حِينَئِذٍ أصْحَابُ أمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَزَحَفَ مَالِكُ الأَشْتَرُ حَتَّى أَلْجَأَهُمْ إلَى مُعَسْكَرِهِـمْ. فَلَمَّـا رَأَى عَمْرُو بْنُ العَـاصِ الْحَـالَ قَالَ لِمُعَاوِيَةَ:
saying: We would better put up the books of Qur’an and invite them to arbitration! Praising this suggestion, Mu`awiyah immediately ordered the army to put up the books of Qur’an on the spears. The reciters of the Qur’an gave up fighting saying: We will not fight the Qur’an. We should give in to the verdict of the Qur’an. Being aware of `Amr’s trick, `Ali said: This trick belongs to `Amr, for they have never acted according to the Holy Qur’an. Nevertheless, the blind-hearted hypocrites who were among `Ali’s army and looking for a chance of sabotage, ignored `Ali’s advice, saying: We will not fight anymore. The Qur’an’s verdict should rule between us and this group. They also said: Tell Malik to stop fighting or we will submit you the people of Syria or we will kill you right here! `Ali sent one of his companions to inform the case to Malik who was then fighting and witnessing the victory. Malik too sent a message saying: It is not the right time for me to return, for I wish to bring the fighting to a conclusion. `Ali sent a message again saying: They will either kill me or surrender me to Mu`awiyah if you do not return. So Malik sorrowfully came back to `Ali, swearing at ignorant reciters but the die was cast and the war had not come to a conclusion.
Saddened by this unexpected event, `Ali turned to the army of Syria, saying: Why have you put Books of Qur’an on the spears? They said: To invite you to the verdict of the Qur’an, to choose a man from among us and a man from among you to sit and exchange views on caliphate and make a decision on choosing a rightful caliph.
Being aware of this trick, `Ali informed his aides of the plot and the intention of the deviators of Syria under the guise of acting according to the Holy Qur’an. But this time too, they ignored `Ali, forcing him to accept arbitration.
Mu`awiyah appointed `Amr ibn `As as arbitrator who represented the people of Syria. Imam `Ali too appointed `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas but regretfully the people of Kufah rejected him. Imam `Ali said: Choose Abul Aswad Du’ali then! They said: No, we will choose Abu-Musa Ash`ari as our representative! Imam `Ali said: But this man is naïve and ignorant. Besides, he has no inclination towards us. They said: We do not accept anyone but Abu-Musa! So they chose him as their representative.
نَرْفَعُ الْمَصَاحِفَ وَنَدْعُوهُمْ إلَى كِتابِ اللهِ تَعالَى. فَقالَ مُعَاوِيَةُ: أَصَبْتَ. وَرَفَعُوهَا فَرَجَعَ القُرَّاءُ عَنِ القِتالِ.
فَقالَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّها خَدِيعَةُ عَمْرِو بْنِ العَاصِ، لَيْسوا مِنْ رِجالِ القُرْآنِ. فَلَمْ يَقْبَلوا وَقَالوا: لاَ بُدَّ أنْ تَرُدَّ الأَشْتَرَ وإلاّ قَتَلْناكَ أَوْ سَلَّمْناكَ إِلَيْهِمْ. فَأَنْفَذَ يَطْلُبُ الأَشْتَرَ فَقالَ: قَدْ أَشْرَفْتُ عَلَى الفَتْحِ وَلَيْسَ وَقْتَ طَلَبِي. فَعَرَّفَهُ اخْتِلالَ أصْحابِهِ وَأنَّهُ إنْ لَمْ يَرْجِعْ قَتَلُوهُ أوْ سَلَّمُوهُ إلَى مُعَاوِيَة. فَرَجَعَ وَعَنَّفَ القُرَّاءَ وَضَرَبَ وَجْهَ دَوَابِّهِمْ فَلَمْ يَرْجِعوا. فَوَضَعَتِ الحَرْبُ أوْزارَهَا.
فَقالَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لِماذَا رَفَعْتُمُ المَصَاحِفَ؟ فَقَالُوا: لِلدُّعاءِ إلَى العَمَلِ بِمَضْمُونِهَا وَأَنْ نُقيمَ حَكَماً وَتُقِيمُوا حَكَماً يَنْظُرانِ فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ وَيُقِرَّانِ الحَقَّ مَقَرَّهُ. فَعَرَّفَهُمْ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَا اشْتَمَلَ طَلَبُهُمْ مِنَ الخِداعِ فَلَمْ يَسْمَعوا وَأَلْزَمُوهُ بِالتَّحْكيمِ. فَعَيَّنَ مُعَاوِيَةُ عَمْرَو بْنَ العَاصِ وَعَيَّنَ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ العَبَّاسِ فَلَمْ يُوافِقُوا. قَالَ: فَأَبُو الأسْوَدِ. فَأَبَوْا وَاخْتَارُوا أَبَا مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيَّ. فَقالَ: أَبُو مُوسَى مُسْتَضْعَفٌ وَهَواهُ مَعَ غَيْرِنا. فَقَالُوا: لاَ بُدَّ مِنْهُ. وَحَكَّمُوهُ فَخَدَعَ عَمْرُو بْنُ العَاصِ أَبَا مُوسَى وحَمَلَهُ عَلَى خَلْعِ
`Amr ibn `As instigated another plot, suggesting to Abu-Musa: What has afflicted the people of Kufah and Syria come from `Ali and Mu`awiyah. We, the representatives of these people should now oust these two from caliphate and choose a trustworthy person as caliph. The ignorant Abu-Musa accepted this trick and praised his decision! Being sure of what Abu-Musa had said, `Amr ibn `As said: As you are a respectable old man and your knowledge of Islam is more, you oust `Ali first and then I will oust Mu`awiyah. Abu-Musa complied with what `Amr ibn al-`As suggested, saying: Now it is your turn to oust Mu`awiyah! `Amr ibn al-`As rose up and said: O people, you are witnessing that Abu-Musa ousted `Ali from caliphate and that is what I desire. But I establish Mu`awiyah in the seat of caliphate. The ignorant Abu-Musa found out that he had been tricked. Se he started swearing at him. `Amr too swore at Abu-Musa. They cursed each other but the die was cast.
In this battle, Abul Yaqzan `Ammar ibn Yasir was martyred. He is the one about whom, the Messenger of Allah had said: `Ammar is the apple of my eye and he will be killed by a rebellious group.
The killer of `Ammar is Abu-`Ariyah Muzani who cast down his spear with humiliation and ibn Juni Saksaki beheaded him. `Ammar was 94 years old then.
Speaking about `Ammar’s merit, Abu-Sa`id Khidri reports: When Masjid al-Nabi was being built in Medina, we, the companions of the Messenger of Allah, would carry one mud brick each but `Ammar carried two mud bricks. Once messenger of Allah passed by him and removed the dust from his hand and face, saying to him: O `Ammar, like others carry one mud brick. `Ammar said: O Messenger of Allah! I am seeking nearness to Allah with it. Once again, he was faced with the Messenger of Allah who removed dust from his head and face, saying: A rebellious group will kill you, while you are inviting them to paradise and they are inviting you to fire.
`Alqamah and Aswad report: To probe the presence of Abu-Ayyub Ansari alongside `Ali and his participation in the battles of camel and Siffin, we went to his house. After entering the house, we said: God Almighty blessed you when the Holy Prophet first entered your house upon arrival in Medina and in this connection you are privileged,
أمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ وَأنَّهُ يَخْلَعُ مُعَاوِيَة وَأَمَرَهُ بِالتَّقَدُّمِ حَيْثُ هُوَ أكْبَرُ سِنَّاً فَفَعَلَ أَبُو مُوسَى ذَلِكَ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا عَمْرُو قُمْ فَافْعَلْ كَذَلِكَ. فَقَامَ وَأَقَرَّها فِي مُعَاوِيَة فَشَتَمَهُ أَبُو مُوسَى وَتَلاعَنَا.
وَفِي هَذِهِ الحَرْبِ قَتَلَ أَبُو اليَقْظانِ عَمَّارَ بْنَ يَاسِرٍ. وَقَدْ قَالَ النَّبِيّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: عَمَّارٌ جِلْدَةُ بَيْنَ عَيْنَيَّ، تَقْتُلُهُ الفِئَةُ البَاغِيَةُ. قَتَلَهُ أَبُو عَادِيَةَ المُزَنِيُّ، طَعَنَهُ بِرُمْحٍ فَسَقَطَ وَاحْتَزَّ رَأْسَهُ ابْنُ جَوْنِيٍّ السَّكْسَكِيُّ، وَكَانَ لِعَمَّارٍ يَوْمَئِذٍ أرْبَعٌ وَتِسعُونَ سَنَةً.
قَالَ أَبُو سَعيدٍ الخِدْرِيُّ: كُنَّا نَعْمُرُ المَسْجِدَ فَنَحْمِلُ لِبْنَةً وَعَمَّارٌ لِبْنَتَيْنِ لِبْنَتَيْنِ فَرَآهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَجَعَلَ يَنْفُضُ التُّرابَ عَنْ رَأْسِ عَمَّارٍ وَيَقولُ: يَا عَمَّارُ ألا تَحْمِلُ كَما يَحْمِلُ أَصْحابُكَ؟ قَالَ: إنِّي أُريدُ الأَجْرَ مِنَ اللهِ تَعالَى. فَجَعَلَ يَنْفُضُ التُّرابَ عَنْهُ وَيَقُولُ: وَيْحَكَ، تَقْتُلُكَ الفِئَةُ البَاغِيَةُ؛ تَدْعُوهُمْ إلَى الجَنَّةِ وَيَدْعُونَكَ إلَى النَّارِ.
قَالَ عَلْقَمَةُ وَالأسْوَدُ: أتَيْنا أَبَا أَيُّوبٍ الأنْصَارِيَّ فَقُلْنا: يَا أَبَا أيُّوبٍ إنَّ اللهَ أَكْرَمَكَ بِنَبِيِّهِ إذْ
for God revealed to his camel to stop at the door of your house and you had the honor to host the Messenger of Allah. Now, given this merit, what is the reason for your accompanying Imam `Ali? Abu-Ayyub said: I swear by God, we were sitting in this room and there was no one except the Messenger of Allah and Imam `Ali on the right side and me on the left side and Anas who was standing opposite `Ali. All of a sudden, someone knocked at the door. The Messenger of Allah said to me: Go and see who is behind the door. Anas answered the door, saying: It is `Ammar. The Messenger of Allah said: Open the door for that purified person. He opened the door. `Ammar entered the house and greeted the Messenger of Allah who welcomed him. Fondling him, the Holy Prophet said: In a not too distant future after my departure, there will be a great difference Among my Ummah in a way they will draw sword against each other. Follow the man sitting on my right side at that time even if all the people go one way and `Ali alone will go another way. Opt for the way of `Ali and leave others, for `Ali will never mislead you. O `Ammar, know that to obey `Ali is to obey me and to obey me is to obey God.
We now deal with Khawarij. It was a group who hastily seceded from religion and was deviated. Following the issue of arbitration in the battle of Siffin when `Ali returned to Kufah to wait for the period fixed between him and Mu`awiyah to come to an end so that he will fight Mu`awiyah later, four thousand of army men who were pious withdrew from the army of `Ali as dissidents leaving Kufah saying: Verdict belongs solely to God and obeying Mu`awiyah who had rebelled against God was not right. They said: Since `Ali has accepted arbitration, he must repent it. Over eight thousand others too joined them leaving Kufah for Harawa, choosing `Abdullah ibn al-Kawa as their commander and getting ready to fight `Ali.
Imam `Ali gave `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas the mission to tell them the truth and guide them. `Abdullah went to them, bewared them of disobeying the instructions of Amir al-Mu’minin but they did not listen to him and remained in their deviation. Then, `Ali personally went to speak to them while ibn Kawa and a group of his followers, riding on horses were ready to fight. Turning to ibn Kawa, Imam `Ali said: Let me speak to you. Ibn Kawwa’ said: Am I safe from your sword? Imam `Ali said: Be sure I will not harm you.
أوْحَى إلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ فَنَزَلَتْ عَلَى بَابِكَ فَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ ضَيْفاً لَكَ، فَضِيلَةً فَضَّلَكَ اللهُ بِهَا. أخْبِرْنا عَنْ مَخْرَجِكَ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. قَالَ: فَإنِّي أُقْسِمُ لَكُما أنَّهُ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي هَذَا البَيْتِ الَّذِي أَنْتَما فِيهِ وَلَيْسَ فِي البَيْتِ غَيْرُ رَسُولِ اللهِ وَعَلِيٌّ جَالِسٌ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَأنَا عَنْ يَسارِهِ وَأَنَسٌ قَائِمٌ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ إذْ تَحَرَّكَ البَابُ فَقالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أُنْظُرْ مَنْ بِالبَابِ. فَخَرَجَ أَنَسٌ فَقَالَ: هَذَا عَمَّارُ بْنُ يَاسِرٍ. فَقالَ: إفْتَحْ لِعَمَّارٍ الطَّيِّبِ المُطَيَّبِ. فَفَتَحَ أَنَسٌ لِعَمَّارٍ وَدَخَلَ عَمَّارٌ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَرَحَّبَ بِهِ وَقالَ: إنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ مِنْ بَعْدِي فِي أُمَّتِي هَناتٌ حَتَّى يَخْتَلِفَ السَّيْفُ فِيما بَيْنَهُمْ وَحَتَّى يَقْتُلَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً وَقَدْ تَبَرَّأَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ. فَإذَا رَأَيْتَ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَيْكَ بِهذا الأَصْلَعِ عَنْ يَمِينِي عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طالِبٍ. فَإنْ سَلَكَ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ وَادِياً وَسَلَكَ عَلِيٌّ وَادِياً فَاسْلُكْ وَادِيَ عَلِيٍّ وَخَلِّ عَنِ النَّاسِ. إنَّ عَلِيَّاً لاَ يَرُدُّكَ عَنْ هُدًىً وَلا يَدُلُّكَ عَلَى رَدىً. يَا عَمَّارُ طَاعَةُ عَلِيٍّ طَاعَتِي وَطَاعَتِي طَاعَةُ اللهِ.
وَأمَّا الخَوَارِجُ فَإنَّهُمْ مَرَقوا مِنَ الدِّينِ مَرْقَ السِّهامِ. فَإنَّهُ لَمَّا عَادَ أَمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ صِفِّينَ وَإقَامَةِ الحَكَمَيْنِ إلَى الكُوفَةِ أَقَامَ يَنْتَظِرُ إنْقِضَاءَ المُدَّةِ الَّتي بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ مُعَاوِيَة لِيَرْجِعَ إلَى المُقاتَلَةِ. فَانْعَزَلَ أرْبَعَةُ آلافِ فَارِسٍ مِنْ أصْحابِهِ وَهُمُ العُبَّادُ وَخَرَجوا مِنَ الكُوفَةِ وَخَالَفوا عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَقَالوا: لاَ حُكْمَ إلاَّ للهِ وَلا طَاعَةَ لِمَنْ عَصَى اللهَ. وَانْحازَ إِلَيْهِمْ نَيِّفٌ وَثَمانِيَةُ آلافٍ وَسَاروا إلَى أنْ نَزَلوا بِحَرَوْرَاءَ وَأَمَّرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ الكَوَّاءِ. فَأَرْسَلَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِلَيْهِمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ يَرُدُّهُمْ عَنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِمْ فَلَمْ يَرْجِعُوا. فَرَكِبَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَمَضَى إِلَيْهِمْ فَرَكِبَ ابْنُ الكَوَّاءِ فِي جَماعَةٍ مِنْهُمْ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: يَا بْنَ الكَوَّاءِ ابْرُزْ إلَيَّ مِنْ أصْحَابِكَ لأُكَلِّمَكَ. فَقالَ: وَأنا آمِنٌ مِنْ سَيْفِكَ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ.
Ibn Kawwa’ with ten of his companions went to Imam `Ali to discuss the issue. Imam `Ali said: Did I not warn you that the people of Syria had chosen the verdict of Qur’an as a trick to deceive you, for they were exhausted with war and I said: Let us finish the war but you did not accept? Ibn Kawwa’ said: Yes, it was as you say. Imam `Ali said: Did I not tell you now that you insist on arbitration let me assign my cousin, `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas as the representative of Iraq’s army, for they could not deceive him but you did not accept insisting on Abu-Musa Ash`ari and I reluctantly accepted it. I would never accept their offer if there were people other than you alongside me. Apart from this, in that session, I made a condition that the arbitrators should obey and observe God’s verdict and implement the tradition of the Messenger of Allah and in case of violation of God’s verdict, I did not have to observe it. Is the truth anything other than this? Ibn Kawwa’ said: What you say is justified but there is one question unanswered. Why did you not continue the war given that the arbitration was illegal? Imam `Ali said: The continuation of war depended on the expiry of the period set between the two parties which had to be observed. Ibn Kawwa’ asked: What is your decision after the expiry of the period? Imam `Ali said: There is no option but war. Hearing this, ibn Kawa and ten of those accompanying him joined Imam `Ali’s companions and withdrew from Khawarij but the rest of them remained Khawarij following the motto of “there is no verdict but that of Allah.”
This group chose `Abdullah ibn Wahah Rasibi and Hurqus ibn Zuhayr Bujali known as Dhu’l-Thadyah as their commanders, gathered in Nahrawan where they made their camp.
Imam `Ali set out to chase them and stopped within two farsangs of their gathering place, wrote them a letter giving them advice but they insisted on their position and refused to accept what was just. To guide and give them ultimatum, Imam `Ali sent Ibn `Abbas, saying: Ask them what objections you have to my acts? Imam `Ali assured Ibn `Abbas that they could not harm him, for he was closely watching the situation. Ibn `Abbas conveyed the message to them. The Khawarij said that some of `Ali’s acts deserved criticism and were somehow unclear. Receiving the report of Ibn `Abbas, Imam `Ali personally, went to see them, saying to them: O people, I am `Ali
فَخَرَجَ فِي عَشَرَةٍ مِنْ أصْحَابِهِ. فَقالَ لَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكُمْ إنَّ أهْلَ الشَّامِ يَخْدَعُونَكُمْ بِرَفْعِ المَصاحِفِ وَأَمْرِ الحَكَمَيْنِ وَأنَّ الحَرْبَ قَدْ عَضَّتْهُمْ فَذَرُونِي أُناجِزُهُمْ فَأَبَيْتُمْ؟ أَلَمْ أُرِدْ أَنْ أُنَصِّبَ ابْنَ عَمِّي حَكَماً وَقُلْتُ إنَّهُ لاَ يَنْخَدِعُ فَأَبَيْتُمْ إلاَّ أَبَا مُوسَى وَقُلْتُم رَضِينَا بِهِ حَكَماً فَأَجَبْتُكُمْ كارِهاً؟ وَلَوْ وَجَدْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ الوَقْتِ أَعْوَاناً غَيْرَكُمْ لَمَا أَجَبْتُكُمْ. وَشَرَطْتُ عَلَى الحَكَمَيْنِ بِحُضُورِكُمْ أنْ يَحْكُما بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ مِنْ فَاتِحَتِهِ إلَى خَاتِمَتِهِ وَالسُّنَّةِ الجَامِعَةِ وَأَنَّهُما لَمْ يَفْعَلا فَلا طَاعَةَ لَهُمَا عَلَيَّ؟ قَالَ ابْنُ الكَوَّاءِ: صَدَقْتَ! فَلِمَ لاَ تَرْجِعُ إلَى حَرْبِ القَوْمِ؟ قَالَ: حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ المُدَّةُ الَّتِي بَيْنَنا وَبَيْنَهُمْ. قَالَ ابْنُ الكَوَّاءِ وَالعَشَرَةُ الَّذِينَ مَعَهُ: وَأَنْتَ مُجْمِعٌ عَلَى ذَلِكَ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ، وَلا يَسَعُنِي غَيْرُهُ. فَعَادَ ابْنُ الكَوَّاءِ وَالعَشَرَةُ الَّذينَ مَعَهُ إلَى أصْحَابِ عَلِيٍّ رَاجِعِينَ عَنْ دِينِ الخَوَارِجِ وَتَفَرَّقَ البَاقُونَ وَهُمْ يَقُولُونَ: لاَ حُكْمَ إلاَّ للهِ وَلا طَاعَةَ لِمَنْ عَصَاهُ. وَأَمَّرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ وَهَبٍ الرَّاسِبِيَّ وَحُرْقُوصَ بْنَ زُهَيْرٍ البُجَلِيَّ المَعْرُوفَ بِذِي الثَّديَةِ وَعَسْكَروا بِالنَّهْرَوانِ. فَسارَ إِلَيْهِمْ أمِيرُ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَتَّى بَقِيَ عَلَى فَرْسَخَيْنِ مِنْهُمْ فَكاتَبَهُمْ فَلَمْ يَقْبَلُوا. فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِمُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ وَقالَ: سَلْهُمْ مَا الَّذِي نَقِمُوا؟ وَأَنا رِدْفُكَ فَلا تَخَفْ مِنْهُمْ. قَالُوا: نَقِمْنا أشْيَاءَ. فَقالَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، مَا تِلْكَ الأَشْيَاءُ؟
ibn Abi-Talib. What are your objections? They said: The first objection is that we were with you in the battle of camel, fighting them on your order but after the victory you made only their property permissible for us but did not permit us to take their women and children captive! Imam `Ali said: The question is that their men fought us and after victory, what was left of their property in the front was lawful to you whereas their women had not fought us, hence we were not permitted to take them captive. As for the children, I should say that they were born maturely Muslims and had not committed any sin so their captivity was not lawful to us. I saw with my own eyes how gracious the Messenger of Allah was to the women and children of the atheists and never did he take them captive. So it is not strange if I was gracious to Muslims and did not take them captive.
They said: Our second objection to you is that in the battle of Siffin while drawing up the treaty between you and Mu`awiyah, you removed your title of commander and leader of believers. Imam `Ali said: The reason is that in the peace treaty of Hudaybiyah and the one between messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn `Amr in which the Holy Prophet had mentioned his name as prophet, Suhayl objected to the word “prophet” in it, for they said: If we believed in your prophetic mission, there would be no meaning in concluding a peace treaty. Hence the Messenger of Allah removed the word “prophet” from the peace treaty. I too followed the Holy Prophet’s act and removed the word “commander of believers (Amir al-Mu’minin)” from my title.
They said: Our third objection to you is that in relation to arbitration, you said: O people, look at the book of Allah. Confirm me if you accept my superiority over Mu`awiyah. This does not mean anything save doubt in your rightfulness! Answering it, Imam `Ali said: What I said then was not based on doubt, rather I wished to act fairly, for concerning mutual curse (Mubahalah) with the Christians of Najran, God states: “and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars” (3:60) though they were surely lying and if instead of the aforesaid verse, God would state: “and pray for the curse of Allah on you”, they would not be pleased nor accepted it.
They said: our fourth objection to you is this: Why did you give in to
قَالُوا: أَوَّلاً إنَّا قَاتَلْنا بَيْنَ يَدَيْكَ بِالبَصْرَةِ فَأَبَحْتَنا الأَمْوالَ دُونَ النِّسَاءِ وَالذُّرِّيَّةِ. فَقالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: بَدَؤُونا بِالقِتالِ فَلَمَّا ظَفَرْتُمُ اقْتَسَمْتُمْ سِلْبَ مَنْ قَاتَلَكُمْ وَالنِّسَاءُ لَمْ يُقَاتِلْنَ وَالذِّرِّيَّةُ وُلِدوا عَلَى الفِطْرَةِ وَلَمْ يَنْكُثُوا وَلا ذَنْبَ لَهُمْ. وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مَنَّ عَلَى المُشْرِكِينَ فَلا تَعْجَبوا لَوْ مَنَنْتُ عَلَى المُسْلِمينَ.
قَالُوا: وَنَقِمْنا يَوْمَ صِفِّينَ كَوْنَكَ مَحَوْتَ اسْمَكَ مِنْ إمْرَةِ المُؤْمِنِينَ. فَقالَ: إقْتَدَيْتُ بِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ حينَ صَالَحَ سُهَيْلَ بْنَ عَمْرٍو وَلَمْ يَرْضَ حَتَّى مَحا رِسَالَةَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ.
قَالُوا: وَنَقِمْنَا قَوْلَكَ لِلْحَكَمَيْنِ: أُنْظُرُوا كِتابَ اللهِ فَإنْ كُنْتُ أَفْضَلَ مِنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ فَأَثْبِتَانِي فِي الخِلافَةِ، وَهَذا شَكٌّ؟ فَقالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِشَكٍّ بَلْ نِصْفَةً، كَمَا قَالَ تَعالَى: ﴿فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَةَ اللهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ.﴾ وَلَوْ قَالَ: عَلَيْكُمْ، لَمْ يَرْضَوْا.
قَالُوا: وَنَقِمْنَا أنَّكَ حَكَّمْتَ حَكَماً فِي حَقٍّ هُوَ لَكَ. قَالَ: أُسْوَةً بِرَسُولِ اللهِ حَيْثُ حَكَّمَ سَعْدَ
arbitration regarding your indisputable right while arbitration has meaning when a right is recognized with it? Your decision on your indisputable right was not justified. The Imam said: I followed the Messenger of Allah in this connection, when he entrusted arbitration to Sa`d ibn Mu`adh in relation to the Jews of Banu-Qurayzah though the Messenger of Allah himself was the best arbitrator. Then Imam `Ali (a.s) said: Is there any other objection? They all kept silent. At this time, a large group of them loudly cried: We repent! We repent. Imam `Ali too accepted their repentance and pardoned them. Those who repented were eight thousand but the other four thousand remained in their rebellion, and declared war.
The commanders of Khawarij, `Abdullah ibn Wahab Rasibi and Dhu’l-Thadyah would say: We consider fighting against `Ali as an act of seeking nearness to God and His pleasure as well as salvation in the Day of Judgment. Hence, addressing `Ali, they would say: We do not see fighting against you anything but happiness of Allah and the hereafter. Answering them, Imam `Ali recited the verse: “say: shall we inform you of the greatest losers in their deed” (18:103). Then the war reached its climax and attacks started. The first man, who entered the battlefield, was Akhfash Ta’i who had fought alongside `Ali in the battle of Siffin. He cleft the army line and asked to fight `Ali who rushed to the battlefield and killed him. Then, Dhu’l-Thadyah stood opposite `Ali to kill the Imam but `Ali did not give him any respite and with a blow of sword on his head killed him. His horse threw him down on the back of the Euphrates river.
Later Malik ibn Waddah, the cousin of Dhu’l-Thadyah prepared himself for fighting, attacking `Ali first. He too was killed by `Ali within short space of time.
After this event, Wahab ibn `Abdullah, a leader of rioters, raised his voice, saying: O Son of Abu-Talib, by God, I will not leave the battlefield unless either I am killed or will kill you! Let us fight each other and let the people watch us from afar! Hearing this, `Ali started smiling and said: May Allah kill him. How impudent and shameless he is, given that I have sword in one hand and spear in the other. This ill-fated and unlucky man has either washed his hands off life or is nurturing a false hope in his mind by saying so. Wahab attacked `Ali first but it was not long before he was killed by Imam `Ali.
بْنَ مُعاذٍ فِي بَنِي قُرَيْظَةَ وَلَوْ شَاءَ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ. فَهَلْ بَقِيَ شَيْءٌ؟ فَسَكَتُوا، فَصاحَ جَماعَةٌ مِنْ كُلِّ نَاحِيَةٍ: التَّوْبَةَ التَّوْبَةَ. وَاسْتَأْمَنَ إلَيْهِ ثَمانِيَةُ آلافٍ وَبَقِيَ عَلَى حَرْبِهِ أرْبَعَةُ آلافٍ.
وَتَقَدَّمَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ وَهَبٍ وَذُو الثَّدْيَةِ وَقَالا: مَا نُرِيدُ بِقِتَالِكَ إلاَّ وَجْهَ اللهِ وَالدَّارَ الآخِرَةَ. فَقالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: ﴿قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِالأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالاً﴾ ثُمَّ الْتَحَمَ القِتَالُ. فَحَمَلَ الأَخْفَشُ الطَّائِيُّ وَكَانَ شَهِدَ صِفِّينَ مَعَ أمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَشَقَّ الصُّفُوفَ يَطْلُبُ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، فَبَدَرَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ. فَحَمَلَ ذُو الثَّدْيَةِ لِيَقْتُلَ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَسَبَقَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَضَرَبَهُ فَفَلَقَ البَيْضَةَ وَرَأْسَهُ، فَحَمَلَهُ فَرَسُهُ فَأَلْقاهُ فِي آخِرِ المَعْرَكَةِ فِي جُرْفٍ دَالِيَةٍ عَلَى شَطِّ النَّهْرَوَانِ. وَخَرَجَ مَالِكُ بْنُ الوَضَّاحِ ابْنُ عَمِّ ذِي الثَّدْيَةِ وَحَمَلَ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. وَتَقَدَّمَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ وَهَبٍ الرَّاسِبِيُّ فَصَاحَ: يَا بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، وَاللهِ لاَ نَبْرَحُ مِنْ هَذِهِ المَعْرَكَةِ أَوْ تَأْتِيَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِنَا أَوْ نَأْتِيَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ، فَابْرُزْ إلَيَّ وَأَبْرُزُ إلَيْكَ وَذَرِ النَّاسَ جَانِباً. فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ تَبَسَّمَ وَقَالَ: قَاتَلَهُ اللهُ مَا أَقَلَّ حَياءَهُ! أمَا إنَّهُ لَيَعْلَمُ أنّي حَلِيفُ السَّيْفِ وَخَدِينُ الرُّمْحِ، وَلَكِنَّهُ قَدْ يَئِسَ مِنَ الحَيَاةِ، وَإنَّهُ لَيَطْمَعُ طَمَعاً كَاذِباً. ثُمَّ حَمَلَ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقَتَلَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ.
With the passage of an hour, out of four thousand people, only nine survived and the rest were killed. Out of those nine men, two fled to Sistan. The Khawarij in Sistan are the progeny of these two men. Two others went to Oman. Abaziah are their progeny. The other two went to Yemen where they produced the generation of Abaziah. The other two fled to Bawazij and the last one of them took refuge to Mozan hills.
In this battle, based on `Ali’s prophecy only nine of his aides were martyred and only nine of men survived the Khawarij.
Although Imam `Ali had taken part in many battles and had an active part in them, he was not heavily hurt in any one of them. He was not blamed by the Messenger of Allah even on one occasion. He never turned his back on war, nor did he fear brave fighters, nor did he flee from the enemies.
Imam `Ali’s Precedence to Believing in the Holy Prophet
The great Shafi`ite scholar and jurisprudent, ibn Mughazili in his book “Manaqib” in a commentary on the verse “and the foremost are the foremost” (56:10) writes: Yusha` ibn Nun (Joshua) was the foremost in believing on Moses (a.s), the man of Al-Yasin was the foremost in believing in Jesus (a.s) and `Ali ibn Abi-Talib was the foremost in believing in Muhammad the son of `Abdullah, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon them all.
`Abdullah ibn `Abbas had been quoted by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Musnad as saying: I heard from `Ali ibn Abi-Talib saying: I am servant of Allah and brother to His messenger. I am also the great accepter. Anyone who makes such a claim after me he is certainly liar who has slandered Allah and His messenger! The evidence of the truthfulness of what I say is that I have worshiped Allah and have performed prayer seven years before all people.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal in “Musnad” had quoted ibn Abi-Layla as reporting: The Messenger of Allah said: The foremost or the pioneers who accepted divine mission were three persons, namely, Habib the carpenter, and Ilyas the believer who said: “O my people! Follow the messengers” (36:20) and Ezekiel the believer of the family of Pharaoh who said: “What! Will you slay a man because he
وَلَمْ تَبْقَ إلاَّ سَاعَةٌ حَتَّى قُتِلُوا عَنْ أَجْمَعِهِمْ إلاَّ تِسْعَةَ أَنْفُسٍ؛ رَجُلانِ هَرَبا إلَى سَجِسْتانَ وَبِها نَسْلُهُمَا وَرَجُلانِ هَرَبا إلَى كِرْمَانَ وَرَجُلانِ صَارا إلَى عُمَانَ وَبِها نَسْلُهُمَا وَرَجُلانِ صَارا إلَى اليَمَنِ وَبِها نَسْلُهُمَا وَهُمُ الأَبَاضِيَّةُ وَرَجُلانِ صَارا إلَى البَوازِيجِ وَصَارَ آخَرُ إلَى تَلِّ موزَنَ. وَقُتِلَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ تِسْعَةٌ عَدَدَ مَنْ سَلِمَ مِنَ الخَوارِجِ، وَكَانَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: نَقْتُلُهُمْ وَلا يُقْتَلُ مِنَّا عَشَرَةٌ وَلا يَسْلَمُ مِنْهُمْ عَشَرَةٌ.
ثُمَّ مَعَ كَثْرَةِ حُرُوبِهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَشِدَّةِ بَلائِهِ فِي الجِهَادِ وَدُخُولِهِ فِي صُفُوفِ المُشْرِكِينَ لَمْ يُصِبْهُ جُرْحٌ شَانَهُ وَلا عَابَهُ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ، وَلَمْ يُوَلِّ ظَهْرَهُ قَطُّ وَلا انْهَزَمَ وَلا تَزَحْزَحَ مِنْ مَكانِهِ وَلا هَابَ أَحَداً مِنْ أَقْرانِهِ.
فِي سِبْقِهِ إلَى التَّصْدِيقِ:
قَالَ الفَقيهُ ابْنُ المُغازِلِيِّ الشَّافِعِيُّ فِي مَنَاقِبه عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعالَى: ﴿وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ﴾ قَالَ: سَبَقَ يُوشَعُ بْنُ نُونٍ إلَى مُوسَى وَسَبَقَ صَاحِبُ آلِ يَاسِينَ إلَى عِيسَى وَسَبَقَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ إلَى مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَعَلَيْهِمْ أجْمَعِينَ.
وَمِنْ كِتابِ مُسْنَدُ أحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طالِبٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَقولُ: أنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ وَأخُو رَسُولِهِ، وَأنَا الصِّدِّيقُ الأَكْبَرُ، لاَ يَقُولُهَا غَيْرِي إلاَّ كَاذِبٌ مُفْتَرٍ، وَلَقَدْ صَلَّيْتُ قَبْلَ النَّاسِ بِسَبْعِ سِنِينَ.
وَمِنْ مُسْنَدِ أحْمَدَ: عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: الصِّدِّيقُونَ ثَلاثَةٌ: حَبِيبٌ النَّجَّارُ مُؤْمِنُ آلِ يَاسِينَ الَّذِي قَالَ: ﴿يَا قَوْمِ اتَّبِعُوا الْمُرْسَلِينَ﴾ وَحَزْقِيلُ مُؤْمِنُ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ الَّذِي قَالَ: ﴿أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلاً أَنْ يَقُولَ رَبِّيَ اللهُ﴾ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي
says: My lord is Allah” (40:28), and the third of them who is superior to the other two is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib who accepted the Holy Prophet’s mission before other people.
The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Imam al-Rida (a.s) as saying: All people will enter the plain of resurrection on foot except we four who will enter it while riding. I will ride the heavenly horse, Buraq, my brother, Salih will ride the she-camel which was hamstrung, my uncle, Hamzah, will ride the she-camel, `Adba’, and my brother, `Ali ibn Abi-Talib will ride a heavenly camel while carrying the banner of “Hamd” in his hand before Allah, saying: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger.
Then, people will say: This is an archangel, a messenger, or bearer of the throne of the Lord of the worlds. At that time, an angel from within the throne will respond: O group of men! This is neither an archangel, nor a messenger, nor the bearer of the throne, rather, he is the greater Accepter, `Ali ibn Abi-Talib, with the banner of “Hamd” in hand and testifying to the unity of God of the world and the mission of the last prophet.
Imam Ali on the battlefield
The Battle of Badr: This battle alone provides an adequate example of Ali’s courage, valor, and unmatched fighting skills. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that he alone was responsible for the victory in that battle. This battle took place in the month of Ramadan, 2 A.H., 624 A.D. About 1,000 Meccan Quraish warriors challenged some 313 ill-prepared and poorly equipped Muslims; the gross mismatch was obvious. In the ensuing battle, Imam Ali (A.S.) killed several famous Arab warriors, sending a wave of fear through the enemy ranks and dashing their hopes of victory. The Meccan army retreated in shameful defeat. A total of 70 of the enemy soldiers had been killed and 36 of them had fallen to Ali’s sword.
The Battle of Uhud: This battle took place in the following year. The Quraish of Mecca mobilized a large army and returned to avenge their defeat at the hands of the Muslims. Initially, the Muslims were victorious. However, due to the greed and disobedience of some of the Muslim soldiers, who abandoned their posts and ran to collect the spoils of war, the enemy had time to regroup and launch a new offensive, overpowering the defensive lines of the Muslim army. Panic ensued as there was a cry that “Muhammad is dead!” Upon hearing these cries, even more of the Muslims fled the battlefield in confusion and fear. Only four faithful and brave soldiers and companions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) remained by his side to protect him. They were Ali, Hamza, Abu Dujana, and Zakwan. At one point Ali alone was defending the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p). Ali beckoned to the Muslims that the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) was alive, and to return to their duty. Thereafter, the Muslims regrouped and defeated the enemy. Imam Ali killed 28 renowned Arab warriors and received 16 wounds. The Prophet himself was injured. Had it not been for Ali, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) would have been killed. Later on, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) informed the Muslims that Angel Gabriel was there on the battlefield, loudly praising Ali with these words: “There is no braver youth than Ali, and there is no better sword than Zulfiqar!” (The name given to Ali’s famous two-pronged sword). This is event is recorded in Waqudi’s “History of the Prophets,” and in Tabari’s “Tarikh”.
The Battle of the Trench (Ahzab): In the 5th year after Hijra, the Meccans returned with 10,000 soldiers, determined once and for all to wipe out Islam. The Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) ordered that a trench be dug around the camp of the Muslim army, in order to protect his small force of 2,000 fighters. In command of the Meccan army was Amr ibn Abdul-Wudh, a fierce and mighty warrior who was as renowned and feared in Arabia as equal to the great Persian warrior Rustum. He and several of his brave companions managed to jump their horses across the trench and challenged the Muslims to hand-to-hand combat. One by one, Amr called out the names of some of the most well-known individuals and companions of the Prophet in the Muslim camp and challenged them to duel, but they did not respond, being frozen by fear. Only Imam Ali stood up with the will and resolve to accept Amr’s challenge. But the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) did not allow him to fight. Finally, Amr taunted the Muslims collectively, and the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) in particular, as cowards unwilling to put their faith to the test. He threw a spear directly at the tent of the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) which pierced his tent. Ali was finally granted permission by the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) to go out and fight Amr. The Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) declared, as he sent Ali out to fight, “Today, faith in embodiment is facing infidelity in embodiment.” Many of the Muslims, thinking that Ali was no match for Amr, came out to look at Ali’s face for the last time. In the ensuing duel however, Ali killed Amr as well as two other renowned enemy warriors. The remaining ones who had jumped the trench fled back to their own ranks. The Meccans besieged the Muslim camp for several days and finally retreated from the battlefield due to dwindling supplies, adverse weather, and low morale. Thus, it was Imam Ali alone who was responsible for demolishing the morale of the enemy and securing victory for the Muslim warriors.
The Battle of Khyber: In the 7th year after Hijra, the Muslims marched against the rebellious Jewish clan which was holding the fortress of Khyber. On two successive days the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) sent the Muslim army under the leadership of a different commander from among his Sahaba, but in both instances the Muslims came back defeated.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim have recorded in their Sahih collections that on the eve before the third day of battle, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) announced, “Tomorrow, I shall give the standard (flag) of Islam to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, and Allah and His Messenger love him.” He also added that it would be to the man “...who is brave, who would not show his back to the enemy, and would not return without success.” Every soldier in the Muslim army went to sleep that night pondering who that man would be, and praying that the honor would be bestowed on him. The next morning, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) called for Imam Ali, gave him the standard of Islam, and sent the army out under his command. Ali fought and killed the mighty and dreaded warrior Mehrab, as well as several other highly reputed enemy warriors. He also broke open the door of the fortress single-handedly and flung it across the moat so that the Muslim army could enter and secure the fortress. When Ali victoriously returned, the Holy Prophet (pbuh&p) embraced him and showered him with praises, including these words: “...Ali, you will be nearest to me on the Day of Judgment; you will be next to me at the Fountain of Kauthar; your blood is my blood, your flesh is my flesh, your friendship is my friendship, and your enmity is my enmity; a war against you is a war against me!”
THE INFALLIBLES SERIES – HUNAIN AND TABUK
Yasin T. al-Jibouri
(This Series in its entirety is not copyrighted. If you wish to earn the Almighty's rewards, circulate it to everyone, Muslim or non-Muslim, post it on your web site or use it in any way you deem fit! Plant the good seed and let the Almighty let it grow and grow…)
THE BATTLE OF HUNAIN (630 A.D.)
On the 6th of Shawwal, 8 A.H./January 30, 630 A.D., a pitched battle was fought at Hunain, about ten miles from Mecca, between the Muslims and the men of Hawazin and Thaqif who had already taken up vantage positions. They almost took the Muslims by surprise, attacking them in the early hours of the morning, fighting in a spirit of desperation. The Muslims first lost ground and their defeat seemed imminent. The Prophet was riding his white mule Duldul (which had been given to him as a gift by the Coptic ruler of Egypt) as he was watching the progress of the battle from the rear of the army.
At that time, a cousin of the Prophet named Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith was holding the bridle of the Prophet's mule. The vanguard of the army was made up of the men of Banu Sulaim who were led by Khalid ibn al-Walid. They were leisurely advancing up the steep and narrow pass when suddenly Banu Hawazin attacked them, concentrating their ambush against Khalid's column. Khalid could not withstand the attack and his column staggered under the weight of the onslaught, breaking and falling back. One column after another reacted likewise. All turned to flight. Panic seized the entire army. Those who proved to be firm in the battle of Hunain and who did not flee away included: `Abbas, his oldest son Fazl, Ali ibn Abu Talib, Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith, his brother Rabi`ah, `Aqil ibn Abu Talib, `Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, Zubayr ibn al-`Awwam, and Usamah ibn Zayd. Al-Halabi remarks in Al-Sira al-Halabiyyathat only four persons remained with the Prophet, three of whom were Hashimites, i.e., Ali ibn Abu Talib, `Abbas and Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith, and one non-Hashimite, i.e., `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud. Abu al-Fida' makes another point. He says, “When the Muslims fled, the secret malice which the people of Mecca entertained against the Muslims was exposed. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb gleefully cried out, `They will not stop until they reach the sea shore! Muhammed's magic spell is now broken!'” Shaybah ibn `Othman ibn Abu Talhah, whose father was killed at Uhud, vowed that he would now slay Muhammed. Chaos and confusion among the Muslims' army were increasing.
As the Prophet was witnessing his fighting men fleeing, he called out to them, “Where are you running off to?!” But nobody was paying him any attention. The Prophet then told his uncle `Abbas to call the Muslims back. `Abbas wondered as to how his voice would reach those fleeing. The Prophet said that Allah would cause his voice to reach them, no matter how far they might have gone. `Abbas called them in these words as the Prophet had instructed him: “O Ansar! O people of the tree of Samrah!48 O people of Surat al-Baqarah!”
After the call of `Abbas, at last the deserters returned and ultimately the Hawazin and Thaqif were routed. About a hundred Muslims, all from the Ansar, succeeded in regaining the narrow pass and checking the advance of the enemy's army. The standard bearer of the Banu Hawazin tribe, namely `Othman (or Abu Jarwal), a man of extra-ordinary height, stoutly built, came forward and challenged the Muslims to single combat. Ali stepped forward and engaged him in a duel. In the meantime, the Muslim army gradually rallied around the Prophet, protecting him from the infidels. Ali succeeded in slaying his opponent and both parties closed in on each other; a fist fight broke out, and the conflict, by any standard, was horrifying. The Prophet cast a handful of gravel into the air towards the enemy saying, “Confusion seize their faces!” The reader may remember that the Messenger of Allah had done the same during the Battle of Badr. After a short while, the enemies wavered then fled away as the Muslims were in hot pursuit of them. It is to this battle that these verses of the Holy Qur'an refer:
Certainly Allah helped you in many battlefields and on the Day of Hunanin, when your great numbers made you vain, but they availed you nothing and the earth became strait to you notwithstanding its spaciousness, then you turned back retreating. Then Allah sent down His tranquilty upon His Messenger and upon the believers and sent down hosts (of angels) which you did not see and chastised those who disbelieved, and that is the reward of the unbelievers. Then will Allah after this turn (mercifully) to whomsoever He pleases, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
The men of Thaqif took refuge in the city of Taif but the families of the Hawazin, with all their flocks and herds, fell into the hands of the Muslims. Taif was besieged. Expecting this siege, the tribesmen of Hawazin and their allies had already undertaken defensive measures. The siege was prolonged for over twenty days without producing any result. On account of a dream he saw, the Propeht concluded that the military operations would not be successful and decided to lift the siege, but his army, upon receiving orders to withdraw, began to murmur in frustration. The idea of retreating did not appeal to them. The Prophet, coming to know about their attitude, permitted them to make a general assault the next day. The assault was undertaken but was repulsed, and the Muslim army suffered losses. `Abdullah, son of later caliph Abu Bakr, received a wound that day which eventually led to his martyrdom a few years later. May Allah reward `Abdullah ibn Abu Bakr with the best of His rewards for his services to the cause of Islam. Has there been enough room in this already too big a book, the feats and merits of this great sahabi would have filled many pages. May Allah forgive our shortcomings, Allahomma ameen. Abu Sufyan, the Meccan chief, lost one of his eyes to an arrow. At last, the Muslim army marched back to Je`rana where the booty was kept pending distribution.
The men of Hawazin approached the Prophet and beseeched him to restore their families to them. The Prophet answered them that he could not compel his army to forego all the fruits of victory and that if they wanted their families back, they would have to forego their worldly goods. To this, the Hawazin consented. On the next day, acting on the advice of the Prophet, they approached the Prophet and repeated their request. The Prophet replied, “My own share of the captives, and that of the children of `Abdul-Muttalib, I give back to you at once.” The army followed suit, and six thousand captives were set free. The Hawazin were so overwhelmed by this generosity that many of them accepted Islam there and then.
The spoils of the war, which consisted of 24,000 camels, 40,000 goats, and a considerable quantity of silver, were distributed among the army. In making the distribution, the newly converted Muslims as well as many non-Muslims of Mecca (known in history as “al-mu’allafatu qulubuhum” (those who were helped in order to win their hearts) were given disproportionately larger shares. Some Ansar considered this as an act of partiality, and their discontent was reported to the Prophet. It was also reported that the Ansar feared that now that Mecca was conquered, the Prophet would return to it and migrate from Medina. The Prophet delivered a lecture to them wherein he said to them:
“O Ansar! I have learned about your discourse. When I came to you, you were wandering in the dark, and the Lord gave you the right direction. You were suffering, and He made you happy. You were enemies of one another, and He filled your hearts with brotherly love and concord. Was it not so, tell me?”
“Indeed, it is even as you say,” was the reply: “to the Lord and to His Prophet belong the benevolence and the grace.”
“Nay, by the Lord,” continued the Prophet, “but you might have answered, and answered truly, for I would have testified to its truth myself: `You came to us rejected as an impostor, and we believed in you; you came as a helpless fugitive and we assisted you; you were poor and outcast, and we gave you asylum, comfortless and we solaced you.' O Ansar! Why do you disturb your hearts because of the things of this life? Are you not satisfied that others should return with the flocks and the camels, while you go back to your homes with me in your midst? By Him Who holds my life in His hands, I shall never abandon you. If all mankind went one way and the Ansar went another, surely I would join the Ansar. The Lord be favorable to them, and bless them, and their children, and their children's children!”
At these words, say the chroniclers, they all wept till tears ran down their beards. They all cried with one voice, “Yes, O Prophet of Allah! We are well satisfied with our share” (meaning the presence of the Prophet in Medina). They, thereupon, felt happy and contented and went back home. Muhammed soon thereafter returned to Medina.
The fall of Mecca was the signal for an unprecedented rush to accept Islam. `Amr ibn Salamah, a companion of the Prophet, has stated, “The Arabs were waiting for Quraish to accept Islam. They used to say: `Muhammed must be left to his people. If he emerges victorious over them, he is undoubtedly a true prophet." When Mecca was conquered, all the tribes hastened to accept Islam.
Zakat collectors were sent into the territories under the Muslims' control. These officials not only demonstrated great fairness in collecting the zakat andjizya, but also preached effectively to the people, for most of them were pious and God-fearing people. After the fall of Mecca, teachers were sent in all directions to bring people to God's way, and they met with so much success that hordes upon hordes flocked to the Prophet. It is about such mass conversions that the Qur'an has stated:
When there comes assistance from Allah and victory, and you see men entering the religion of Allah in groups.....
After an order was issued prohibiting the polytheists from entering the Sacred Mosque of the Ka`ba, the entire Hijaz was Muslim.
By the 10th of Hijra/632 A.D., Islam's influence had reached Yemen, Bahrain, Yamama, Iraq, and Syria. The Chief of the Daws, a tribe in Yemen, had accepted Islam even before the migration. In 8 A.H./630 A.D., Khalid ibn al-Walid was sent to Yemen to preach Islam but did not have much success. Then Ali went there and read the epistle of the Prophet; the entire tribe of Hamdan accepted Islam. In 10 A.H./632 A.D., Wabr was deputed to contact the leaders of the Persians residing in Yemen. Firoz al-Daylami, Markabood and Wahb ibn Munabbih accepted Islam through him. Ma`ath ibn Jabal and Abu Musa al-Ash`ari were also sent to Yemen with the following instructions: “Be polite, not harsh; give glad tidings to the people and condemn them not. Work together. When you meet people who already follow some (other) religion, preach to them about the Oneness of God and (my) Messengership; if they accept, tell them that God has enjoined prayers five times day and night. If they agree to do so, tell them that zakat is also obligatory upon those who can afford it in order to help the poor. If they give zakat, do not pick out only items of a better quality. Beware of the curse and the supplication of victims, for they reach straight to God.” Their efforts met with considerable success. Meanwhile, Khalid was inviting people to the faith in Najran and the tribe of `Abdul-Madan came forward to accept it.
In 8 A.H./630 A.D., Munqir ibn Haban of the tribe of `Abdul-Qais of Bahrain visited Medina and accepted Islam. Through his efforts and those of his father, their tribe entered the Islamic fold and sent a deputation of fourteen persons to the Prophet. In the same year, `Ala al-Hadrami was sent to Bahrain to preach to the people. He succeeded in converting its governor, Munthir ibn Sawa, and the public followed suit.
Similarly, Abu Zayd al-Ansari and `Amr ibn al-`as were sent to `Oman in the same year (8 A.H./630 A.D.) with letters from the Prophet to its chieftains `Obayd and Jaifar as stated above. When the chieftains accepted Islam, the whole tribe of Azd responded favorably to the invitation.
By 9 A.H./631 A.D., Islam was gaining a number of adherents in Syria. Its governor, Farwah, became a Muslim. When the Roman emperor learned about it, Farwah was guillotined. He died with a couplet on his lips saying: “Convey my message to the Muslim leaders that I sacrifice my body and honor in the way of God.” In the same year, intoxicants were prohibited. Islam was preparing the believers for this prohibition for the past 5 years: It was in 4 A.H./625 - 626 A.D. that the verse “They ask you (O Muhammed!) concerning wine and games of cahnce. Say: In both there is great sin and benefit to men, but their sin is greater than their benefit” (Qur'an, 2:219) was revealed.
As Islam started spreading to the farthest corners of Arabia, a large number of deputations from different tribes began pouring into Medina. Ibn Ishaq has given details of fifteen of them. Ibn Sa`d describes seventy deputations, and the same number is mentioned by al-Dimyati, al-Mughaltai and Zainuddin al-Iraqi. Hafiz Ibn Qaiyyim al-Jawzi and al-Qastalani have critically verified the accounts of these deputations and have themselves given details of thirty-four others.
It was thus, and thus alone, that Islam gradually spread. During a short period of time, it blazed in radiant splendor over the continents.
TABUK EXPEDITION (630 A.D.)
In Rajab of the 9th Hijri year, corresponding to November of 630 A.D., Ali was appointed by the Prophet governor of Medina. The Nabateans49 who came from Syria to the markets of Medina spread the rumor that the indecisive battle at Mu'ta had stirred a considerable chagrin to the Roman emperor Heraclius. Elated by his victories over the Persians and apprehensive of the growing power of the Muslims, he directed his feudatories to collect a huge force to invade Arabia. The tribes of Lakhm, Hutham, `Amila and Ghassan gathered to help the Roman army. When news of this preparation reached Medina through a trade caravan, it caused a great deal of anxiety among the Muslims. How alarmed they were can be judged from one incident: A neighbour of `Omer knocked at his door in the night. When `Omer came out and inquired what the matter was, the visitor said a calamity had befallen. `Omer asked whether the Ghassanids had come. The visitor was perturbed over another matter but the attack of the Ghassanids was considered so imminent that `Omer's first thought went to it. In order to meet this danger, the Prophet hastily collected a force of 30,000 volunteers with 10,000 horses among them. It also included a number of the munafiqun, hypocrites, led by their man `Abdullah ibn Ubayy.
In spite of the severe famine that had overtaken Najd and Hijaz and the intense heat of the weather, the Prophet's followers rallied behind him. Those who were in a position to do so generously donated large sums of money to meet the expenses of the expedition and to buy weapons and armor to those who could not afford to buy them. This was the first occasion when an appeal for public donations was made, and many Muslims responded generously.
An old and very poor woman brought a small quantity of dates as her contribution. Some hypocrites ridiculed her, but the Prophet said that her contribution was more precious in the sight of Allah than that of many people who had contributed only to show off.
The Prophet left Ali as his deputy in and governor of Medina as stated above. Ali exclaimed with dismay, “Are you leaving me behind, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet said, “Ali! Are you not satisfied that you have the same position in relation to me as Aaron had with Moses, except that there is no prophet after me?” The Prophet thereby meant that as Moses had left Aaron behind to look after his people when he went to receive the Commandments, he was likewise leaving Ali behind as his deputy to look after the affairs of the Muslims during his absence.
The Prophet marched at the head of this force to Tabuk, a place situated midway between Medina and Damascus. There, they came to know, to their relief, that the news of the Ghassanids' attack was incorrect. `Abdullah ibn Ubayy and his men camped separately in the rear of the army, and when they had a chance, they left for Medina where this man claimed that the Prophet had placed him in charge of Medina. Ali did not believe it, so he had to ask the Prophet about it. The Prophet's answer came loud and clear: “These men are liars. They are the party of hypocrites who would not hesitate to foster sedition in Medina. I left you there to keep an eye on them and to protect our families (from their mischief).” This is recorded by al-Tabari, Abul al-Fida' and Ibn Athir.
Having stayed for twenty-four days at Tabuk, the Muslim army returned to Medina.
The Prophet had marched to Tabuk in order to forestall the Ghassanids and the Byzantines, but a certain Western historian has surmised that the aim of this expedition was expansion, viz. to capture the trade routes leading to the more prosperous cities of Syria. Had this been so, there was no sense in returning to Medina without even attempting to fulfill that objective after having taken all the trouble and the expenditure to raise an expedition of that size during the most inconvenient time of the year. But these detractors have their own mission to fulfill.
On his trip back to Medina, and when he was about an hour from reaching his destination, the Prophet received a delegation from some men of Quba who had built a mosque and who wished he would bless it by praying there. Those same men had made a similar request to the Prophet who asked them to postpone it till he had dealt with the immediate danger in Syria. But instead of going to their mosque to pray, the Prophet ordered it to be demolished. Here is why:
It was the Banu `Amr who had the lion's share in the construction of the Quba Mosque, the first ever built in the Islamic history. There was a Christian living in their town known as Abu `Amir belonging to Banu Ghunm ibn `Awf who was well versed in the Scriptures and who knew that a Prophet was about to rise. Instead of recognizing Muhammed as the promised Prophet, he denied him and even became jealous of his increasing influence and power in Medina and jealous of those who had established the Quba Mosque. He, therefore, fled to Mecca after the Prohet's victory at Badr where he joined Meccan pagans against the Prophet and participated in the Battle of Uhud on their side. When the Meccans retreated, he fled towards north-western Arabia which was under the Roman ontrol. Some men from Quba, his likes, who were said to number no more than fifteen, contacted him and invited him to return to his home town. Once Abu `Amir was back there, he suggested that they should build a mosque that would rival the Quba mosque, the first built in Islam, so that they would meet and hatch plots against Muhammed and his followers. Among those who invited him, some hypocrites who professed to follow Islam, included Tha`labah ibn Hatib, Mu`attib ibn Qushayr, and Nabtal ibn al-Harith. They were the ones who built the new mosque. This is why they invited the Prophet to bless their mosque: they wanted him to legitimize what they were trying to do.
Abu `Amir once said to his followers, “Get ready. Build a mosque. I will be going to meet the Kaiser and bring an army from him so that we would kick Muhammed out of Medina50.”
Muhammed received their deputation for the second time led by `Asim ibn Awf al-`Ajlani and Malik ibn al-Dukhsham of Banu `Amr ibn `Awf. As soon as he received them, the Prophet also received the following verses with reference to their mosque built for ulterior motives:
And there are those who have built a mosque for a mischievous purpose, and for (propagating) infidelity and to cause division among the faithful, and to ambush whoever fought in the cause of Allah and His Messenger. Yet they swear that they intend nothing but good, but Allah bears witness that they are surely liars.
This is why the Prophet ordered their “Zirar Mosque” to be demolished to the ground. Its roof and columns were built with palm leaves and trunks, so it was first burnt then demolished.
[To Be Continued…, Insha-Allah]
THE INFALLIBLES SERIES – MUSLIMS BATTLE THE PAGANS AND JEWS IN MEDINA
Yasin T. al-Jibouri
(This Series in its entirety is not copyrighted. If you wish to earn the Almighty's rewards, circulate it to everyone, Muslim or non-Muslim, post it on your web site or use it in any way you deem fit! Plant the good seed and let the Almighty let it grow and grow…)
BATTLE OF THE KHANDAQ (627 A.D.)
Upon settling down at Khaibar, Banu Nadir decided to seek revenge against the Muslims. They contacted the Meccans, and 20 leaders from the Jews and 50 from Quraish made a covenant in the Ka`ba that as long as they lived, they would fight Muhammed. Then the Jews and Quraish contacted their allies and sent emissaries to a number of tribes. Banu Ghatfan, Banu Asad, Banu Aslam, Banu Ashja`, Banu Kinanah and Banu Fizarah readily responded. The Meccans, four thousand strong, including thre hundred cavaliers and fifteen hundred camels, were joined by six thousand allies from among the Jews and the bedouin tribes. The three armies set out, ten thousand strong, under the command of Abu Sufyan in the beginning of the month of Shawwal, 5 A.H. (the end of February 627 A.D.) to attack Medina.
When news of these preparations reached Medina, the Prophet consulted his companions, as he always did during such situations. There was hardly sufficient time to make preparations for the war. He decided this time to remain within the city and fight back. The stone houses of the city were built adjacent to one another so as to make a high and continuous strong wall for a long distance except in the north-west where a wide open space could afford the enemy an easy entry. At this place, with the suggestion of Salman al-Farisi, who was familiar with the mode of defending cities in other countries such as his (Persia), a trench, fifteen feet in width and fifteen feet in depth, was dug. Muslims were divided into parties of 10 each, and each party was allotted 10 yards to dig. The Prophet himself participated in this task, carrying the excavated earth away. The khandaq (moat) was completed in nick of time: just 3 days before the host of the enemies reached Medina. The houses outside the city were evacuated, and the women and children were accommodated for safety on the tops of the double-storied houses at the entrenchment. Muslims could muster only three thousand men to face this huge army, and they immediately took cover behind the ditch. The Prophet camped in the center of the entrenchment in a tent of red leather on a space shaped like a crescent. The camp had the rising ground of Sila` on its rear and the trench in the front.
Huyaiy ibn Akhtab, head of Banu Nadir, met secretly with Ka`b ibn Asad, head of Banu Quraizah, a Jewish tribe which was still in Medina. Huyaiy was the most antagonistic Jew towards the Prophet (P). Banu Quraizah, on his instigation, tore down the treaty which they had concluded with the Muslims. The Jews decided that they would assist the pagan Quraishites after ten days' preparations and would attack the rear of Muhammed's army from the north-western side of the city which was located on the south-east side of their fortress and which was easily accessible to them.
Rumours reached the Prophet about the Jews' schemes, so he sent two chiefs, one from the Aws and one from the Khazraj: These were Sa`d ibn Mu`ath and Sa`d ibn `Abadah13 respectively to ascertain the truth. Both men proceeded to meet the Jews. Having made searching inquiries and some scouting of their own, they returned to report to the Prophet that the temper of the Jews was even worse than it had been feared. This news alarmed the Prophet. It was then necessary to take precautions against any surprise attack or treachery from the side of those Jews. The north-western part of the city, which was located on the side of the Jewish stronghold, was the weakest of all defenses. In order to prtoect the families of his followers throughout the city, the Prophet, as a meager measure of safeguard, had no choice except to send a considerable number of his men from his already small army of three thousand to afford them such a protection. His men's supplies were hardly adequate due to the length of the entrenchment that formed his defense line. Still, he had no choice except to detach two parties, one of three hundred men under the command of Zayd ibn Harithah, his freed slave and adopted son, and another of two hundred men under the command of a chieftain from Medina. Their job was to patrol the streets and the alleys of the city night and day.
This treachery and danger from inside Medina, when Muslims were surrounded by the combined armies of pagans and Jews of all of Arabia on the outside, had a telling effect on the Muslims. The enemy was astonished to see the moat because it was a novel military tactic for the Arabs. They camped on the outside for 27 (or 24) days. Their number increased day by day, and many Muslims were extremely terrified, as the Qur'an portrays for us. Surat al-Ahzab describes various aspects of this siege. For example, read the following verses:
When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes turned dull, and the hearts rose up to the throats, you began to think diverse thoughts about Allah. There, the believers were tried, and they wee shaken a tremendous shaking.
At that time, many hypocrites, and even some Muslims, asked permission to leave the ranks of the Muslims and to go home:
And when a party of them said: O people of Yathrib! There is no place for you to stand, and a party of them asked permission of the Prophet saying: Verily our houses are exposed, and they were not exposed; they only described to flee away.
The bulk of the army, however, steadfastly withstood the hardship of inclement weather and rapidly depleting provisions. The coalition's army hurled arrows and stones at the Muslims.
Finally, a few of Quraish's more valiant warriors, `Amr ibn `Abdwadd, Nawfal ibn `Abdullah ibn Mughirah, Dhirar ibn Khattab, Hubairah ibn Abu Wahab, `Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl and Mirdas al-Fahri, succeeded in crossing the moat.
`Amr called for battle; nobody responded; he was considered equal to one thousand warriors. History accounts state that all the Muslims were as though birds were sitting on their heads: they were too afraid to raise their heads.
Three times did the Prophet exhort the Muslims to battle `Amr. Three times it was only Ali who stood up. In the third time, the Prophet allowed Ali to go. When Ali was going to the battlefield, the Prophet said: “The whole faith is going to fight the whole infidelity; the embodiment of the former bounds is to crush the entirety of the latter.” The Prophet put his own turban on Ali's head, his own coat of mail over Ali's body, and he armed Ali with his own sword, Thul-Fiqar, then he sent him to meet his opponent. Then the Prophet raised his hands to supplicate thus: “O Allah! `Obaydah, my cousin, was taken away from me in the Battle of Badr, Hamzah, my uncle, in Uhud. Be Merciful, O Lord, not to leave me alone and undefended. Spare Ali to defend me. You are the best of defenders.”
Ali invited `Amr to accept Islam or to return to Mecca, or to come down from his horse since Ali had no horse and was on foot.
“Nephew,” said `Amr to Ali, being a friend of Ali's father Abu Talib, “By God I do not like to kill you.” Ali replied, “By God, I am here to kill you!” `Amr, now enraged at this reply, alighted from his horse. Having hamstrung his horse, a token of his resolve never to run away from the battlefield but either to conquer or to perish, he advanced towards Ali. They were immediately engaged in a duel, turning the ground underneath them into a cloud of dust, so much so that for a good while, only the strokes of their swords could be heard while they themselves could not be seen. `Amr succeeded once in inflicting a serious cut on Ali's head. At last, Ali's voice was heard shouting, “Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!” That was his cry of victory. It always is Muslims' cry of victory. Seeing how the most brave among them has been killed by Ali, the other pagans who crossed the moat now took to their heels with the exception of Nawfal whose horse failed to leap; it fell into the moat. As the Muslims showered him with a hail of stones, he cried out thus: “I rather die by the sword than by the stones!” Hearing this, Ali leaped into the moat and fulfilled his last wish, dispatching him to hell!
Ali, contrary to the Arab custom then, did not, however, strip either men from their armor or clothes. When `Amr's sister came to her brother's corpse, she was struck with admiration at the noble behavior of her slain brother's adversary and, finding out who he was, she felt proud of her brother having met his fate at the hands of the person who was known as the unique champion of spotless character. She said, as recorded in Tarikh al-Khamis, “Had his conqueror been someone else other than the one who killed him, I would have mourned `Amr for the rest of my life. But his opponent was the unique spotless champion.”
Ali, the “Lion of God,” thus distinguished himself as on previous occasions: in the battles of Badr and of Uhud. About this battle, the Prophet said:
Verily, one attack of Ali in the Battle of Khandaq is better than the worship of all human beings and jinns up to the Day of Resurrection.
No further activity was attempted by the enemy that day, but great preparations were undertaken during the night. Khalid ibn al-Walid, with a party of cavaliers, attempted during the night to clear the ditch for crossing the next day. The next morning, the Muslims found the entire enemy force arrayed in fighting formations along their line of entrenchment. The enemies tried to overrun the Muslim side of the trench but were repelled at every point. The ditch served its purpose; it could not be crossed. During the entire military campaign, by the way, only five Muslims were martyred. The Muslims' vigilance paralyzed the enemies despite the latter’s numeric superiority. Numeric superiority is not always a prerequisite for victory, let the majority of the Muslims of the world in general and the Salafi fanatics in particular keep this in mind. The Almighty grants victory to whosoever He pleases.
But the Muslims were running out of provisions. The Prophet had to tie a stone on his stomach in order to minimize the pangs of hunger. Abu Sa`eed al-Khudri said: “Our hearts had reached our throats in fear and in desperation.” On the other hand, the besieging army was getting restive, too; it could not put up any further with the rain and cold; its horses were perishing daily and provisions nearing depletion. The Prophet went to the place where the Mosque of Victory (Masjidul-Fath) now stands and prayed to Allah. Said the Prophet, “O Lord! Revealer of the Sacred Book, the One Who is swift in taking account, turn the confederate host away! Turn them to flight, O Lord, and make the earth underneath them quake!”
A fierce storm raged, uprooting the tents of the enemies; their pots and belongings went flying in all directions; it blew dust in their faces, extinguished their fires, and their horses were running around as though they were possessed. An unbearable terror was cast in their hearts. In the fourth night, after having finished his prayers, Muhammed asked Abu Bakr if he would go to the enemy's camp to discern and report their activities. He replied saying, “I ask pardon of Allah and of His Messenger.” The Prophet promised Paradise to be the reward of anyone who would venture out for that purpose, then asked `Omer ibn al-Khattab if he would do it. `Omer's answer was similar to that of Abu Bakr. The Prophet's request is actually an order, a divine one, since it is coming from one who does not say anything or do anything without the Will of the Almighty. These facts are recorded in Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, Al-Sira al-Muhammediyya, Al-Sira al-Halabiyya, Tarikh al-Khamis, and Rawdat al-Ahbab for all to review. The third person the Prophet asked was Huthayfah al-Yemani who readily responded to the request and proceeded to the enemy camp in the darkness of the night where he saw the devestation wrought by the storm. He saw Abu Sufyan looking very depressed. When he came back to his camp and reported in detail to the Prophet what he had seen, the Prophet was delighted to find out that his plea to Allah was answered.
Either feeling the pain of the severity of the weather or struck with terror at that storm which was interpreted as a manifestation of the Divine Wrath, Abu Sufyan decided to lift the siege and to march back at once. Summoning the chiefs of his allies, he announced his decision to them, issuing orders to dismantle the camp. He and all the Meccans with him, as well as the pagan tribes that allied themselves under his command, fled away. The first to flee was Abu Sufyan himself who was so upset that he tried to ride his camel without first untying its rope. Khalid ibn al-Walid guarded the rear of the armies with two hundred cavaliers against a pursuit. The Ghatfan tribesmen and the bedouin allies returned to their deserts; not a single person remained on the battlefield in the morning. It was with great joy that in the morning the Muslims discovered the sudden disappearance of the enemy, finding themselves unexpectedly relieved. The siege lasted for twenty-four long days ending in March of 627 A.D.
This episode is referred to in the Qur'an in this ayat:
O ye who believe! Remember the bounty of Allah unto you when came upon you the hosts, so We sent against them a strong wind and hosts that ye saw not, and Allah sees all what you do.
And also in ayat 25 which says:
And God turned back the unbelievers in their rage; they did not achieve any advantage, and Allah sufficed for the believers in fighting, and Allah is Strong, Mighty.
`Abdullah ibn Mas`ud was interpreting this thus: “And God sufficed the believers (through Ali ibn Abu Talib) in their fight,” as we read in Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur.
As a direct result of this defeat of the infidels' combined forces in the Battle of Khandaq (moat, or the Battle of Ahzab, coalitions), Quraish's influence waned, and those tribes who were till then hesitating to accept Islam out of fear of Quraish began to send deputations to the Prophet. The first deputation came from the tribe of Mazinah, and it consisted of four hundred persons. They not only accepted Islam but were ready to settle down in Medina. The Prophet, however, advised them to return to their homes.
Likewise, a deputation of a hundred persons came from the Ashja` and embraced Islam. The tribe of Juhainah lived near them, so they were influenced by their conversion. One thousand of the latter's men came to Medina to join the fraternity.
BANU QURAIZAH DEFEATED (627 A.D.)
According to the terms of the treaty which Banu Quraizah had contracted with the Muslims, they were bound to assist the Muslims against outside aggression. But, not to speak of assisting the Muslims or even remaining neutral, they had sided with the Meccans and joined the besieging foe. What was worse, they had tried to attack the fortress where Muslim women and children had been lodged for safety. Living in such a close proximity to Medina, they had become a serious menace.
Having put aside his armor after his return from the site of the Battle of Khandaq, the Prophet, on the same day when the battle had come to a close, was washing his hands and face at the house of his beloved daughter Fatima whom he used to visit before proceeding to his own house and whenever he returned from an expedition or an expedition. It was then and there that arch-angel Gabriel brought him the divine command to proceed immediately against the Jews of Quraizah. He instantly sent Ali with his standard, then he followed in person with his army and laid the siege of their fortress, a siege which the enemy had not expected, thinking that the Muslims were already worn out following one of their most exhausting battles.
First, Quraizah Jews resisted, but the siege of twenty-five days sufficed to bring them to their knees and prepare them to pay for their treachery. They ultimately opened the gates of their fortresses on the condition that their fate should be decided by Sa`d ibn Mu`ath, chief of the Aws, a long time friend and ally of the Jews. Sa`d had been wounded during the battle of the moat and was still under treatment when he was brought to decide the fate of Banu Qurayzah. He came riding a mule and looking quite weak. He could not walk, so he was supported by some of his friends. He was surrounded by men of his tribe who were all urging him to be lenient towards Jewish prisoners, reminding him of their services to the Aws when the war of Bu`ath was raging. Basing his judgement upon the verses of the Old Testament itself, Sa`d ruled that the fighting men, six hundred in number according to some accounts, should be killed, the women and children be taken captive, and their possessions be confiscated and divided among the besieging troops. The sentence was carried out.
Ibn `Abbas narrates the following with reference to the Prophet's conquest over Banu Qurayzah:
When the Messenger of Allah called Ka`b ibn Asad so that he would be beheaded, he said to him, “O Ka`b! Did you avail yourself of the advice of Ibn Hawash who came from Syria? He (Ibn Hawash) said, “I have left wine and all intoxicants and came to misery and dates for the same of a Prophet to be delegated. His advent will be in Mecca, and this (Medina) is the place to which he will migrate. He is the one who smiles quite often, and who quite often kills. A bit of bread and a few dates suffice him. He rides the donkey without a saddle. In his eyes there is redness. He puts the sword on his shoulder and does not care who faces him. His domain will reach so far that nobody can go beyond it.'” Ka`b said, “Yes, all of this is true, O Muhammed! Had the Jews not taunted me of being too coward to fight you, I would have believed in you and followed you, but I am a follower of Judaism; a Jew do I live, and a Jew shall I die.” The Messenger of Allah then said, “Bring him forward and strike his neck,” and so it was14.
It was in reference to this conquest that the following ayats were revealed:
And He drove down those of the people of the Book who backed them from their fortresses, and He cast awe into their hearts: some you killed and some you took captive. And He made you inherit their land and their dwellings and their possessions, and (to) a land which ye have not yet trodden, and God has power over all things.
Some critics had described this punishment as harsh. But what other punishment could be meted out to them? They had violated the pact and, instead of helping the Muslims, they joined the forces of their enemies and had actually besieged the Muslims. There were no prisons where prisoners of war could be detained nor any concentration camps where they could be put to forced labor, and the capture of women and children, though allaying to the notions of the present age, was probably the only method known in those days to provide sustenance to them when the earning members of their families had lost their lives. At any rate, this was the custOmery aftermath of a war.
One of the greatest losses suffered by the Muslims in the Battle of Khandaq (Moat) is the death of Sa`d ibn Mu`ath one month after the end of the battle under the weight of his wounds. That was in 5 A.H./626 A.D. Ubayy has narrated saying that Sa`d ibn `Abdullah quotes Ibrahim ibn Hashim quoting al-Husain ibn Yazid al-Nawfali quoting Ziyad al-Sukuni quoting Imam Ja`fer ibn Muhammed al-Sadiq who in turn quotes his father Imam Muhammed al-Baqir saying that the Prophet performed the funeral prayers for Sa`d ibn Mu`ath then said,
Ninety thousand angels, including Gabriel, have attended the funeral of Sa`d ibn Mu`ath today to bless him and pray for him. I asked Gabriel, “What did he do to deserve your prayers, all of you, today?!” Gabriel said, “He used to recite Surat al-Ikhlas (Ch. 112 of the Holy Quran) standing, sitting, riding, walking, going or coming.”15
May Allah have mercy on Sa`d ibn Mu`ath.
JEWS OF BANU MOSTALIQ (627 A.D.)
The Jews of Banu Mostaliq were neighbours of Banu Qurayzah. Although they saw what had happened to the latter, they did not learn a lesson from it and started making preparations to invade the part of Medina where the Muslims were residing. Having come to know of their designs, Prophet Muhammed sent them Buraydah ibn al-Hasib in order to verify the reports that had reached him. Upon his return, Buraydah confirmed the truth of what the Prophet had heard. A pre-emptive war was imminent. With Ali as the standard bearer, the Prophet led his troops on Sha`ban 2, 5 A.H./December 30, 626 A.D. to battle the Banu Mostaliq Jews. The fighting broke out, and ten Jews were killed, including the leader of Banu Mostaliq, namely al-Harith ibn Abu Zarar. Having seen their leader being killed, the Jews took to flight but not before the Muslims captured two hundred of them along with one thousand camels and five hundred sheep. Juwayriyya, daughter of the slain Jewish chief, was among the captives. Before the fight began, her father had already pleaded to the Prophet not to sell her in the slave market as was usually done in those days. Captives who could not buy their ransom or get someone to pay it on their behalf used to be auctioned at the slave market. Juwayriyya embraced Islam and was married to the Prophet who safeguarded her dignity and treated her like a queen. In order to please her even more, Muhammed set all her relatives free.
THE BATTLE OF KHAYBAR (628 A.D.)
Banishing the Jewish tribes of Banu Nadir and Qinaqa` from Medina intensified the Jews' animosity towards the Muslims. These tribes were instigating other tribes, Jewish and pagan, to join them in a conclusive assault upon the Muslims. Two years ago, they instigated a number of powerful bedouin tribes, with whom they entered into alliances, as well as the Quraishites of Mecca, to raid and besiege Medina, but their attempts failed. Their chief, Ibn Abul-Haqiq, who enjoyed security at the fort of Qamus, instigated the tribe of Banu Fizarah and other bedouins to raid Medina. In fact, the Battle of Ahzab, or of Khandaq (moat), was the first attempt in which the Jews had actually participated in besieging the Muslims. Ibn Abul-Haqiq in particular had played an active role in that siege.
These Jewish tribes had settled down in Khaybar at a distance of about 80 miles (or 96 Arabian miles or 8 stages) north-east of Medina. “Khai-Bar” means: “fortified place”. The valley of Khaybar was studded with fortresses strongly situated on rocky hills numbering ten. The more fortified ones were seven: Naim, Qamus (on a hill of the same name), Katiba, Shiqu, Natat, Watih and Sulalim, of which Qamus (where Ibn Abul-Haqiq resided) was the most fortified. It was the one that proved to be a formidable challenge to the Muslims.
Past reverses they suffered did not deter them. Usir ibn Razam, another prominent Jew of Khaybar, rallied behind him all the Jewish tribes then solicited the aid of Ghatfan for a final showdown. To demonstrate their strength, Ghatfan sent a posse headed by none other than `Oyaynah, chief of the tribe of Banu Fizarah, that captured twenty camels belonging to the Prophet after killing their herdsman and capturing his wife. This incident took place in Rabi` I of that year 7 A.H./July 628 A.D.. In the next month (Rabi II), the Banu Ghatfan tribe, an ally of the Jews, with the instigation of the latter, made a similar attempt, sending Muhammed ibn Maslamah with ten men. All those ten men were killed by the Muslims, and the leader of the scheme was seriously wounded. He was mistaken as having been killed, so his body was put together with the corpses of the other ten men. Finding an opportunity, however, he fled. In the same year, OIb died and was succeeded by `Osayr ibn Zarim who renewed his attempts to hatch plots against the Muslims with the tribe of Banu Ghatfan. News reached the Prophet of their schemes.
The news of the preparation of the Jews was reaching the Prophet in Medina frequently. At last, the Prophet decided to crush them once and for all before they could destroy the Muslims. It was the “near victory” foretold in the Sura of “Victory” revealed just after the truce of Hudaybiya:
Indeed God was well-pleased with the Believers when they swore allegiance to thee under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility on them and rewarded them with a near victory.
By mid-Muharram, 7 A.H./May 28, 628 A.D., the Prophet marched on Khaybar with 1,400 (or 1600 according to some accounts) strong. In order to surprise the enemy, the Prophet's troops marched during the night and halted during the day. A road guide had to be hired to show the army the way. The Jews had made a maze of roads surrounding their fortresses.
In about seven days, six of the Jewish fortresses were overrun by the Muslims. Then Qamus was besieged. As the Muslims were busy for one month attacking less fortified fortresses, the Jews were equally busy laying waste the country surrounding them with the intention to starve the Muslims. They destroyed even their own date trees growing around their fortresses. They successfully repulsed every attempt of the Muslims to advance.
Abul-Fida' says the following in his Tarikh, book of history:
In those days, the Prophet sometimes used to suffer from partial headaches. As a matter of chance, on the day he reached Khaybar, he suffered from the same. Abu Bakr, therefore, took the standard and went out to fight but returned unsuccessful. Then `Omer took the standard and fought hard, more than his predecessor, but returned equally unsuccessful. When the Prophet came to know of these reversals, he said, “By Allah, tomorrow I will give the standard to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger and whom Allah and His Messenger love, one who is constant in onslaught and does not flee, one who will stand firm and will not return till victory is achieved.” Having heard this, both the Immigrants and the Helpers aspired for the flag. When the day dawned, having said the morning prayer, the Prophet came and stood among his companions. Then he called for the standard. At that moment, every companion was engrossed in the hope and desire of getting the flag, while the Prophet called for Ali who was suffering from sore eyes. The Prophet took some of his own saliva on his finger and applied it to Ali's eyes. The eyes were at once cured and the Prophet handed over the standard to him.
Madarijun-Nubuwwah proceeds to state the following: “Then Ali started with the flag in his hand and, reaching under the fort of Qamus, planted the standard on a rock. A rabbi who was watching from the fort asked, `O standard-bearer! Who are you?' Ali replied, `I am Ali son of Abu Talib.' The rabbi called unto his people, `By the Torah, you will be defeated! This man will not go back without winning the battle.'” Shaikh `Abdul-Haqq, the Dehlavimuhaddith (traditionist), author of Madarijun-Nubuwwah, states the following: “Perhaps that Jew was well informed of Ali's valour and had seen his praises in the Torah.”
He further states the following in his afore-mentioned book:
Al-Harith, brother of Marhab (the most courageous Jewish warrior), first sallied forth from the fort with a huge spear whose point weighed about 3 mounds26. In his immediate attack, he killed a number of Muslim veterans. Then Ali proceeded towards him and killed him in one stroke. When Marhab was informed of his brother's plight, he rushed out of the fort accompanied by some of the bravest soldiers from the Khaybar garrison to avenge his brother's death. It is said that Marhab was the strongest, tallest, and the most fierce among the warriors of Khaybar and that none equalled him in his might. That day, he was armed twice over, wearing double armour with two swords dangling by his sides. He was also wearing two turbans with a helmet over and above. He marched ahead in the battlefield singing about his own valour. Nobody among the Muslims dared to fight him in the battlefield. Ali, therefore, darted out, reciting about his own valiance in response to Marhab's. Taking the initiative, Marhab attacked Ali with his sword. But Ali avoided the blow and rendered with Thul-Fiqar such a forceful blow on Marhab's head that it cut through the latter's helmet, the double turban, the head, till it reached the man's throat. According to some narratives, Marhab was cut up to his thigh, in others that it tore him into two parts upon the saddle. Marhab took his way to the hereafter in two pieces. Then the Muslims under the command of Ali began fighting the Jews. Ali himself killed seven generals of the Jewish forces everyone of whom was considered to be most valiant. After these had been killed, the remnants of the Jewish troops ran helter-skelter towards their fort. Ali followed them in hot pursuit. In this rush, one Jew delivered a blow to Ali's hand wherein he carried his shield. The shield fell down. Another Jew picked it up and made good with his booty. This infuriated Ali and who was now strengthened with such a spiritual force and divine strength that he jumped across the moat and came straight to the door of the iron gate. He dislodged it from its hinges, held it up as a shield and resumed fighting.
According to Ibn Hisham's Sirat, and according to Al-Tarikh al-Kamil and Abul-Fida's Tarikh, Abu Rafi` is cited saying, “When the Prophet gave the flag to Ali and bade him fight the forces of Khaybar, we, too, accompanied him. When Ali was a short distance from the fort, fighting all along, a Jew struck a blow on his hand with such a force that the shield Ali was holding fell down. Ali at once pulled out a part of the gate of Khaybar, held it up as a shield and fought till Allah granted him a clear victory. Once the fighting was over, he threw it away. It was so heavy that eight men from among us could hardly turn it over from one side to the other.”
An agreement was reached with the Jews of Khaybar. Their lands and movable property were left in their hands. They were allowed to practice their religion freely. In return for the protection they would receive, they were required to pay the Muslims half the produce of their lands. The Prophet maintained the right to turn them out of their lands whenever he so decided. The battle of Khaybar is important as it put an end to the Jewish resistance and, for the first time, a non-Muslim people were made “Protected Persons” of the Muslim commonwealth.
On the same day, Ja`fer ibn Abu Talib returned from Ethiopia. The Prophet said: “I do not know on which blessing of Allah I should thank Him more: on the victory of Khaybar or on the return of Ja`fer?!”
SAFIYYA THE JEWESS
Safiyya daughter of Huyay ibn al-Akhtab, the Jewish arch-enemy of the Prophet of Islam, was the wife of Kinanah ibn al-Rabee` ibn Abul-Haqiq, a Jewish chief. She embraced Islam during those days. She had seen in a vision the moon falling from the heavens into her lap. Her husband, having listened to her narrate her vision, violently slapped her, hurting her eye. He taunted her of having desired the domain of Hijaz under Muhammed's control. When she fell in captivity, she managed to reach the Prophet. She was wearing the mark of a bruise on her eyelid caused by Kinanah striking her only on account of narrating that dream to her. Muhammed welcomed her into the folds of his nation and offered to marry her. She welcomed his offer and the marriage was soon solemnized.
JEWESS TRIES TO POISON MUHAMMED
While the Prophet was still in Khayber, a Jewess presented him with a dressed and grilled lamb just when he was about to be served his dinner. Expressing his gratitude for the present, the Prophet took the shoulder, his favourite part, to eat, giving the man sitting next to him, namely Bishr ibn Ma`rur, a Khazrajite Ansar who had courageously participated in the battles at Badr and Uhud, another piece and passing pieces to other sahaba who were present there and then as was always his habit. As soon as the Prophet tasted the lamb, he realized that it did not taste right. Rather than swallowing it, he spat it out. Meanwhile, Bishr had already swallowed some of the meat. He collapsed and died instantly. Conducting an intensive inquiry, the companions of the Prophet came to know that that lamb had been prepared by a Jewish captive who was summoned and interrogated. She defended herself by saying that that was her revenge for the loss of her father, brother, husband and other relatives, for the devestation wrought by the Muslims on her people and “country.” She added saying that if Muhammed were a true Prophet, he would discover the mischief before any harm afflicted him; but if he were a pretender, he would fall a victim to her scheme and the Jews would be saved from his tyranny.
There are two different stories as to what happened to that Jewess. One says that she was put to death there and then. Another tells quite a different story. Following is the narration of the same incident by a grandson of the Prophet, namely Imam Ali ibn Muhammed, peace and blessings of the Almighty be upon him and all the Progeny of Prophet Muhammed:
When the Messenger of Allah returned from Khaybar to Medina, after having won a great victory (over the Jews), a Jewess who had pretended to have accepted Islam took a lamb's shoulder and cooked it. Putting it before the Prophet, she said, “O Messenger of Allah! May both my parents be sacrificed for your sake! I was very much concerned about you when you came out to meet the hosts at Khayber, for I know that they are very tough people. I know that the shoulder is your favourite, and grilling is your favourite method of cooking, so I made a vow (nathr) that if Allah saved you from them, I would slaughter a lamb for you and feed you from its grilled shoulder. Now Allah has saved you from them and granted you victory over them, I have brought you my nathr.” In the company of the Prophet there were men such as al-Bara' ibn Ma`rur and Ali ibn Abu Talib. The Messenger of Allah said, “Bring me some bread.” Once the bread was brought, al-Bara' stretched his hand and took a morsel of the meat and put it in his mouth. Ali ibn Abu Talib, peace be upon him, said to him, “O Bara'! You should not do anything ahead of the Prophet.” Al-Bara' was a bedouin. He said to Ali, “O Ali! It seems as if you are calling the Messenger of Allah miser!” Ali said, “I never make such an implication about the Messenger of Allah; on the contrary, I respect and revere him. Neither I, nor you, nor any of Allah's creation should say something or do something or eat or drink before the Messenger of Allah does so.” “I never imply that the Messenger of Allah is miser, either.” Ali said, “This is not why I said what I said. But this woman who used to be Jewish has come here and we do not know her very well. If you eat of it according to the order of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his progeny, he will be the one to guarantee your safety. But if you eat it without an order from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his progeny, you will be on your own.” Ali continues to narrate this story saying that meanwhile, al-Bara' was chewing his morsel. It is then that the shoulder spoke out and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Do not eat of me, for I am poisoned!” Al-Bara' fell a victim to the swoon of death. He was not lifted from the ground except to be buried. The Messenger of Allah said, “Bring me that woman.” She was brought to him. “What made you do what you did?,” the Prophet asked her. She said, “You have caused me a great disaster, indeed. You have killed my father, my uncle, my husband, my brother, and my son, so I did what I did saying to myself, `If he were a king, I would seek revenge against him, but if he were a prophet, as he claims, having promised to conquer Mecca and to bring victory, Allah will protect him from it (from the poison), and it will not harm him.” The Messenger of Allah said, “O woman, you have said the truth.” Then he added, “Do not be fooled by the death of al-Bara', for Allah caused him to fall into a trial and tribulation on account of his doing something before the Messenger of Allah. Had he eaten of it with the permission of the Messenger of Allah, it would not have harmed him nor poisoned him.” Then the Prophet ordered a number of his companions to be brought to him including Salman, Miqdad, Abu Tharr, `Ammar, Suhayb, Bilal, and other sahaba totalling ten in number in addition to Ali. Once they were all present, the Prophet told them to sit down around the food like a circle. Then the Prophet put his hand on the poisoned shoulder, blew of his breath over it, then said, “In the Name of Allah al-Shafi, the Healer; in the Name of Allah al-Mu`afi, the One Who grants good health; nothing at all can harm when His Name is invoked, nor any ailment, not in the earth, nor in the heavens, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.” Then he added, “Eat in the Name of Allah.” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his progeny, ate of it, and they, too, ate of it to their fill. Then they drank water. The Prophet ordered the Jewess to be imprisoned.
On the next day, he ordered her brought to him. “Did you not see with your own eyes how these men ate of that poisoned food? Did you not see how Allah protected His Messenger and His Messenger's sahaba?” The woman said, “Yes, I have, O Messenger of Allah! Before now, I had entertained serious doubts about you being a Prophet, but now I am certain that you are, indeed, the Messenger of Allah; therefore, I testify that: There is no god except Allah, the One and Only God Who has no partner, and that you are His servant and Messenger.” Her actions testified to the soundness of her conviction.27
The name of that Jewess is given in al-Majlisi's Bihar al-Anwar as Zainab daughter of al-Harith ibn Salam ibn Mashkam, niece of the same Marhab referred to above.
Then it was time to bury al-Bara' ibn Ma`rur. The Prophet inquired about Ali and was told that he had gone for an errand for one of the Muslims. The Prophet, hearing that, sat down. The sahaba asked him as to why he sat down instead of proceeding with the funeral rituals. He said, “Allah, the most Exalted and the most Great, ordered me to postpone the performance of the prayers for al-Bara' till Ali returns so that he would forgive him for what he had said in the presence of the Prophet, so that He may consider his death by this poison an atonement for his sins.” Some of those who were present during the entire incident said to the Prophet, “O Messenger of Allah! He was only jesting! He was simply teasing Ali! He was not serious at all; so, how can Allah take him so seriously?” The Prophet said, “Had he been serious, Allah would have wiped out all his good deeds even if he had spent what is between the earth and the `Arsh by way of charity in gold and silver, but he was, indeed, jesting, so he is excused. But the Messenger of Allah does not desire any of you to think that Ali was angry with him. He, therefore, will renew in your presence his sentiments towards him, and so that he may seek Allah's forgivenes for him. Allah will then bring him (Bara') closer to Him and grant him a loftier status in His Paradise.” Shortly thereafter Ali returned and stood before the coffin to say: “O Bara'! May Allah have mercy on you. You used to fast and to stand for the prayers, and you have died in the way of Allah.” The Messenger of Allah then said, “Had any deceased person not needed the Messenger of Allah to perform his funeral prayers, your fellow here (meaning Bara') would have found such a supplication from Ali sufficient.” Then he stood up, performed the funeral prayers for Bara' ibn Ma`rur and had him buried. He went thereafter to attend the Fatiha majlis for him.”28
By the way, “Zainab” was a common name before the advent of Islam. One of the most famous women who carried this name was the last pagan Arab queen of Tadmur, Palmyra, kingdom of Nabatean Arabs, till Roman emperor Aurelianus (Aurelian), who ruled Rome from 270 to 275 A.D., destroyed her kingdom in 273 A.D. She is known as Queen Zaynab or Zenobia, a bedouin corruption of “Zainab.”
[To Be Continued…, Insha-Allah]