Battle of Badr The Greatest Victory - on 17th Ramadhan 2AH
Importance of 17th Ramadhan
The battle of Badr was the
first of the great battles of Islam.
And indeed Allah assisted you at Badr when you were weak, so be careful (to your duty) to Allah so that you may be of the thankful ones.
When you said to the believers 'Does it not suffice you that your Lord should assist you with three thousand angels sent down.." [Suratul Ale Imran 3:123 & 124]
Place: Badr (80
miles from Medina)
The news was
Prophet (S.A.W.W.) left Medina with 313 men, 2 horses and 70
camels to go to Badr which was a stopping point for the
Quraysh had confiscated all the property of all the Muslims who
had left Makka for Medina. Abu
Sufyan fearing defeat by Muslims sent a messenger to Makka
telling them of his fears. On receiving the message, an
army of 1000 men, 100 horses and 700 camels under the leadership
of Abu Jahl left Makka to go to Badr. Meanwhile
Abu Sufyan took a different route back to Makka avoiding Badr.
Once he was back in Makka he called Abu Jahl but Abu Jahl was
too proud and wanted
to crush the Muslims with his large army.
The two armies met
at Badr on 17th Ramadhan 2 A.H. In the beginning as per Arab
custom, single combat (one to one) took place. The famous
Quraysh warriors Utbah,
Shayba and Walid came
to challenge three 'Ansars' from Medina. The Quraysh refused to
fight any of the 'Ansaars', demanding their 'equals' and so the
Prophet (S.A.W.W.) sent Ubayda,
Hamza and Imam Ali (A.S). The
three Kuffar were killed (Ubayda was hurt). The Quraysh got
disturbed and began attacking en masse.
In the thick of the battle, the Prophet prayed to Allah. In Surat-ul Anfal Allah gave the answer: "When you asked for help from your Lord, He answered you. Indeed I will aid you with a thousand of the angels in rows behind rows". Suratul Anfal 8:9
The enemies got
frightened and began to retreat. The skill of Imam Ali (A.S),
the other Muslim soldiers and the sight of so many angels struck
terror in the enemies hearts. 72 Kuffar were killed including
their leader Abu Jahl. Imam Ali (A.S) killed 36 of them. 14
Muslims were martyred.
70 prisoners were taken by the Muslims.
The prisoners were treated with kindness and some became
Muslims. In later days some of the prisoners said: "blessed be
the men of Medina, they made us ride whilst they walked, they
gave us wheat and bread to eat when there was little of it
contenting themselves with plain dates." The rich prisoners paid
ransom and were set free. Others were asked to gain their
freedom by teaching 10 Muslims to read and write.
The battle of Badr strengthened the faith of the Muslims
The battle of Badr was the most horrific among the other battles, the first trial of Muslims, and the one taking place vehemently between the Holy Prophet and the atheists of Quraysh.
God Almighty states about the trial of Muslims: “Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, though a party of the believers were surely averse; They disputed with you about the truth after it had become clear, and they went forth as if they were being driven to death while they saw it.” (8:5-6). This battle happened eighteen months after the immigration of the Holy Prophet (s.a) to Medina and `Ali was twenty seven years old.
The atheists of Quraysh insisted on fighting this battle, for they outnumbered the Muslims, though among them, there were far-sighted men who were not ignorant of the consequences of this battle, had taken part reluctantly, had been forced into the battle and challenged only their peers. The Messenger of Allah too warned his army not to fight them, saying: They only challenge their peers. Hence, the first person who was given mission to fight them was `Ali and his match was Walid ibn `Utbah, a man of courage and valor but he was killed by `Ali after a short fighting.
Al-`As ibn Sa`id ibn al-`As was a man of courage and horror. For this reason, no one was ready to fight him. He too was killed by `Ali. 
وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لاَ يَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ. الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْفَائِزُونَ…﴾ إلَى قَوْلِهِ: ﴿أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ﴾ فَصَدَقَ اللهُ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي دَعْواهُ وَشَهِدَ لَهُ بِالإيمانِ وَالمُهاجَرَةِ وَالجِهادِ.
فَفِي غَزاةِ بَدْرٍ:
قَالَ أَبُو اليَقْظانِ: إنَّهُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ غِفارٍ رَهْطِ أَبِي ذَرٍّ الغِفارِيِّ.
وَقالَ الشِّعْبِيُّ: (بَدْرٌ) بِئْرٌ كَانَتْ لِرَجُلٍ يُسَمّى بَدْراً.
وَهَذِهِ الغَزاةُ هِيَ الدَّاهِيَةُ العُظْمى وَأَوَّلُ حَرْبٍ كَانَ بِهِ الإمْتِحانُ حَيْثُ قَالَ الله تَعالَى: ﴿كَمَا أَخْرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَيْتِكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَكَارِهُونَ. يُجَادِلُونَكَ فِي الْحَقِّ بَعْدَ مَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى الْمَوْتِ وَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ.﴾
كَانَتْ عَلَى رَأْسِ ثَمانِيَةَ عَشَرَ شَهْراً مِنْ قُدومِهِ الْمَدينَةَ وَعُمْرُ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ سَبْعَ عَشرَةَ سَنَةً. وَكَانَ الْمُشْرِكونَ قَدْ أَصَرُّوا عَلَى القِتالِ لِكَثْرَتِهِمْ وَقِلَّةِ المُسْلِمينَ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ خَرَجَ كارِهاً. فَتَحَدَّتْهُمْ قُرَيْشٌ بِالبِرازِ وَاقْتَرَحَتِ الأَكْفاءَ. فَمَنَعَهُمُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَقالَ إنَّ القَوْمَ طَلَبوا الأَكْفاءَ. ثُمَّ أَمَرَ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَبْرُزُ إِلَيْهِمْ، فَبارَزَهُ الوَليدُ بْنُ عُتْبَةَ، وَكَانَ شُجاعاً جَريئاً، فَقَتَلَهُ.
وَقَتَلَ العَاصَ بْنَ سَعيدِ بْنِ العاصِ بَعْدَ أنْ أحْجَمَ عَنْهُ النَّاسُ لأَنَّهُ كَانَ هَوْلاً عِظيماً.
Hanzalah ibn Abi-Sufyan too fought `Ali but he was killed. `Ali injured ibn `Adi, too. Then, Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid, who was highly-esteemed and obeyed by people of Quraysh, entered the battle. Nawfal was very clever and a mischief-maker and the one who had tied down Abu-Bakr and Talhah with a rope and had tortured them till he set them free with the mediation of others.
Once the Messenger of Allah found out that Nawfal had taken part in this battle, he raised his hands in prayer, saying: O Lord, eradicate him. Soon, he was killed by Imam `Ali in a hand to hand fighting. After Nawfal’s perdition, the Holy Prophet said: Who will bring me the news of Nawfal? `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, I killed him. While rejoicing and saying: Allah is the Greatest, the Holy Prophet said: Thanks Lord who answered my prayer.
Imam `Ali was in the front line of the battle fighting the atheists of Quraysh and killing them one after the other. In this battle, seventy of Quraysh leaders were killed by `Ali and the rest were killed by Muslims and three thousand angels who had taken part in the battle.
Following the killing of seventy courageous men of Quraysh, the Holy Prophet (s.a) threw a handful of small sands on them, saying: May your faces turn ugly thereby they were all defeated and started fleeing.
The Battle of Uhud
The battle of Uhud took place in the month of Shawwal and `Ali was hardly nineteen years old then.
The battle of Uhud was waged to make up for the defeat of leaders of Quraysh in the battle of Badr. Therefore, they plotted to annihilate Muslims by spending much money and informed Abu-Sufyan of the plot. Abu-Sufyan, after counseling with his aides, decided to besiege Medina in order to kill the Messenger of Allah and his aides. The Holy Prophet (s.a) was informed of Quraysh’s move, so he exchanged views with his companions and decided that the fighting to take place outside Medina and moved towards Uhud with the Muslims. One third of crowd who were hypocrites returned to Medina, half way. So the Holy Prophet (s.a) headed for the place of martyrdom along with seven hundred people. In this relation, God Almighty states: “And when you did go forth early in the morning from your family to lodge the believers in encampments for war…” (3:121). 
by - Engineer Mustafa Khan