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A Complete Day & Night in Devotion to Allāh (s.w.t.)

 

Book One  Bedtime Devotions 

 

Muhājir b. ‘Ali

 

 

Dedication  This work is dedicated to the love of our hearts and the Master of this Age, Baqiyat Allāh, al-°ujjat Ibn al-°asan, Imām al-Mahd¢, peace be on him. (May the Almighty hasten his return and grant us martyrdom fighting under his banner and make us witnesses to His reign on earth. Amen.)


Table of Contents

 

1. Sleep in Islam.. 4

The Importance of Preparing for Sleep. 5

The Etiquette of Sleep. 7

How to Recline During Sleep. 10

Ibn ±¡w£s on Entrusting Allāh when you Sleep. 11

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ on the Etiquette of Sleeping. 15

 

2. Daily Acts of Devotion from Bedtime to Late Night 17

Verses of Qur’¡n to Recite before Sleeping. 17

Supplications (Ad’iyā) To Recite at Bedtime. 30

What to Recite When Turning Sides in Bed. 40

To Wake Up at a Particular Time. 43

 

3. A Discussion on the Method of Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) 51

The A¦ad¢th that Tam¦¢d Precedes Tasb¢¦. 51

The A¦ādith that Tasb¢¦ Precedes Tam¦¢d. 52

Conclusion. 53

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ on the Tasb¢¦ az‑Zahrā (‘a) 55

 

4. Acts of Devotion at Bedtime for Specific Needs. 60

For Protection from Nightmares. 60

For Safety from Thieves. 64

For Protection from Vermin & Other Harmful Creatures. 65

For Protection from Beasts. 65

For Protection from Nocturnal Emission (I¦tilām) 66

For Protection from Collapse of the Roof 67

For Protection from Drowning or Burning. 68

A Cure for Insomnia. 68

To See Ras£l Allāh (¥) in One’s Sleep. 71

To see a Deceased during Sleep. 73

 

Introduction

 

The inspiration and outline for this book comes from the Miftā¦ al-Falā¦ of the renowned scholar Shaykh Bahā ad-Din Mu¦ammad b. al-°usayn al-°ārithī al-‘Āmilī (d. 1030 AH).

 

Its content however draws from several related sources besides the Miftā¦ al-Falā¦, including the Falā¦ as-Sā’il of Sayyid Ibn ±āw£s, the Mafāt¢¦ al-Jinān (and its appendix Bāqiyāt a¥-¯āli¦āt) of Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ and the Commentary (shar¦) of Miftā¦ al-Falā¦ by ‘Allāmah al-Khawāju¢ – may the Almighty sanctify their souls and fill their graves with divine light (n£r).

 

Following the outline of the Miftā¦ al-Falā¦[1] therefore, this work will inshā Allāh be divided into six ‘Books’:

 

  1. Acts of Devotion to Perform from Bedtime to Late Night
  2. Acts of Devotion to Perform from Late Night to Dawn
  3. Acts of Devotion to Perform from Dawn to Sunrise
  4. Acts of Devotion to Perform from Sunrise to Noon
  5. Acts of Devotion to Perform from Noon to Sunset
  6. Acts of Devotion to Perform from Sunset to Bedtime

 

Besides the Acts of Devotion (‘amāl), where appropriate and necessary the Islamic etiquette (ādāb) related to what is usually practiced at certain times of the day or night is also described, such as the etiquette of sleeping, waking up, using the washroom, eating, dressing and so on.

 

Each of these books is made up of several chapters. There is one primary chapter that summarizes the acts of devotion to be performed between the two specified periods related to the book. The other chapters discuss matters that either require individual and more detailed treatment, or acts of devotion for specific needs but not necessarily to be performed every day. This is self-explanatory once you review the chapters of this book.

 

Besides attempting to practice whatever is prescribed in this work on a daily basis, it is our personal recommendation to those seeking higher spiritual states that they occasionally set aside a whole day and fast for the pleasure of the Almighty whilst attempting to perform all the daily acts of devotions in Books One to Six.

 

We have chosen to print each of these six periods (in a complete day and night) as a separate book, so that it is more practical to use. Book One for example, can be kept by one’s bedside while other books may be kept with one’s prayer mat or at work, and so on. Furthermore, we have formatted these books in the A5 paper size so as to make it handy and easy to carry around and use.

 

In conclusion, we seek refuge with the Almighty from any traces of self-worth (‘ujb), ostentation (riyā) or pride (kibr) and beg Him to overlook any lack of sincerity in the compilation of this work, so that by the blessings of His Messenger Mu¦ammad (¥) and the Household (Ahl al-Bayt) (‘a) of Mu¦ammad (¥), this work may become a source of shade for us on the Day when there is no shade except His. Amen.

 

 

 

Chapter One
Sleep in Islam

 

Know, my dear, that sleep is a blessing of the Almighty Lord and a great sign of His (s.w.t.). It is a blessing because He has said, ‘and We made your sleep a means of rest.’[2] Thus when your body wearies, sleep gives it relief and allows it to re-energize. So important is this blessing, that one who is deprived of it is tormented and seeks medication to fall asleep.

 

In the words of Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n ‘Al¢ b. Ab¢ ±¡lib (‘a), ‘sleep is a rest from pain...[3] and Im¡m a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) is reported to have said, ‘sleep gives rest to the body just as speech gives peace to the soul and silence gives rest to the intellect.[4]

 

Know also, that sleep is a great sign of Allāh (s.w.t.) because it reveals your weakness before Him. For He praises Himself saying, ‘neither drowsiness befalls Him nor sleep... His seat embraces the heavens and the earth and He is not wearied by their preservation...[5] So whereas you tire after being conscious for two-thirds of the day and are asleep for one-third of your life in this world, He neither tires nor does He sleep; and neither does slumber overtake Him; you are under His constant watch. So learn to entrust your affairs to Him and be at rest!

 

 

 

 

The Importance of Preparing for Sleep

 

Much as you fear death, sleep is nothing but the same. Therefore let your concern at the time of sleep be the same as your concern for what you would not leave undone at death. If you have hurt another soul, then seek its forgiveness before you sleep just as you would do that before you die. Plead your Lord for the forgiveness of your sins before you fall asleep just as you would if you knew you were dying.

 

Sleep is no different from dying because the Almighty Lord takes your soul when you sleep as He has said, ‘Allāh takes the souls at the time of death, and those who have not died in their sleep. Then He retains those for whom He has ordained death and releases the others until a specified time...[6] Sleep has therefore been called ‘the brother of death’.

 

Of your concerns when you sleep, let one of them be that you do not sleep excessively nor sleep all night without rising to worship your Lord, even if it be just for a prostration of thanksgiving. For He has praised those who are such, saying, ‘They used to sleep little during the night, and at dawns they would plead for forgiveness.[7] And in describing the reward of those who abandon their beds at night and forgo the pleasure of sleep to worship their Lord, He said, ‘Their sides vacate their beds to supplicate their Lord in fear and hope... no one knows what has been kept hidden for them of comfort as a reward for what they used to do.[8]

 

And the Messenger of Allāh (¥) warned that one who sleeps excessively will be left poor and in need on the Day of Resurrection.[9] This is because one who is faithful (a mu’min) does not waste time in play and frivolities when awake and therefore the time spent in sleep is time lost from worship and working for the Hereafter. Sleep must therefore be a means to regain strength to worship the Lord and work for the Hereafter. Its benefits include the dreams that guide one to higher realms of spirituality, though it must not become an addiction.

 

It is reported from both Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) and Imām al-Kā¨im (‘a) that Allāh dislikes one who is excessive in idleness or sleep.[10]

 

As for the rising of the soul to the heavens during sleep, know that Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n ‘Al¢ b. Ab¢ ±¡lib (‘a) has cautioned a faithful (mu’min) from sleeping in the state of ritual impurity (janābah) and has insisted that he must sleep in purity (§ahārah) even if it be with tayammum (when water is not to be found for wu¤£) because the soul of a faithful travels towards Allāh, the Most High, during sleep where it meets Him and He blesses it. Then if its time of death has arrived, He retains it in His Mercy (ra¦mah) and if its time to die is yet to come, He returns it to the body escorted with a group of His closest angels.[11] The same has also been reported from Im¡m Mu¦ammad al-Bāqir, peace be on him.[12]

 

So if you know yourself to be a sincere Sh¢’ah of the Household (Ahl al-Bayt) of Allāh’s Messenger (¥) – not just in words but in practice as well – then know also your true worth! For the Messenger of Allāh (¥) said to Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a), ‘O ‘Al¢! The souls of your Sh¢’ah ascend to the heavens in their sleep and (also) when they die. Then the angels gaze at them like people gaze at the new moon (hilāl), yearning towards them because of what they see of their status before Allāh, the Mighty & Glorious.[13]

The Etiquette of Sleep

 

The Etiquette of sleep are many but we mention seven here:

 

Firstly, that you sleep in cleanliness. For it is reported from the Messenger of Allāh (¥) that one who sleeps with dirty hands will be bothered by the devil (shay§ān) and that children too should be washed from dirt lest the devil smells that and seeks to frighten the children in their sleep. As well, the two angels who constantly accompany each person as noble scribes (recording the person’s deeds) are bothered when a person sleeps dirty.[14]

 

Secondly, that you empty your bowels before going to bed. For it is reported from Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a) that he said to his son al-°asan (‘a), ‘shall I teach you four habits that will ensure you never need medication?’ ‘Indeed, Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n,’ replied Imām al-°asan (‘a). And Imām ‘Al¢ (‘a) explained, ‘do not eat except when you are hungry. Stop eating while you still desire more. Chew your food properly. And when you sleep (then use the washroom and) empty yourself of all waste. If you act on these four, you will never need medication.’[15]

 

Thirdly, that you sleep in the state of ritual purity i.e. with wu¤£. It is reported from the Messenger of Allāh (¥) that one who sleeps with wu¤£, should he die that night, will be a martyr (shah¢d) before Allāh.[16] And it is reported from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that one who purifies himself and then sleeps, he sleeps while his bed is like a masjid[17] i.e. he sleeps in worship all night.

 

So important is this that it is reported from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that if one is already in bed and remembers they forgot to perform wu¤£, then let them perform tayammum on their blanket before sleeping so that they too will be like one who was in prayer (¥alāh) and in the remembrance (dhikr) of Allāh, the Mighty and Glorious, unceasingly all night.[18]

 

And our scholars (‘ulama) – may Allāh sanctify their souls - have therefore confirmed that one who is unable to use water is permitted to perform tayammum for sleep.[19]

 

The Messenger of Allāh (¥) once asked his companions, ‘who amongst you fasts every day?’ and Salmān replied, ‘I do, O Messenger of Allāh.’ Then he asked, ‘who amongst you is up all night in worship?’ and again Salmān replied, ‘I am, O Messenger of Allāh.’ ‘And who amongst you recites the entire Qur’ān every day?’ asked Ras£l Allāh (¥) and once again Salmān replied, ‘I do O Messenger of Allāh.’

 

When Salmān left, the rest of the companions were furious and complained to the Messenger of Allāh (¥) of Salmān’s boasting wrongfully while they knew him to eat during the day, sleep during the night and not recite the Qur’ān all day.

 

‘Desist,’ said the Messenger of Allāh (¥), likening Salmān to Luqmān the Wise. ‘Go ask him first and let him explain.’ So when they came to him demanding an explanation, Salmān, may Allāh’s blessings be on him, replied, ‘I fast three days every month and Allāh has said, ‘one who comes with a good deed, shall have ten times its reward[20] and therefore I fast thirty days. And I also join my fasts in the month of Sha’bān to the month of Rama¤ān and one who does this is like one has fasted all his life.’

 

‘As for worshipping all night,’ continued Salmān, ‘I have heard my beloved, the Messenger of Allāh (¥), say one who sleeps with wu¤£ is like one who has been up all night in worship and so I sleep after purifying myself.

 

And as for reciting the entire Qur’ān every day, I have heard my beloved, the Messenger of Allāh (¥) saying to ‘Al¢ (‘a), ‘O Aba ‘l-°asan! Your example in my Ummah is like that of (s£rah) Qul Huwa Allāhu a¦ad. One who recites it once has recited one-third of the Qur’ān; one who recites it twice has recited two-thirds of the Qur’ān; and one who recites it thrice has recited the entire Qur’ān. Likewise, one who loves you with his speech is one-third complete in his faith (¢mān); one who loves you in his speech and in his heart is two-thirds complete in his faith (¢mān); and one who loves you in speech and in the heart and also helps you with his actions then his faith (¢mān) is complete. I swear by Him who sent me, O ‘Al¢, if the people of the earth loved you like the love of the people of the heavens for you, no one would ever be chastised with the Fire.’

 

‘And so,’ concluded Salmān, ‘I recite Qul Huwa Allāhu A¦ad thrice every day.’ Those who challenged him stood up and left dumbfounded as if they had ‘swallowed a stone’ i.e. speechless.[21]

 

The fourth etiquette before sleeping is to engage in mu¦¡sabah i.e. self-accounting, as is reported from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that he said, ‘when you come to your bed, then reflect on what you put in your belly and what you earned that day. And recall that you will die one day and that you shall have a resurrection (to account for all this).’[22]

The fifth is to recite the recommended chapters (suwar) of the Qur’ān and supplications (ad’iyā) before sleep as we shall inshā Allāh list in the main part (Chapter Two) of this book.

 

The sixth is to sleep on one’s back or on one’s right side. This is explained further below. It is also reported from Imām ‘Al¢ (‘a) that not only should one not sleep on his face but if you see anyone sleeping on their face, then wake them up and do not leave them like that.[23]

 

And the seventh is to recite the appropriate supplications (ad’iyā) as soon as one wakes up. This, inshā Allāh, we shall detail in the next book regarding the Acts of Devotion to be performed from Late Night to Dawn, but we have made a brief mention of some of these in Chapter Two of this Book.

 

How to Recline During Sleep

 

It is appropriate that your reclining (during sleep) be on your right side, for that is the sleep (position) of the faithful (mu’minīn). In a ¥a¦¢¦ ¦ad¢th (verified tradition) from Mu¦ammad b. Muslim, he reports from Imām Mu¦ammad al-B¡qir (‘a) that the Imām (‘a) said, ‘when a person sleeps on his right side then let him recite…’ as if sleeping on the right side is expected of the faithful (mu’min¢n). (The supplication will be mentioned later in Chapter Two.) It is also reported by Thiqat al-Islām Shaykh al-Kulayn¢ in his al-Kāf¢ with a sound transmission (sanad ¥a¦¢¦) from A¦mad b. Is¦āq who said:

 

I said to Ab£ Mu¦ammad (al-°asan al-‘Askar¢), peace be on him: ‘may I be your ransom, I am grieved over something that afflicts me and that your forefathers (peace be on them) were asked about but it is not fulfilled in me.’ So he (the Imām) said, ‘and what is that O A¦mad?’ ‘It is related to us,’ I said, ‘from your forefathers (peace be on them) that: the sleep of prophets is on their backs; the sleep of the faithful (mu’minīn) is on their right side; the sleep of the hypocrites (munāfiqīn) is on their left side and the sleep of devils (shayā§¢n) is on their faces.’

 

‘It is like that,’ the Imām (‘a) confirmed. So I said, ‘master, I struggle to sleep on my right side but I am unable to do so.’

 

He (the Imām (‘a)) remained silent for a while. Then he said, ‘O A¦mad, come closer to me.’ I went closer. He said, ‘put your hand under your shirt’ and I did so. Then he took out his hand from under his shirt and he rubbed with his right hand on my left side and with his left hand on my right side, three times.

 

A¦mad reports: Ever since he, peace be on him, did that, I am unable to sleep on my left side and I simply cannot fall asleep on it (i.e. my left side).[24]

 

Ibn ±¡w£s on Entrusting Allāh when you Sleep

 

Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s in his Falā¦ as-S¡’il (chp. 30) has condemned sleeping all night as a form of punishment from Allāh that keeps ones heedless from His worship. We shall insh¡ Allāh mention his words on this in the next book concerning the Acts of Devotions from Late Night to Dawn.

 

But thereafter, Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s goes on to say:

 

Know that if you intend to sleep because of being overcome by it, or by choice or with a leaning towards it, then know that sleep is the death of consciousness and the demise of limbs from the established life. For Allāh has said concerning it:

 

{وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوفَّاكُم بِالَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُمْ بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ}

It is He who takes your souls by night, and He knows what you do by day, then He reanimates you therein...

- S£rah al-An’¡m, 6:60

 

And just as the Mighty and Magnificent Lord has made sleep a form of death, He has made awakening a form of resurrection and life. You have known that one who sleeps is like one who is deaf, dumb, blind and bedridden. One who is asleep is also like one who has lost the use of his intellect and is no longer useful for what he does in service to his Master, the Knower of the Unseen. It is as if when he sleeps he has forsaken his family, his property and wealth and all his needs, oblivious of what has befallen them. He no longer has the power to preserve himself or protect anything of importance to him. Even if he had protected them behind locked doors and with guards, once he is asleep, it is possible for anything to happen against what he wished to protect and he would be powerless to do anything about it.

 

So when you sleep, it is as if you have been afflicted fatally and lost control of everything until you awaken and you regain your intellect, control of your limbs, your sight, hearing and speech, to once again have power (or at least perceived power) over what you believe to be in your control.

 

Therefore repent before Allāh, openly confessing from every shortcoming before falling asleep. And if your soul, intellect and heart is unable to repent sincerely due to your lack of realization of Who your ever-watchful Master is, then at least seek of His mercy, generosity and pardon; for He, the Mighty and Glorious, is a most forbearing, compassionate, merciful and loving Lord. And if you do not even seek pardon, as is the habit of sinners before a great King, then at least surrender like a needy pauper and give up your self, possessions, family, hopes and all your needs to the protection of that Merciful, Compassionate, and Generous Lord, Who has long endured your audacity and lack of manners before Him.

 

Realize also Who you are entrusting and bidding farewell to as you drift into unconsciousness. I have seen in a report the gist of which is this: a man said: I once saw on the back of a frog a scorpion of a strange kind crossing the River Nile in Egypt from one side to the other. When it reached the other side, the scorpion got off the frog’s back and I followed it saying to myself, “there is something about this scorpion that I should witness.” Then I saw it come to the base of a tree and climb it until it came to a bough of the tree from which a snake was hanging just above the face of a young man who was asleep under the tree. The scorpion bit the tail of the snake and the snake fell down dead. I was amazed at that and I came to the youth and woke him up, saying to him, “Look at how Allāh has saved you!” and I composed some verses on this saying:

 

يَا نَائِماً وَالجَلِيلُ يَحْرُسُهُ

مِمَّا يُلاقِي فِي حِنْدِسِ الظُّلَمِ‏

كَيْفَ تَنَامُ العُيُونُ عَن مَلِكٍ

يَأْتِيكَ مِنْهُ فَوَائِدُ النِعَمِ

O one who sleeps while the Exalted One guards him

from what he encounters in the darkest of nights!

How do the eyes sleep from a Master

from Whom comes to you the (constant) benefits of blessings!

 

Know that if you should entrust something to Allāh and then it is taken from you whilst you were asleep, then perhaps it is because Allāh wishes to show you His signs in how He returns it to you. A Bedouin once came to the gate of Masjid al-°ar¡m (Makkah) and left his camel there saying something whose meaning was: ‘O Allāh, this is the camel and what is on it, I entrust in Your care.’ Then he went in and walked around the Ka’bah, performing the ±aw¡f. When he came out, the camel was gone. So he stood there lamenting and said something whose gist was: ‘O Lord, nothing was stolen from Me bur rather it was stolen from You. Because if I didn’t trust that You will watch for me my camel and my baggage, I would not have left them.’ And he kept repeating words like that whilst the people around were amazed at his conversation with Allāh, the Mighty and Glorious. Just then the camel showed up with its reins in the hands of a man whose other hand was cut.

 

The man said to the Bedouin: ‘Take your camel. It has brought me bad luck.’ ‘What is your story?’ he was asked and he said, ‘I concealed it behind the mountain when a rider descended from the mountain – and I knew not from where he came – and he alarmed me and cut my hand, ordering me to return the camel.’

 

Know therefore that whenever you have entrusted something to Allāh then lost it, you will, without fail, find it again. This, even if it was because of a sin that you had lost it in the first place. His protection will always overwhelm the sin for which you had lost the thing in the first place.

 

In the year 627 I went for °ajj and I had entrusted to Allāh everything I took with me. My whip, which was tied to the saddle of my camel litter, fell while we were travelling in the night. When we stopped during the day, I realized I had lost the whip. So I said to an ‘Alaw¢ friend whose name was ‘Al¢ b. az-Zak¢, ‘my whip fell off, help me find it.’ He was surprised at my saying, ‘help me find it’ and said, ‘how shall I find a whip that fell yesterday in the rush of our journey to the °ajj?’

 

‘Because I had entrusted everything that was with me to Allāh, the Mighty and Glorious, and He was protecting it all,’ I replied. He did not agree with this and went off with a pitcher to begin serving water to the other pilgrims in the caravan. Just then he came back with the whip in his hand. ‘How did you find it?’ I asked and he said, ‘It was hanging besides a man’s possessions and I said to him, “this is the whip of so-and-so that he lost yesterday during the journey.” “Yes,” said the man, “we found it in the night and so we carried it. Take it and give it back to him.”’

 

There are numerous other such examples that I will refrain from giving, out of fear of vexing your patience.

 

Note: Here ends the gist of the words of Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s in his Fal¡¦ as-S¡’il (chapter 30). The acts of devotions he prescribes at bedtime are covered in the next chapter.

 

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ on the Etiquette of Sleeping[25]

 

In his B¡qiy¡t a¥-¯¡li¦¡t, the appendix to his Maf¡t¢¦ al-Jin¡n, Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ has said concerning the etiquette of sleeping:

 

When you intend to lie down to sleep then you should prepare for the possible arrival of death: you should purify yourself (physically by wu¤£) and repent from your sins. Then empty your heart from all preoccupation with the world and its sorrows and recall your death and your lying alone in your grave without any intimate friend to give you company.

 

You should also place your will under your pillow and sleep with a determination to rise for the midnight prayer (¥alāt al-layl). For the pride of the faithful and his adornment in the world and the Hereafter is the prayer in the last hours of the night.

 

You should forsake sleep during the day and in particular after ‘A¥r. And when you are ready to sleep then put out the lamp and sleep facing the qibla. Do not sleep on the rooftops that are not enclosed from all sides[26] and do not disclose what you see in your sleep (i.e. your dreams) to everyone except to one who is learned (‘āliman), a sincere advisor (nā¥i¦an), and kind and compassionate (ra£fan).

 

Note: Here ends the words of Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢. The acts of devotions he prescribes at bedtime are covered in the next chapter.


 

Chapter Two
Daily Acts of Devotion from Bedtime to Late Night

 

This is the main chapter in this book and the purpose of our compiling it.

 

Verses of Qur’¡n to Recite before Sleeping

 

The following suwar (chapters) and ¡y¡t (verses) of Qur’¡n should be recited daily at bedtime. If one does not know them by heart or fears falling asleep before completing them then it is fine to recite them sitting in bed before lying down and reclining on one’s right side:

 

1.      S£rah al-Fātiha (chp. 1)

 

Proof: It is reported from Imām ‘Al¢ al-H¡di (‘a) that he said, ‘we the Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) have ten habits when we sleep: a§-§ah¡rah (i.e. wu¤£), reclining on the right side, tasb¢¦ 33 times, tam¦¢d 33 times, takb¢r 34 times, we face towards the qibla, we recite S£rah al-F¡ti¦a, ªyat al-Kursi, and Shahid Allāhu Annahu Lā Ilāha illa Huwa (3:18) to its end. So whoever does that has done his share for the night.’[27] Sayyid Ibn ±¡w£s comments on this ¦ad¢th in his book Falā¦ as-Sā’il: ‘This is how the tradition is given. The reporter mentions ten habits but then lists only nine. Perhaps he (the reporter) forgot to mention the tenth or he mentioned some of them only without giving every detail. The latter is quite likely the case because the practice of the Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) is far more than these nine mentioned. The reporter for example, has clearly forgotten to mention the recitation of Qul Huwa Allāhu A¦ad and Innā Anzalnāhu, whose excellences have been mentioned from other Imāms.’[28]

Method:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ. الرَّحْمَانِ الرَّحِيمِ. مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ. إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ. اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ. صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ }

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. All praise belongs to Allāh, Lord of all the worlds, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful, Master of the Day of Retribution. You [alone] do we worship, and to You [alone] do we turn for help. Guide us on the straight path, the path of those whom You have blessed — such as have not incurred Your wrath, nor are astray.

- S£rah al-Fāti¦a

 

 

2.      S£rah Qul Huwa Allāhu A¦ad (chp. 112). Also known as S£rah al-Ikhl¡¥ or S£rah at-Taw¦¢d. This is also recommended to recite eleven times or a hundred times, depending on one’s capacity.

 

Proof: It is related from Imām ‘Al¢ (‘a) that if one recites Qul Huwa Allāhu A¦ad when he goes to bed then Allāh, the Mighty and Glorious, appoints fifty thousand angels to protect him that night.[29] Ab£ Usāma reports, ‘I heard Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) saying: “one who recites Qul Huwa Allāhu A¦ad a hundred times when he goes to bed, Allāh will forgive him the fifty years before that.”’[30] The same has also been reported from the Messenger of Allāh (¥).[31]

 

 

 

 

 

Method:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ، اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ ، لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ}

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. Say, ‘He is Allāh, the One. Allāh is the All-embracing. He neither begat, nor was begotten, nor has He any equal.’

- S£rah al-Ikhlā¥

 

 

3.      S£rah al-Jahd (chp. 109) also called S£rah al-K¡fir£n.

 

Proof: ‘Abd Allāh b. Sinān reports from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that he said, ‘Recite Qul Huwa Allāhu A¦ad and Qul Ayyuhal Kāfir£n when you sleep for they absolve you from polytheism (shirk).’[32]

 

Method:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. قُلْ يَاأَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ. لاَ أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ. وَلاَ أَنْتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ. وَلاَ أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَا عَبَدتُّمْ. وَلاَ أَنْتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ. لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ}

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. Say, ‘O faithless ones! I do not worship what you worship, nor do you worship what I worship; nor will I worship what you have worshipped nor will you worship what I worship. To you your religion, and to me my religion.’

- S£rah al-Jahd

 

 

4.      S£rah al-H¡kum at-Tak¡thur (chp. 102) also known as S£rah at-Tak¡thur.

Proof: It is reported from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that he said: the Messenger of Allāh (¥) said: ‘one who recites (s£rah) al-Hākum at-Takāthur at bedtime will be shielded from the trials of the grave.’[33]

 

Method:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ. حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ. كَلاَّ سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ. ثُمَّ كَلاَّ سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ. كَلاَّ لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عِلْمَ الْيَقِينِ. لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ. ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ. ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ}

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. Rivalry [and vainglory] distracted you until you visited [even] the graves. No indeed! Soon you will know! Again, no indeed! Soon you will know! No indeed! Were you to know with certain knowledge, you would surely see hell. Again, you will surely see it with the eye of certainty. Then, that day, you will surely be questioned concerning the blessing.

- S£rah at-Takāthur

 

 

5.      S£rah Inna Anzalnāhu F¢ Laylat al-Qadr (chp. 97) to be recited 11 times.

 

Proof: It is reported from Ab£ Ba¥¢r from Ab£ ‘Abd Allāh Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a), ‘if one recites Inna Anzalnāhu Fi Laylat al-Qadr eleven times at bedtime, Allāh appoints for him (or her) eleven angels who protect him (or her) from every cursed devil until he (or she) wakes up in the morning.’[34]

 

Method:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ. وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ. لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ. تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ مِنْ كُلِّ أَمْرٍ. سَلاَمٌ هِيَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ}

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. Indeed We sent it (the Qur’ān) down on the Night of Ordainment. What will show you what is the Night of Ordainment? The Night of Ordainment is better than a thousand months. In it the angels and the Spirit descend, by the leave of their Lord, with every command. It is peaceful until the rising of the dawn.

- S£rah al-Qadr

 

 

6.      ªyat al-Kursi (2:255-257)

 

Proof: It is related from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that the Messenger of Allāh (¥) used to recite ªyat al-Kursi before he slept.[35] ªyat al-Kursi was also mentioned by Imām ‘Al¢ al-Hādi (‘a) in the proof given under S£rah al-Fātiha above.

 

Method:

{اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَلاَ يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ. لاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنْ الغَيِّ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى لاَ انْفِصَامَ لَهَا وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ. اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنْ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمْ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُمْ مِنْ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ أُوْلَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ}

Allāh—there is no god except Him—is the Living One, the All-sustainer. Neither drowsiness befalls Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that may intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows that which is before them and that which is behind them, and they do not comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wishes. His seat embraces the heavens and the earth, and He is not wearied by their preservation, and He is the All-exalted, the All-supreme. There is no compulsion in religion: rectitude has become distinct from error. So one who disavows the Rebels and has faith in Allāh has held fast to the firmest handle for which there is no breaking; and Allāh is all-hearing, all-knowing. Allāh is the Guardian of the faithful: He brings them out of darkness into light. As for the faithless, their patrons are the Rebels, who drive them out of light into darkness. They shall be the inmates of the Fire, and they shall remain in it [forever].

- S£rah al-Baqarah, 2:255-257

 

7.      ªyat “Shahid Allāhu… (3:18)

8.      ªy¡t as-Sukhra (7:54-56)[36]

9.      ªyat as-Sajdah (41:53-54)

 

Proof: It is reported from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that, ‘one who recites, when he goes to sleep, ªyat al-Kursi thrice and the verse in (S£rah) Aal-i-Imrān, “Shahid Allāhu Annahu Lā Ilāha Illa Huwa Wal Malāika” and the ªyat as-Sukhra and ªyat as-Sajdah will have two angels protecting him from the rebellious devils (shayā§¢n) and will have from Allāh thirty angels who will praise Allāh (i.e. do ¦amd), the Mighty and Glorious, who will glorify Him (i.e. do tasb¢¦), testify to His unicity (i.e. do tahl¢l), laud Him, and plead Allāh for his forgiveness (i.e. do istighfār for him) until that person wakes up from his sleep and the reward of all that will be for him.’[37] The ªyah ‘Shahid Allāhu…’ was also mentioned by Imām ‘Al¢ al-Hādi (‘a) in the proof given for S£rah al-Fātiha above.

 

Method:

{شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ وَأُوْلُوا الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ}

Allāh bears witness that there is no god except Him—and [so do] the angels and those who possess knowledge—maintainer of justice, there is no god but Him, the Almighty, the All-wise.

 - S£rah Aal-I Imrān, 3:18

 

ªyat as-Sukhra

 

{إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلاَ لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالأَمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ. ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ. وَلاَ تُفْسِدُوا فِي الأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلاَحِهَا وَادْعُوهُ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا إِنَّ رَحْمَتَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِنْ الْمُحْسِنِينَ}

Indeed your Lord is Allāh, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then settled on the Throne. He draws the night’s cover over the day, which pursues it swiftly, and [He created] the sun, the moon, and the stars, [all of them] disposed by His command. Look! All creation and command belong to Him. Blessed is Allāh, the Lord of all the worlds. Supplicate your Lord, beseechingly and secretly. Indeed He does not like the transgressors. And do not cause corruption on the earth after its restoration, and supplicate Him with fear and hope: indeed Allāh’s mercy is close to the virtuous.

 - S£rah al-A’rāf, 7:54-56

 

 

ªyat as-Sajdah

 

{سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ. أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِنْ لِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ أَلاَ إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُحِيطٌ}

Soon We shall show them Our signs in the horizons and in their own souls until it becomes clear to them that He is the Real.[38] Is it not sufficient that your Lord is witness to all things? Look! They are indeed in doubt about the encounter with their Lord! Look! He indeed comprehends all things!

 - S£rah Hā M¢m Sajdah, 41:53-54

 

10.   The last ªyah of S£rah al-Kahf (18:110)

 

Proof: It is reported from the Prophet (¥) that if one recites the last verse of S£rah al-Kahf when he sleeps, a light (n£r) shines from him to the Sacred Mosque (masjid al-¦arām) and the angels fill themselves in that light, asking (Allāh) for his forgiveness:[39]

 

Method:

{قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ يُوحَى إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُوا لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا وَلاَ يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا}

Say, ‘I am just a human being like you. It has been revealed to me that your God is the One God. So whoever expects to meet his Lord - let him act righteously, and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord.’

 - S£rah al-Kahf, 18:110

 

 

 

11.   S£rah al-Falaq (chp. 113) and S£rah an-Nās (chp. 114)

12.   The first ten and the last ten verses of S£rah as-Sāffāt (37:1-10 and 37:173-182)

 

Proof: In his advice to Hishām b. Sālim, Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) asked him to recite the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) before sleeping as well as the ªyat al-Kurs¢, the Maw’udhatayn (S£rah al-Falaq and S£rah al-Nās) and the first ten and last ten verses of S£rah as-Sāffāt.[40]

 

 

 

Method:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ. مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ. وَمِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ. وَمِنْ شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ فِي الْعُقَدِ. وَمِنْ شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ}

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. Say, ‘I seek the protection of the Lord of the daybreak from the evil of what He has created, and from the evil of the dark night when it settles, and from the evil of the witches who blow on knots, and from the evil of the envious one when he envies.’

- S£rah al-Falaq

 

 

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ. مَلِكِ النَّاسِ. إِلَهِ النَّاسِ. مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ. الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ. مِنْ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ}

In the Name of Allāh, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. Say, ‘I seek the protection of the Lord of humans, Sovereign of humans, God of humans, from the evil of the sneaky tempter who puts temptations into the breasts of humans, from among the jinn and humans.’

- S£rah an-Nās

 

 

First Ten Verses of S£rah 37

 

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. وَالصَّافَّاتِ صَفًّا. فَالزَّاجِرَاتِ زَجْرًا. فَالتَّالِيَاتِ ذِكْرًا. إِنَّ إِلَهَكُمْ لَوَاحِدٌ. رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَرَبُّ الْمَشَارِقِ. إِنَّا زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِزِينَةٍ الْكَوَاكِب. وَحِفْظًا مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ مَارِدٍ. لاَ يَسَّمَّعُونَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ الأَعْلَى وَيُقْذَفُونَ مِنْ كُلِّ جَانِبٍ. دُحُورًا وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ وَاصِبٌ. إِلاَّ مَنْ خَطِفَ الْخَطْفَةَ فَأَتْبَعَهُ شِهَابٌ ثَاقِبٌا}

By the [angels] ranged in ranks, by the ones who drive [the clouds] vigorously,[41] by the ones who recite the reminder: indeed your God is certainly One, the Lord of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them, and the Lord of the easts. Indeed We have adorned the lowest heaven with the finery of the stars, and to guard from any froward devil. They do not eavesdrop on the Supernal Elite but are shot at from every side, to drive them away, and for them there is a constant mortification, except him who snatches a snatch, whereat there pursues him a piercing flame.

- S£rah a¥-¯āffāt, 37:1-10

 

 

Last Ten Verses of S£rah 37

 

{وَإِنَّ جُنْدَنَا لَهُمْ الْغَالِبُونَ. فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّى حِينٍ. وَأَبْصِرْهُمْ فَسَوْفَ يُبْصِرُونَ. أَفَبِعَذَابِنَا يَسْتَعْجِلُونَ. فَإِذَا نَزَلَ بِسَاحَتِهِمْ فَسَاءَ صَبَاحُ الْمُنْذَرِينَ. وَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّى حِينٍ. وَأَبْصِرْ فَسَوْفَ يُبْصِرُونَ. سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ. وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ. وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ}

And indeed Our hosts will be the victors. So leave them alone for a while, and watch them; soon they will see [the truth of the matter]. Do they seek to hasten Our punishment? But when it descends in their courtyard it will be a dismal dawn for those who had been warned. So leave them alone for a while, and watch; soon they will see. Clear is your Lord, the Lord of Might, of whatever they allege [concerning Him]. Peace be to the apostles! All praise belongs to Allāh, Lord of all the worlds.

- S£rah a¥-¯āffāt, 37:173-182

 

 

 

13.   The last four verses of S£rah al-°ashr (59:21-24)

14.   ªyah 42 of S£rah al-Anbiy¡ (21:42)

15.   The last two verses of S£rah al-Baqarah (2:285-286)

 

Proof: The esteemed scholar Sayyid Ibn ±āw£s in his book Falā¦ as-Sā’il (chapter 30) writes: For everything that we have prescribed above, there is a reliable report (riw¡ya) on its excellence. And there are great benefits for reciting all these but it would make the book too lengthy to enumerate all that.

 

Method:

 

Last Four Verses of S£rah al-Hashr

 

{لَوْ أَنْزَلْنَا هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَى جَبَلٍ لَرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُتَصَدِّعًا مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ وَتِلْكَ الأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ. هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ هُوَ الرَّحْمَانُ الرَّحِيمُ. هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلاَمُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ. هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ }

Had We sent down this Qur’¡n upon a mountain, you would have surely seen it humbled [and] go to pieces with the fear of Allāh. We draw such comparisons for mankind, so that they may reflect. He is Allāh—there is no god except Him—Knower of the sensible and the Unseen, He is the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. He is Allāh—there is no god except Him—the Sovereign, the All-holy, the All-benign, the Securer, the All-conserver, the All-mighty, the All-compeller, the All-magnanimous. Clear is Allāh of any partners that they may ascribe [to Him]! He is Allāh, the Creator, the Maker, the Former. To Him belong the Best Names. Whatever there is in the heavens glorifies Him and [whatever there is in] the earth, and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.

- S£rah al-Hashr, 59:21-24

 

 

{قُلْ مَنْ يَكْلَؤُكُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ مِنْ الرَّحْمَانِ بَلْ هُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ رَبِّهِمْ مُعْرِضُونَ}

Say, ‘Who can guard you, day and night, from [the punishment of] the All-beneficent?’ Rather, they are disregardful of their Lord’s remembrance.

 - S£rah al-Anbiy¡, 21:42

 

 

Last Two Verses of S£rah al-Baqarah

 

{آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ رُسُلِهِ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ. لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِنْ نَسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنْتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ}

The Apostle has faith in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and all the faithful. Each [of them] has faith in Allāh, His angels, His scriptures and His apostles. [They declare,] ‘We make no distinction between any of His apostles.’ And they say, ‘We hear and obey. Our Lord, forgive us, and toward You is the return.’ Allāh does not task any soul beyond its capacity. Whatever [good] it earns is to its benefit, and whatever [evil] it incurs is to its harm. ‘Our Lord! Take us not to task if we forget or make mistakes! Our Lord! Place not upon us a burden as You placed on those who were before us! Our Lord! Lay not upon us what we have no strength to bear! Excuse us and forgive us, and be merciful to us! You are our Master, so help us against the faithless lot!’

- S£rah al-Baqarah, 2:285-286

 

 

Supplications (Ad’iyā) To Recite at Bedtime

 

After having recited the suwar and āyāt of Qur’ān mentioned above, then recite the following supplications (ad’iyā), ending with the Tasb¢¦ of az-Zahrā (‘a) before falling asleep.

 

1.      It is reported from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that when the Messenger of Allāh (¥) would retire to bed, he would say:

اللَّهُمَّ بِاسْمِكَ أَحْيَا وَ بِاسْمِكَ أَمُوتُ

By Your Name, O Allāh, I live and by Your Name I die.

 

And when he would wake up, he would say:[42]

 

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَحْيَانِي بَعْدَ مَا أَمَاتَنِي وَ إِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ

All praise is for Allāh who brought me to life after He caused me to die and to Him is the Resurrection.

 

 

2.      It is reported from the Messenger of Allāh (¥) that when you retire to bed then say:[43]

 

اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ أَمْسَكْتَ نَفْسِي فَارْحَمْهَا وَ إِنْ أَرْسَلْتَهَا فَاحْفَظْهَا بِمَا تُحْفَظُ بِهِ عِبَادَكَ الصَالِحِيْن

O Allāh! If you hold back my soul (and cause me to die) then have mercy on it and if you send it (back) then protect it as You protect Your righteous servants.

 

 

3.      It is reported from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that one who recites the following thrice when he goes to bed, will emerge from his sins like the day his mother gave birth to him:[44]

 

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ‏ِ الَّذِي عَلا فَقَهَر، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي بَطَنَ فَخَبَر، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ‏ِ الَّذِي مَلَكَ فَقَدَر، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي عُصِيَ فَغَفَر، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي عُبِدَ فَشَكَر، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ‏ِ الَّذِي يُحْيِي الْمَوْتَى وَ يُمِيتُ الأَحْيَاءَ ‏ وَهُوَ عَلَى‏ كُلِّ شَي‏ءٍ قَدِيْر

All praise is Allāh’s Who exalted, thus dominated. And all praise is Allāh’s Who has been immanent, thus known all things. And all praise is Allāh’s Who has owned all things, thus had power over them all. And all praise is Allāh’s who was disobeyed but forgave. And all praise is Allāh’s who when worshipped, appreciated it (by rewarding). And all praise is Allāh’s Who gives life to the dead, causes the living to die, and He has power over all things.

 

 

4.      Mufa¤¤al b. ‘Umar reports from Imām Ab£ ‘Abd Allāh Ja’far a¥-¯¡diq (‘a) who said, ‘recite when you lie down in bed:

 

أَعُوْذُ بِعِزَّةِ اللَّهِ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِقُدْرَةِ اللَّهِ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِكَمَالِ اللَّهِ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِسُلْطَانِ اللَّهِ، وأعُوْذُ بِجَبَرُوتِ اللَّهِ، وأعُوْذُ بِمَلَكُوتِ اللَّهِ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِدَفْعِ اللَّهِ، وَأعُوْذُ بِجَمْعِ اللَّهِ، وَأعُوْذُ بِمُلْكِ اللَّهِ، وأعُوْذُ بِرَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ، وأعُوْذُ بِرَسُوْلِ اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَذَرَأ وَبَرَأ، وَمِنْ شَرِّ الهَامَّةِ وَالسَامَّةِ، وَمِنْ شَرِّ فَسَقَةِ الجِنِّ وَالإِنْسِِ، وَمِنْ شَرّ فَسَقَةِ العَرَبِ وَالعَجَمِ، وَمِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ فِي اللَيْل وَالنَهَارِ أَنْتَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَا إِنَّ رَبِّيَ عَلَى‏ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيْمٍ

I seek refuge with the might of Allāh; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s omnipotence; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s perfection; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s authority; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s might; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s sovereignty; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s guard; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s wholeness; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s control; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s mercy; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s Messenger (¥) against the evil of whatever He has created, originated and made and from the evil of vermin and venomous creatures and from the evil of sinful jinn and men and from the evil of vicious Arabs and non-Arabs, and from the evil of every creature in the night and day whom You are holding by its forlock. Indeed my My Lord is on a right path.[45]

 

And then seek refuge for whomever you please as well.’[46]

 

In another tradition (¦ad¢th) that has a similar du’ā but with some variation to the words (the differences between the two are highlighted in red), Mufa¤¤al b. ‘Umar says: Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) said to me, ‘if you can, do not spend a night until you have sought refuge with Allāh with eleven statements.’ ‘Inform me (of these),’ I said and he said, ‘say (the following) and seek refuge with it whenever you wish:’[47]

 

أَعُوذُ بِعِزَّةِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِقُدْرَةِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِجَلَالِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِسُلْطَانِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِجَمَالِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِدَفْعِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِمَنْعِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِجَمْعِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِمُلْكِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ )ص( مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَ بَرَأَ وَ ذَرَأَ

I seek refuge with the might of Allāh; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s omnipotence; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s majesty; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s authority; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s beauty; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s defence; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s guard; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s wholeness; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s control; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s countenance; and I seek refuge with Allāh’s Messenger (¥) against the evil of whatever He has created, originated and made.

 

 

5.      It is also reported from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that, ‘if anyone recites the following when he lies down in bed:

 

اللَّهُمَّ إنّي أُشْهِدُكَ أَنَّكَ افْتَرَضْتَ عَلَيَّ طَاعَةَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أبِي طَالِبٍ وَالأَئِمَّةِ مِنْ وُلْدِهِ

O Allāh! I make You a witness that You have made obligatory on me the obedience to ‘Al¢ b. Ab¢ Tālib and the Imāms from his progeny.

 

...and then mentions the names of all the Imāms individually until he stops at the Imām of his time, and then passes away that night, he enters Paradise.’[48] One can therefore continue from the du’ā above as follows:

اَلحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَيْن وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ الحُسَيْن وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيّ وَجَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّد وَمُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَر وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيّ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّد وَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيّ وَالْحُجَّةُ الْقَائِم، صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ اَجْمَعِيْن

Al-°asan and al-°usayn, and ‘Al¢ the son of al-°usayn, and Mu¦ammad the son of ‘Al¢, and Ja’far the son of Mu¦ammad, and M£sa the son of Ja’far, and ‘Al¢ the son of M£sa, and Mu¦ammad the son of ‘Al¢, and ‘Al¢ the son of Mu¦ammad, and al-°asan the son of ‘Al¢ and al-°ujjah al-Qāim, blessings of Allāh be on them all.

 

 

6.      From Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) he said, ‘when any of you retires to bed then let him recite:’[49]

 

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي احْتَبَسْتُ نَفْسِي عِنْدَكَ فَاحْتَبِسْهَا فِي مَحَلِّ رِضْوَانِكَ وَ مَغْفِرَتِكَ وَ إِنْ رَدَدْتَهَا إِلَى بَدَنِي فَارْدُدْهَا مُؤْمِنَةً عَارِفَةً بِحَقِّ أَوْلِيَائِكَ حَتَّى تَتَوَفَّاهَا عَلَى ذَلِكَ

O Allāh! I resign my soul to You so settle it in a place of Your pleasure and forgiveness; and if You return to my body then return it as one who is faithful, knowing the right of Your friends (awliyā) until You cause it to die on that (faith).

 

7.      It is reported that Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) used to recite the following when he slept[50] and in another tradition, he mentioned the Messenger of Allāh (¥) used to recite this before sleep:[51]

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ آمَنْتُ بِاللَّهِ وَ كَفَرْتُ بِالطَّاغُوتِ اللَّهُمَّ احْفَظْنِي فِي مَنَامِي وَ فِي يَقَظَتِي

In the Name of Allāh; I believe in Allāh and disavow the false deity. O Allāh, protect me in my sleep and in my waking.

 

8.      From Khālid b. Naj¢¦ that Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) used to say, ‘when you lie down in bed then recite:’[52]

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَضَعْتُ جَنْبِيَ الأَيْمَنَ لِلَّهِ عَلَى مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفاً لِلَّهِ مُسْلِماً وَ مَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

In the Name of Allāh, I place my right side (sleeping) for the sake of Allāh, on the creed of Abraham (‘a), the ¦an¢f, for the sake of Allāh in submission and I am not of the polytheists.

 

 

9.      Mu¦ammad b. Muslim reports from Imām al-Bāqir (‘a) or Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that one of them said, ‘a person should not forsake reciting the following when he sleeps for that is what (the archangel) Jibrā¢l (‘a) recited (i.e. taught) for the protection of al-°asan and al-°usayn, peace be on them:’[53]

 

أُعِيذُ نَفْسِي وَ ذُرِّيَّتِي وَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِي وَ مَالِي بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ وَ هَامَّةٍ وَ مِنْ كُلِّ عَيْنٍ لَامَّةٍ

I protect myself, my progeny, my household, and my possessions with the perfect words of Allāh, from every devil and vermin and every evil eye.

 

 

10.   From Ab£ Ba¥¢r from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) who said, ‘when you come to bed to sleep, lie down on your right side and say:’[54]

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَباللَّهِ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ، وَعَلَى‏ مِلَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّي أسْلَمْتُ نَفْسِي إِلَيْكَ وَوَجَّهتُ وَجْهِي إِلَيْكَ، وَفَوَّضْتُ أَمْرِي إِلَيْكَ وَأَلْجَأْتُ ظَهْرِي إِلَيْكَ رَغْبَةً وَرَهْبَةً إِلَيْكَ، لاَ مَلْجَأَ وَلاَ مَنْجَا مِنْكَ إِلاَّ إِلَيْكَ‏ اللَّهُمَّ آمَنْتُ بِكُلِّ كِتَابٍ أنْزَلْتَهُ وَبِكُلِّ رَسُولٍ أرْسَلْتَهُ

In the Name of Allāh and with Allāh and the way of Allāh and on the creed of the Messenger of Allāh, blessings of Allāh on him and his family. O Allāh, I surrender myself to You and I turn my face towards You and I entrust my affairs to You and seek refuge with You, in hope and with tranquility. There is no refuge nor safety except with You. O Allāh, I have faith in all of the Book You have revealed and with every messenger You have sent.

 

Then say:

لا إلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيْكَ لَهُ. لَهُ المُلْكُ وَلَهُ الحَمْد يُحْيِي وَيُمِيْت وَيُمِيْتُ وَيُحْيِي‏ وَهُوَ حَيٌّ لا يَمُوْت بيَِدِهِ الخَيْر وَهُوَ عَلَى‏ كُلِّ شَي‏ءٍ قَدِيْر

There is no god but Allāh. He has no partner. To Him belong all sovereignty and all praise. He gives life and death and He causes death and life and He is ever-living and never dies. In His Hand is all good and He has power over everything.

 

Then say:

 

أَعُوْذُ بِاللَّهِ الَّذِي يُمْسِكُ السَمَاءَ أَنْ تَقَعَ عَلَى‏ الأَرْضِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ، مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَمَا ذَرَأ وَبَرَأ وَأَنْشَأ وَصَوَّرَ، وَمِنْ شَرّ الشَيْطَانِ وَشِرْكِهِ وَفَرْعِهِ‏ وَمِنْ شَرِّ شَيَاطِينِ الإِنْسِ وَالجِنّ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَامَّة مِنْ شَرِّ السَامَّةِ وَالهَامَّةِ وَاللاَمّة وَالخَاصَّة، وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَنْزِلُ مِنْ السَمَاءِ وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا،. وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ الأرْضِ وَمَا يَلِجُ فِيهَا. وَمِنْ شَرِّ طَوَارِقِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ إِلاَّ طَارِقَاً يَطْرُقُ بِخَيْرٍ، بِاللَّهِ وَبِالرَحْمَنِ اسْتَعَنْتُ وَعَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ نِعْمَ الوَكِيلُ نِعْمَ المَوْلَى وَنِعْمَ النَصِيْر.

I seek refuge with Allāh, He that holds the heavens from falling on to the earth (and that subsists) only with His permission, from the evil of what He created, originated, made, gave growth to and form; and from the evil of Satan and his associates and minions; and from the evil of the devils from men and jinn; and I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allāh from the evil of vermins and poisonous creatures, from being touched by evil and from death (that is sudden and unfortunate); and from evil that descends from the heavens and ascends to it; and from the evil that comes forth from the earth and descends to it; and from the evil of visitors in the night and during the day, except for the visitor who comes bring good. By Allāh and by the Merciful I seek help and on Him I place my trust. Allāh suffices for me, the best Trustee, the best Master and the best Helper.

 

 

11.   It is reported from Imām al-Bāqir (‘a) that he said, ‘when a person lies down (to sleep) on his right side, then let him say the following (which is very similar to what is given from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) just before this) and then recite the Tasb¢¦ as-Zahrā (‘a):’ [55]

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنّي أَسْلَمتُ نَفْسِي إِلَيْكَ، وَوَجّهْتُ وَجْهِي إِلَيْكَ، وَفَوَّضْتُ أَمْرِي إِلَيْكَ، وَأَلْجَأْتُ ظَهْرِي إِلَيْكَ، وَتَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَيْكَ رَهْبَةً وَرَغْبَةً إِلَيْكَ، لاَ مَلْجَأ وَلا مَنْجَا مِنْكَ إِلاَّ إِلَيْكَ، آمَنْتُ بِكِتَابِكَ الَّذي أَنْزَلْتَ، وَرَسُولِكَ الَّذي أَرْسَلْتَ

In the Name of Allāh; O Allāh, I surrender myself to You and I turn my face towards You and I entrust my affairs to You and seek refuge with You, and place my trust in You, in hope and with tranquility. There is no refuge nor safety except with You. I have faith in the Book You have revealed and the Messenger You have sent.

 

12.   The final act of devotion is to recite the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) as recommended by Imām al-Bāqir (‘a) in the ¦ad¢th above. Also, in his advice to Hishām b. Sālim, Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) asked him to recite the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) when he goes to bed and the Imām detailed the method saying, ‘recite the takb¢r (Allāhu Akbar) 34 times, the tam¦¢d (al-°amdu Lillāh) 33 times and the tasb¢¦ (Sub¦ān Allāh) 33 times.’[56]

 

 

What to Recite When Turning Sides in Bed

1.      From Ab£ Ba¥¢r from Imām Ab£ Ja’far Mu¦ammad al-B¡qir (‘a) concerning the verse of Qur’ān:

 

{كَانُوا قَلِيلاً مِنَ الَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ}

They used to sleep a little during the night.

- S£rah ad-Dh¡riy¡t, 51:17

 

He said, ‘these shall be people who slept, but every time one of them turned (in bed) he said:’[57]

 

الحَمْدُ لِلَّه وَاللَّهُ أكْبَر

All praise is for Allāh and Allāh is greater (than anyone can ever describe)!

 

And in another version of this tradition, the Imām (‘a) said, ‘they recite:’[58]

 

الحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَلا إلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ أكْبَر

 

2.      From Imām ‘Al¢ al-Hādi an-Naqi (‘a), he said, ‘when you wake up from sleep and you turn sides in bed, then recite:’[59]

 

لا إلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم وَهُوَ عَلَى‏ كُلِّ شَي‏ءٍ قَدِير، سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمينَ وَاِلَهَ المُرْسَلِينَ، وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ‏  رَبِّ السَمَاوَاتِ السَبْعِ وَمَا فِيهِنَّ وَرَبِّ الأَرْضِينَ السَبْعِ وَمَا فِيهِنَّ وَرَبِّ الْعَرْشِ العَظِيْمِ، وَسَلامٌ عَلَى‏ الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْحَمْدُ للَّهِ‏ِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ‏

There is no god by Allāh, the Ever-living, the All-subsisting and He has power over all things. Glory be to Allāh, the Lord of the worlds and the God of the apostles; and glory be to Allāh, Lord of the seven heavens and what is in them and Lord of the seven earths and what is in them and Lord of the mighty Throne. And peace be on the apostles and praise is for Allāh, Lord of the worlds.

 

 

3.      And if one gets out of bed in the night then before returning to bed, he should look up to the heavens and recite:

 

{إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآياتٍ ِلأَولِي الأَلْبَابِ. الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَى جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَذَا بَاطِلاً سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ. رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ مَنْ تُدْخِلْ النَّارَ فَقَدْ أَخْزَيْتَهُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ. رَبَّنَا إِنَّنَا سَمِعْنَا مُنَادِيًا يُنَادِي لِلإِيمَانِ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِرَبِّكُمْ فَآمَنَّا رَبَّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَكَفِّرْ عَنَّا سَيِّئَاتِنَا وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ الأَبْرَارِ. رَبَّنَا وَآتِنَا مَا وَعَدْتَنَا عَلَى رُسُلِكَ وَلاَ تُخْزِنَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّكَ لاَ تُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ}

Indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day, there are signs for those who possess intellects. Those who remember Allāh standing, sitting, and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth [and say], ‘Our Lord, You have not created this in vain! Immaculate are You! Save us from the punishment of the Fire. Our Lord, whoever that You make enter the Fire will surely have been disgraced by You, and the wrongdoers will have no helpers. Our Lord, we have indeed heard a summoner calling to faith, declaring, ‘‘Have faith in your Lord!’’ So we believed. Our Lord, forgive us our sins and absolve us of our misdeeds, and make us die with the pious. Our Lord, give us what You have promised us through Your apostles, and do not disgrace us on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed You do not break Your promise.’

- S£rah ªl-i Imrān, 3:190-194

 

This was the practice of the Messenger of Allāh (¥) and it is recommended in a tradition from Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a).[60]

 

 

4.      From Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a), he said, ‘when anyone of you rises in the night then let him recite (the following and when he does so) Allāh (the Exalted) says, “My servant has spoken the truth and thanked Me”:’[61]

 

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّ النَّبِيِّينَ وَ إِلَهِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَ رَبِّ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي يُحْيِي الْمَوْتَى وَ هُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِير

Glory be to the Lord of the prophets and the God of the apostles and the Lord of the oppressed. And all praise is for Allāh who gives life to the dead and He has power over all things.

 

 

To Wake Up at a Particular Time

This matter rightfully belongs in the last chapter concerning Acts of Devotion to Perform at Bedtime for Specific Needs. But we have placed it here because of the assumption that a faithful (mu’min) will have need for this every night because of his or her desire to rise before dawn for ¥alāt al-layl, to plead Allāh’s forgiveness (istighfār) and to supplicate Him.

 

Some of the Infallibles (Ma’sum¢n), peace be on them, have prescribed the last verse of S£rah al-Kahf while others have taught supplications to help one wake up at a particular time. And according to one tradition, just one’s intention suffices:

 

1.      In a verified tradition (¦ad¢th ¥a¦¢¦), Ab£ °amza ath-Thumāl¢ reports from Imām Ab£ Ja’far Mu¦ammad al-Bāqir (‘a) who said, ‘anyone who makes an intention to wake up at a particular time and Allāh knows that from him (as a firm intention), He appoints for him two angels who stir him at that time.’[62]

 

2.      It is reported from al-Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a), ‘anyone who recites the end (i.e. last verse) of (S£rah) al-Kahf when he sleeps will wake up at the time he wishes.’[63] The verse is as follows:

 

{قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ يُوحَى إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُوا لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا وَلاَ يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا}

Say, ‘I am just a human being like you. It has been revealed to me that your God is the One God. So whoever expects to meet his Lord - let him act righteously, and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord.’

 - S£rah al-Kahf, 18:110

 

 

3.      It is also related from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that the Messenger of Allāh (¥) said, ‘one who wishes [a share in] night vigil should recite when going to bed:

 

اللَّهُمَّ لا تُؤمِنِّي مَكْرَكَ وَلا تُنْسِني ذِكْرَكَ وَلا تَجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الغَافِلِيْنَ، أَقُوْمُ إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ سَاعَةَ )كَذَا وَكَذَا(

O Allāh, let me not feel safe from Your Plan and do not make forgetful of Your remembrance nor make me of the heedless. I shall rise, Allāh-willing at the time of (such-and-such)

 [ Replace the words (such-and-such) in parenthesis with the time you wish to rise. ]

 

Then Allāh will appoint for him an angel to wake him up at that time.’[64]

 

 

4.      And it is reported from Ab£ al-°asan al-Awwal Imām M£sa al-Kā¨im (‘a), ‘one who wishes to wake up in the night for supplication and for beseeching Allāh’s forgiveness at any time that Allāh desires him to do so, should recite before sleeping:’

 

اللَّهُمَّ لا تُنْسِني ذِكْرَكَ وَلا تُؤمِنِّي مَكْرَكَ وَلا تَجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الغَافِلِيْنَ، وَأنْبِهْنِي لأَحَبِّ السَاعَات إلَيْكَ أَدْعُوْكَ فِيهَا فَتَسْتَجِيبَ لِيَ وَأَسْأَلُكَ فَتُعْطِيني وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَتَغْفِرُ لِي إِنَّهُ لا يَغْفِرُ الذُنُوْبَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ يَا أَرْحَمَ الرَاحِمِينَ

O Allāh! Do not make me forgetful of Your remembrance nor make me feel safe from Your Plan, nor make me from those who are heedless. And cause me to wake up at the time most loved by You that I may call out to You in it and You may answer me; and I may ask You and You may grant me; and I may plead Your forgiveness and You may forgive me. None forgives sins except You, O Most Merciful of all.

 

Then he said, ‘Allāh will send to him two angels to wake him up. And if he fails to wake up, He commands them to seek forgiveness for him. And if he should die that night, he dies a martyr. And if he does wake up, anything he asks Allāh for at that time, Allāh will grant him.’[65]

 

 

5.      And finally, in a slightly different version of the supplication above, it is related from Imām M£sa b. Ja’far al-K¡¨im (‘a), ‘one who wishes to awake in the night for prayer and not to be taken over by sleep should recite when he lies in bed:’[66]

 

اللَّهُمَّ لا تُؤْمِنِّي مَكْرَكَ وَلا تُنْسِني ذِكْرَكَ، وَلا تُوَلِّ عَنِّي وَجْهَكَ وَلا تَهْتِكْ عَنِّي سِتْرَكَ، وَلا تَأْخُذُنِي عَلَى‏ تَمَرُّدُي وَلا تَجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الغَافِلِينَ، وَأَيْقِظْنِي مِنْ رَقْدَتِي وَسَهِّلْ لِيَ الْقِيَامَ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةِ فِي أَحَبِّ الأَوْقَاتِ إِلَيْكَ، وَارْزُقْنِي فِيهَا الصَلاةَ وَالشُّكْرَ وَالدُعَاءَ، حَتَّى‏ أَسْأَلُكَ فَتُعْطِينِِي وَأَدْعُوْكَ فَتَسْتَجِيْبَ لِيَ وَأسْتَغْفِرُكَ فَتَغْفِرْ لِي إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْغَفُورُ الرَحِيمُ

O Allāh! Do not make me feel secure from Your Plan nor make me forget Your remembrance and do not turn Your countenance away from me nor strip from me Your veil (that conceals my sins), and do not take me to task for my rebellion nor make me of the heedless. And wake me from my sleep, making it easy for me to rise in this night in the moments most loved by You and bless me in it prayers and thanksgiving and supplication, so that I ask You and You grant me and I call out to You and You reply me and I seek your forgiveness and You forgive me. Indeed You are the All-forgiving, the Merciful.

 

It is our understanding that any one of these prescriptions will work and one does not need to recite all of them in order to wake up at a particular time. We have found the recitation of the last verse of S£rah al-Kahf to have always worked without fail and many scholars have also testified to this as a miraculous never-failing formula.

 

 

A Final Word on the Etiquette of Sleeping and Some of Acts of Devotion from Ibn ±āw£s’s Falā¦ as-Sā’il (chp. 30):

 

Before you lie down, recall that you are a humble slave that wants to sleep and who stretches his or her legs before a Mighty and Magnificent King. Therefore be wary of your etiquette and manners in your speech and actions that they are appropriate before your Master. With a realization of how small and insignificant you are, lie down on your right side with surrender, in submission and entrusting all to Allāh as is appropriate in that state.

 

And if you are able, then be like a slave who sleeps only after seeking permission from his Master. Face the qibla, sleeping on your right, like one who has lost a loved one, or a parent who has lost a child, and places his or her palm on his or her cheek.

 

In sleeping, one loses a lot of opportunities to gain proximity to Allāh and therefore one should intend by that sleep to gain strength to obey Allāh after awakening. When one sleeps unrepentant then it is as if all the sins of one’s heart has risen over one’s head like a mountain hovering above ready to crush a person, just as the case of the Banu Isrā¢l for whom Allāh says:

 

{وَإِذْ نَتَقْنَا الجَبَلَ فَوْقَهُمْ كَأَنَّهُ ظُلَّةٌ}

When We plucked the mountain [and held it] above them as if it were a canopy (and they thought it was about to fall on them)

- S£rah al-A’r¡f, 7:171

 

We now relate another tradition from Imām Ab£ ‘Abd Allāh Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that he said, ‘when one of you goes to bed, a noble angel and a rebellious devil rush to him. The angel says to him: “end your day with good and start your night with good” and the devil says to him, “end your day with sin and start your night with sin.”’ Then the Imām said, ‘so if he obeys the noble angel and ends his day with the remembrance of Allāh and starts his night with the remembrance of Allāh when he goes to bed, by reciting the takb¢r 34 times and tasb¢¦ 33 times and tam¦¢d 33 times, the angel drives back the devil from the man and he is protected by the trustees of the angel until he wakes up. When he wakes up, the devil hastens to him and says to him similar to what he said to him before he slept and the angel too does the same. So if he remembers Allāh, the Mighty and Glorious, like he did before, the angel repels the devil from him and Allāh records for him devotion for the whole night.’[67]

 

Applying Kohl before Sleep & Its Supplication

 

And from what is also recommended at bedtime is applying kohl. It is related that the Prophet (¥) used to apply kohl with antimony (ithmid) when he intended to retire to bed.[68] In one report the Prophet (¥) advised the use of antimony perfumed with musk.[69]

 

And it is reported from Imām ar-Ri¤ā (‘a) who said, ‘one who suffers from weak eyesight, then let him apply seven dabs of kohl when he sleeps, using antimony (ithmid), four in the right (eye) and three in the left.

 

And from him, peace be on him, as well is reported that, ‘kohl at the time of sleep is a protection from the water that descends in the eye.’

 

And it is reported that he, peace be on him, used to recite the following when applying kohl:

 

اَللَّهُمَّ َّ إنِِي أسْألُكَ بِحَقِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّد اَنْ تُصَلِي عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّد وَأنْ تَجْعَلَ النُوْرَ فِي بَصَرِي وَالبَصِيْرَةَ فِي دِيني وَاليَقِيْنَ فِي قَلْبِي وَالإخْلاصَ فِي عَمَلِي وَالسَلامَةَ فِي نَفْسِي وَالسَعَةَ فِي رِزْقِي وَالشُكْرً لَكَ أبَدًا مَا أبْقَيْتَنِي إنَكَ عَلَى كُلِ شَيء قَدِيْر

O Allāh, I ask You for the sake of Mu¦ammad and the progeny of Mu¦ammad that You bless Mu¦ammad and the progeny of Mu¦ammad and that you place light in my eyes, insight in my religion, conviction in my heart, sincerity in my action, safety in my self, increase in my sustenance, and gratitude to You for as long as You keep me alive; indeed You have power over all things.

 

As for the ‘insight (ba¥¢rah) in my religion’ (mentioned in this du’ā), it comes from knowledge of the Qur’ān and Sunnah, which in turn make one’s conviction firmer than the mountains. For it is related from the Imāms, peace be on them, that one who takes his religion (d¢n) from the Qur’ān and the Sunnah of the Prophet (¥), mountains will fall away before he does and one who takes his religion from the mouths of people will be refuted (easily) by others. And in another report: One who enters faith (¢mān) with knowledge (‘ilm) will be firmly established and his faith will benefit him whereas one who enters it without knowledge will exit it as he entered it.[70]

 

 

 

Chapter Three
A Discussion on the Method of the Tasb¢¦ of Sayyida Fā§ima az-Zahrā (‘a)

 

Know that what is popularly acknowledged from traditions is that the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) is recommended on two occasions: after the daily canonical prayer (¥alāh) and at bedtime.

 

Some of the traditions about reciting it at bedtime mention the tasb¢¦ (saying Sub¦ān-Allāh) before the tam¦īd (saying al-°amdu-lillāh); however, verified (¥a¦¢¦) traditions concerning the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) in general say that the tam¦¢d comes before the tasb¢¦.

 

The purpose of this chapter is to further explain the differences between these traditions.

 

It should be noted that even though our scholars (‘ulamā) – may Allāh, the most High, sanctify their souls – have differed on the sequence between the tam¦¢d and the tasb¢¦ when recited at bedtime, they are unanimous that the start of the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) is always the takb¢r (saying Allāhu Akbar). And this is because of a ¥a¦¢¦ tradition on the authority of Ibn Sinān from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) concerning the start.[71]

 

The A¦ad¢th that Tam¦¢d Precedes Tasb¢¦

 

Shaykh at-Tāifa a§-±£si has related in his at-Tahdhīb – with a sound chain of transmission (sanad ¥a¦¢¦) – from Mu¦ammad b. ‘Adhāfir who said:

‘I went with my father to Ab£ ‘Abd Allāh (a¥-¯ādiq), peace be on him, and he (my father) asked him about the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a). So he said, ‘Allāhu Akbar’ until he counted thirty-four times; then he said, ‘al-°amdu-lillāh’ until he reached sixty-seven; then he said, ‘Sub¦ān-Allāh’ until he got to a hundred, counting them with his hand in one statement.’[72]

 

And in al-Kāf¢, it is related that Imām Ja’far a¥-¯¡diq (‘a) said to Hish¡m b. S¡lim, ‘recite the Tasb¢¦ of F¡§ima az-Zahrā (‘a) when you go to bed: Laud Allāh (takb¢r) thirty-four times, praise Him (tam¦¢d) thirty-three times and glorify Him (tasb¢¦) thirty-three times.’[73]

 

The A¦ādith that Tasb¢¦ Precedes Tam¦¢d

 

The reports whose apparent words suggest the tasb¢¦ precedes the tam¦¢d are specific to bedtime only. For example, Ra¢s al-Mu¦addith¢n Shaykh a¥-¯ad£q has related in his al-Faq¢h from Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a) that he related to a man from the Banu Asad an event concerning himself and his wife Fā§ima az-Zahrā (‘a), the daughter of the Prophet (¥). The gist of the lengthy narration is that Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a) saw that az-Zahrā (‘a) had filled water skins and drawn water from wells until it affected her health; she had ground mill using the hand millstone until her hands had blistered; her clothes were covered with dust due to sweeping and cleaning the house and they had become black with kindling fire under the cooking pot. Seeing all this hardship befalling her, he advised her to ask her father, the Messenger of Allāh (¥) to provide for her a maid who would help her. Fā§ima (‘a) went to see her father but seeing him occupied with others felt ashamed to ask and returned home.

Later the Messenger of Allāh (¥) came to see them and to ask his daughter what she had come for and Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a) explained to the Messenger of Allāh (¥) saying it was he that had sent her to ask.

 

So the Messenger of Allāh, blessings and peace be on him and his household, said, ‘shall I not teach both of you what is better for you than a maid?[74] When you retire to sleep, then exalt Allāh (i.e. recite the takb¢r) thirty four times; and glorify Him (i.e. recite the tasb¢¦) thirty three times; and praise Him (i.e. recite the tam¦¢d) thirty three times.’

 

Hearing this, Fā§ima (‘a) said, ‘I am pleased (with this) from Allāh and His Messenger. I am pleased (with this) from Allāh and His Messenger.’[75]

 

Similarly it is reported in al-K¡fi from D¡w£d b. Farqad from his brother that, ‘Shah¡b b. ‘Abd Rabbih asked us to inform Ab£ Abd Allāh (Imām a¥-¯¡diq) (‘a) that a woman was frightening him in his sleep (i.e. as a recurring nightmare). So he (the Imām) said, “tell him: take a rosary, do the takb¢r thirty-four times, and tasb¢¦ thirty-three times and tam¦¢d thirty-three times.”’[76]

 

Conclusion

 

What we have seen is that the traditions that suggest tasb¢¦ before tam¦¢d are all related to sleep time only whereas the traditions that mention tam¦¢d before tasb¢¦ are for both, sleep and after prayers i.e. at all times in general.

 

Shaykh Bahā ad-Din al-‘Āmil¢ in his Miftā¦ al-Falā¦ has analyzed the traditions on the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) in great detail and compared the usage of conjunction particles in Arabic and their subtle differences in the science of ¦ad¢th (such as when wa is used instead of fa or thumma). He found that the traditions mentioning the tasb¢¦ before the tam¦¢d used the particle ‘wa’ (‘and’) which only acts as a conjunction but does not restrict the order[77] whereas the traditions mentioning tam¦¢d before tasb¢¦ use the particle ‘thumma’ (‘then’) and therefore suggest a sequence. For example, a report from Ab£ Ba¥¢r states that Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) said concerning the Tasbih az-Zahrā (‘a), ‘commence with the takb¢r thirty-four times, then (thumma) the tam¦¢d thirty-three times, then (thumma) the tasb¢¦ thirty-three times.’[78] Shaykh al-‘ªmil¢ also draws from other examples in jurisprudence (fiqh) and its principles (u¥£l) before concluding as follows:

 

The more reliable sequence of the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) is what is popularly known and practiced i.e. first Allāhu Akbar thirty-four times; thereafter al-°amdu-lillāh thirty-three times; and finally Sub¦ān-Allāh thirty-three times.

 

Shaykh Bahā ad-Din al-‘Āmil¢ has also addressed the practice of some scholars who decided to follow both by reciting the tam¦¢d before the tasb¢¦ after the daily ¥alāh but the reverse before sleep. He has strongly criticized them and cautioned against this, saying it has not been suggested by any previous reputed scholar of either School despite the fact that the matter has not escaped their attention. (For those interested in the discussion, see p. 592-597 of the Miftā¦ al-Falā¦.)

 

 

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ on the Tasb¢¦ az‑Zahrā (‘a)

 

Regarding the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a), Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ writes in his al-Bāqiyāt a¥-¯āli¦āt:[79]

 

The authentic traditions (a¦ād¢th) regarding the excellence of this tasb¢¦ are innumerable. It is reported from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that he said, ‘we command our children with the Tasb¢¦ of Fā§ima, peace be on her, as we command them to the canonical prayer (¥alāh). Persist in it, for one who persisted in (performing) it never became wretched (shaqī).’

 

It is also given in reliable reports that the ‘excessive remembrance’ (adh-dhikr al-kath¢r) that is prescribed in the Qur’ān (33:41) refers to this Tasb¢¦ and therefore one who makes a habit of reciting it after the canonical prayer (¥alāh) has remembered Allāh with an ‘excessive remembrance’ and acted on the verse:

 

{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا}

O you who have faith! Remember Allāh with frequent remembrance.

 - S£rah al-A¦zāb, 33:41

 

And with a reliable chain of transmission (sanad mu’tabar), it is reported from Imām Mu¦ammad al-Bāqir, peace be on him, that he said, ‘one who glorifies (Allāh) with the Tasb¢¦ of Fā§ima, Allāh’s peace be on her, then seeks forgiveness from Allāh, Allāh forgives him. And while it is a hundred (chants) on the tongue, it is a thousand in the scales (mīzān); and it repels the devil (shay§ān) and pleases the Lord (Rabb).’

 

And with a sound transmission (sanad ¥a¦¢¦) it is reported from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that he said, ‘one who glorifies (Allāh) with the Tasb¢¦ of Fā§ima, peace be on her, before his feet turn away from the obligatory prayer (¥alāt al-farī¤a), Allāh forgives him and makes Paradise mandatory for him.’

 

And in another reliable chain from him (Imām a¥-¯ādiq), peace be on him, as well he said: ‘the Tasb¢¦ of Fā§ima az-Zahrā (‘a) after every obligatory prayer is more loved by me than praying a thousand units (rak’ah) of prayer every day.’

 

And in a reliable report from Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him, he said, ‘never was Allāh worshipped with any glorification or extolling, more excellent than the Tasb¢¦ of Fā§ima az-Zahrā (‘a); for if there was anything more excellent that it, the Prophet (¥) would have prescribed that to Fā§ima (‘a).’

 

The traditions regarding its excellence are therefore more than can be contained within the scope of this work.

 

 

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ on the Method of Performing the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a)[80]

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ has also mentioned the two variations in the order of the tam¦¢d and tasb¢¦ and said, ‘some scholars have tried to join these two traditions by saying that the first method (of tam¦¢d before tasb¢¦) be acted upon after the daily canonical prayers (¥alāh) and the second method at bedtime. But acting on the first method is more popular and favoured from what is apparent.’

 

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ has also mentioned that it is recommended to recite the Tahlīl (i.e. ‘lā ilāha ilallāh’) once, after the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a), quoting a tradition from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) who said, ‘one who glorifies (Allāh) after every obligatory prayer with the Tasb¢¦ of Fā§ima, peace be on her, and ends it with “lā ilāha ilallāh”, Allāh will forgive him.’

 

 

Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ on the Rosary used for Tasb¢¦[81]

As for the rosary used during the glorification of Allāh (s.w.t.), Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢ has said it is more excellent (af¤al) to use one that is made with the clay from the grave of Imām al-°usayn, peace be on him. And it is also recommended (musta¦ab) for a person to carry with him a rosary (sab¦a) made from the clay of al-°usayn, peace be on him, at all times for it acts as a protection from afflictions (balāya) and is a source of endless reward.

 

That said, one must be cautious when carry the Tasb¢¦ made from the clay (turbah) of al-°usayn (‘a) not to take it with him or her into the washroom or any place of impurity (najāsah), just as one must be cautious not to keep it on oneself when one is ritually impure (i.e. in janābah). It is also important not to let children disrespect, play with or step on the rosary made from the clay of the places where the pure Infallibles (‘a) are buried.

 

It is reported that the rosary that Sayyida Fā§ima az-Zahrā (‘a) originally used was made with a woolen (¥£f) thread only, each ‘bead’ marked by a knot in the thread. She would rotate it with her hand as she exalted and glorified Allāh. This was until °amza b. ‘Abd al-Mu§§alib (‘a) (the uncle of Ras£l Allāh (¥)) was martyred at U¦ud, when she began using the clay from his grave to make her rosary and people would imitate her. And this continued until Imām al-°usayn (‘a), the master of all martyrs (sayyid ash-shuhadā), was martyred in Karbala when people gave up using the clay from °amza’s grave and began using al-°usayn’s, peace be on him.

 

And it is reported from the Awaited Imām (al-Munta¨ar) (‘a) - may Allāh hasten his return and may our souls be sacrificed for him! - that he said, ‘one who forgets the remembrance (dhikr of Allāh) but has a rosary from the turbah of al-°usayn (‘a) in his hand (then) the reward (of performing the dhikr) is written for him.’

 

And it is related from Imām a¥-¯ādiq, peace be on him, that the rosary from the grave of al-°usayn, peace be on him, glorifies Allāh in the hands of a man even when he is not glorifying Him (with his tongue). And he (a¥-¯ādiq), peace be on him, also said, ‘one who rotates the beads (made) from the grave of al-°usayn, peace be on him, and asks for forgiveness just once, Allāh writes it for him seventy times. And if the rosary stops in his hand and he does not glorify Allāh with it, then seven times (is written for him) for each bead in it.’

 

And according to another report: if he rotates it with remembrance (dhikr) then for every bead, forty good deeds are written for him. And it is related that the °£r al-‘Ayn (beautiful maidens of Paradise), when they see any angel descending to the earth for any matter, they ask them to bring them back as gifts, beads and clay from the grave of al-°usayn, peace be on him.

 

And in a sound (¥a¦¢¦) tradition from al-Imām M£sa al-Kā¨im, peace be on him, he said, ‘a faithful (mu’min) should never be without five things: siwāk[82], a comb, a prayer rug, a rosary with (at least) thirty-four beads, and an aq¢q ring.’

 

It appears that a rosary from porcelain is also excellent but it is better if its earth has not been subjected to fire. And from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq, peace be on him, it is also reported, ‘one who recites one (round of) tasb¢¦ with a rosary made from the earth of al-°usayn (‘a)’s grave, Allāh writes for him four hundred good deeds and erases from him four hundred sins; four hundred of his wishes are granted and he is elevated four hundred degrees (before Allāh).’

 

It is also reported that it is recommended (musta¦ab) for the thread of the rosary to be green in colour.

 

 

Chapter Four
Acts of Devotion at Bedtime for Specific Needs

For Protection from Nightmares

 

1.      From Mu’¡wiya b. ‘Amm¡r from Ab£ ‘Abd Allāh Imām a¥-¯¡diq (‘a) who said, ‘when a person sees in his dreams what is unpleasant then let him turn to the other side and recite:

 

{إِنَّمَا النَّجْوَى مِنْ الشَّيْطَانِ لِيَحْزُنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَيْسَ بِضَارِّهِمْ شَيْئًا إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ...}

Indeed [malicious] secret talks are from Satan, that he may upset the faithful, but he cannot harm them in any way except by Allāh’s permission...

- S£rah al-Mujādilah, 58:10

 

Then he should recite:[83]

أَعُوذُ بِمَا عَاذَتْ بِهِ مَلائِكَةُ اللَّهِ المُقَرَّ بُونَ وَأنْبِيَاءُ اللَّهِ المُرْسَلُونَ وَعِبَادُ اللَّهِ الصَالِحُونَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا رَأَيْتُ وَمِنْ شَرِّ الشَيْطَانِ الرَجِيْمِ

I seek refuge (with Allāh) from what the angels nearest to Allāh seek refuge from, as do the prophets of Allāh and messengers and the righteous servants of Allāh, from the evil of what I saw and from the evil of the accursed Satan.

 

 

2.      In a slightly different version of the du’ā, it is reported from Imām al-B¡qir (‘a) and Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a), they said, ‘F¡§ima (‘a) complained to the Messenger of Allāh (¥) of what (unpleasantness) she saw in her sleep and the Messenger of Allāh (¥) said to her, ‘whenever you see anything like that then say:[84]

 

أَعُوذُ بِمَا عَاذَتْ بِهِ مَلاَئِكَةِ اللَّهِ المُقَرَّ بُونَ، وَأنْبِيَاءُ اللَّهِ المُرْسَلُونَ، وَعِبَادُ اللَّهِ الصَالِحُونَ مِنْ شَرِّ رُؤيَايَ الَّتِي رَأَيْتُ أَنْ تَضُرَّنِي فِي دِيني وَدُنْيَايَ

I seek refuge with what the closest angels to Allāh seek refuge from, and (what) the apostles from the prophets of Allāh (do) and the righteous servants of Allāh, from the evil of my nightmare that I saw, that it should harm me (in any way) in my religion or my (affairs of the) world.

 

The unpleasant dream that she had is given in Khawanju¢’s commentary of Miftā¦ al-Fal¡¦ (p. 612-3). The gist of it is that Sayyida F¡§ima (‘a) dreamt that the Prophet (¥) set out of Mad¢na with ‘Al¢, herself, al-°asan and al-°usayn (‘a). They came to a place where the Prophet (¥) purchased a sheep and ordered for it to be slaughtered. When they ate its meat, they all died. This was what she dreamt. The next day, the Prophet (¥) summoned the Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) and took them out of Mad¢na exactly as she had seen in her dream and the events unfolded exactly the same until the sheep was slaughtered. So F¡§ima (‘a) wept and told the Prophet (¥) of her dream. He prayed to Allāh and Jibr¡¢l (‘a) came to him and informed him this was a devil who seeks to bother the righteous with unpleasant dreams. So the Prophet (¥) then taught F¡§ima (‘a) this supplication.[85]

 

 

3.      And a third ¦ad¢th also mentions a very similar du’ā. From Ab£ Ba¥¢r from Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) who said, ‘if you see in your sleep what you dislike then say when you wake up:’[86]

 

أَعُوذُ بِمَا عَاذَتْ بِهِ مَلاَئِكَة اللَّهِ المُقَرّبُونَ، وَأنْبِيَاءُ اللَّهِ المُرْسَلُونَ، وَعِبَادُ اللَّهِ الصَالِحُونَ، وَالأَئِمَّةُ الرَاشِدُونَ المَهْدِيُّونَ، مِنْ شَرِّ مَا رَأَيْتُ وَمِنْ شَرِّ رُؤْيَايَ أَن تَضُرَّنِِي وَمِنَ الشَيْطَانِ الرَجِيم

I seek refuge from what the near angels of Allāh seek refuge, and the prophets of Allāh, the apostles, and the righteous servants of Allāh and the rightly-guided Imāms, guided by Allāh, from the evil of what I saw and the evil of my dream, that it should harm me, and (I seek Allāh’s refuge) from the cursed Satan.

 

 

4.      Al-Wal¢d b. ¯ab¢¦ reports that Shih¡b b. ‘Abd Rabbih said to him, ‘convey my sal¡m to Ab¡ ‘Abd Allāh (a¥-¯¡diq (‘a)) and inform him that I am troubled with nightmares in my sleep.’ Al-Wal¢d says, ‘so I conveyed this to him and he (a¥-¯ādiq (‘a)) said, ‘say to him when he goes to bed, he should recite the maw’udhatayn (S£rah al-Falaq and S£rah an-Nās) and ªyat al-Kurs¢. And the ªyat al-Kurs¢ is more excellent than everything else.’[87]

5.      In another tradition, Imām a¥-¯¡diq (‘a) prescribed for one who has nightmares that he should recite at bedtime the following ten times:

 

 لا إلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَريْكَ لَهُ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيْتُ وَيُمِيْتُ وَيُحْيِي وَهُوَ حَىٌّ لا يَمُوتُ

There is no god by Allāh, the only One, He has no partner. He gives life and death and causes death and life and He is ever-living and does not die.

 

Then he should recite the Tasb¢¦ az-Zahrā (‘a) and he will overcome it.[88]

 

 

6.      In a longer variation of this tradition, Dāwud b. Farqad reports from his brother that Shihāb b. ‘Abd Rabbih asked him to ask Imām a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) about a woman that kept tormenting him (in nightmares). So he (the Imām (‘a)) said, ‘tell him: take the rosary (misbā¦) and recite the takb¢r 34 times, the tasb¢¦ 33 times and the tam¦¢d 33 times. And recite the following ten times:’[89]

 

لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ. لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ يُحْيِي وَ يُمِيتُ وَ يُمِيتُ وَ يُحْيِي بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ وَ لَهُ اخْتِلَافُ اللَّيْلِ وَ النَّهَارِ وَ هُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِير

There is no god except Allāh, the One and Only, Who has no associate. His is the Kingdom and for Him is all the praise. He gives life and brings death and He brings death and gives life. In His Hand is all good and for Him is the alteration of the night and day; and He has power over all things.

 

For Safety from Thieves

 

From al-A¥bagh b. Nub¡ta from Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n (‘a) who said, ‘I swear by Him Who sent Mu¦ammad with the truth and honoured his household (ahl al-bayt), anything you seek protection from: fire or drowning or choking or theft or the return of a riding animal to its owner or a lost fugitive, its solution is in the Book of Allāh, the Exalted. Whoever wants knowledge of that then let him ask me.’ So a man stood up and said, ‘Commander of the Faithful, tell me about theft for I am constantly being robbed in the night, one thing after another.’ He (‘a) said, ‘when you go to bed, recite:’[90]

 

{قُلْ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوْ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَانَ أَيًّامَّا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى وَلاَ تَجْهَرْ بِصَلاَتِكَ وَلاَ تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ سَبِيلاً. وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَلِيٌّ مِنَ الذُّلِّ وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيرًا}

Say, ‘Invoke ‘‘Allāh’’ or invoke ‘‘the All-beneficent.’’ Whichever [of His Names] you may invoke, to Him belong the Best Names.’ Be neither loud in your prayer, nor murmur it, but follow a middle course between these, and say, ‘All praise belongs to Allāh, who has neither taken any son, nor has He any partner in sovereignty, nor has He [taken] any ally out of weakness,’ and magnify Him with a magnification [worthy of Him].

- S£rah al-Isr¡, 17:110-111

 

The same is also confirmed in a ¦ad¢th from Imām al-°usayn (‘a) from the Prophet (¥) who said, ‘a protection for my nation from theft is (S£rah al-Isra, verse 110-111).’[91]

 

For Protection from Vermin & Other Harmful Creatures

 

It is reported from Imām Mu¦ammad al-Bāqir, peace be on him, that he said, ‘I am the guarantor for one who recites the following, that neither scorpions will harm him nor any vermin until he wakes up:’[92]

 

 اَعُوْذُ بِكَلمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَامَاتِ الَتِى لا يُجَاوِزُ هُنَّ بَرً وَ لا فَاجِرً مِنْ شَرِّ مَا ذَرَاءَ وَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا بَرَاءَ، وَ مِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ دَابَةٍ هُوَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَا اِنَّ رَبِّى عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيْم

I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allāh that cannot be surpassed by one who is righteous or a transgressor, from the evil of what He made and from the evil of what He originated and from the evil of every creature whom He holds by its forlock. Indeed my Lord is on a right path.

 

For Protection from Beasts

 

From Ab£ °amza ath-Thum¡l¢ from Imām ‘Al¢ b. al-°usayn Zayn al-‘ªbid¢n (‘a) he said, ‘one who recites the following when he goes to bed, Allāh will protect him and keep away from him the evil of every beast:’[93]

 

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الأوَّلُ فَلا شَي‏ءٌ قَبْلَكَ، وَأَنْتَ الظَاهِرُ فَلا شَي‏ءٌ فَوْقَكَ، وَأَنْتَ البَاطِنُ فَلا شَي‏ءٌ دُونَكَ، وَأَنْتَ الآخِرُ فَلا شَي‏ءٌ بَعْدَكَ، اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ السَمَاوَاتِ السَبْع، وَرَبَّ الأَرْضِينَ السَبْع، وَرَبَّ التَوْرَاةِ وَالإنْجِيلِ وَالزَبُورِ وَالفُرْقَانِ الْحَكِيْم، أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ أَنْتَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَا إِنَّكَ عَلَى‏ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيم

O Allāh! You are the First and there is nothing before You; and You are the Manifest, there is nothing above You; And You are Hidden, there is nothing beneath You; and You are the Last, there is nothing after You. O Allāh, Lord of the seven heavens and Lord of the seven earths and Lord of the Tawrāt and Inj¢l and the Wise Furqān (i.e. Qur’ān), I seek refuge with You from the evil of every living creature Whom You have grabbed by its forlock (i.e. who is in Your complete control). Indeed You are on a straight path.[94]

 

For Protection from Nocturnal Emission (I¦tilām)

 

From Imām Ja’far a¥-¯¡diq (‘a) – with a ¥a¦¢¦ transmission – he said, ‘one who fears experiencing a wet-dream should recite at bedtime:’[95]

 

اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِن الاِحْتِلامِ وَمِنْ شَرِّ الأَحْلامِ وَأنْ يَلْعَبَ بِيَ الشَّيطَانُ فِي اليَقَظَةِ وَالمَنَامِ

O Allāh, I seek refuge with You from nocturnal emission and the evil of dreams and that Satan should fool around with me whilst awake or in sleep.

 

The words ‘whilst awake’ (in the supplication) could be a reference to forms of sin such as masturbation, fornication, pornography and so forth (and we seek refuge from Allāh from such base acts of sins!) that would lead one to become ritually impure (jun£b).

 

 

For Protection from Collapse of the Roof

 

When one is sleeping at a place whose structure is doubtful and it appears to be dilapidated or one is sleeping in an area that is prone to tremors and earthquakes, the following supplication is useful.

 

It is reported from Imām ‘Al¢ ar-Ri¤ā (‘a) from his father Imām M£sa al-Kā¨im (‘a) that he said, ‘a house will never collapse on anyone who recites the following (verse of Qur’ān) when he intends to sleep:’[96]

 

{إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ أَنْ تَزُولاَ وَلَئِنْ زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا}

Indeed Allāh sustains the heavens and the earth lest they should fall apart, and if they were to fall apart there is none who can sustain them except Him. Indeed He is all-forbearing, all-forgiving.

- S£rah al-Fā§ir, 35:41

 

For Protection from Drowning or Burning

 

It is reported from Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n Imām ‘Al¢ (‘a) that one who recites the following two verses of the Qur’ān before going to sleep, will be safe from drowning or burning:[97]

 

{إِنَّ وَلِيِّيَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ وَهُوَ يَتَوَلَّى الصَّالِحِينَ}

My guardian is indeed Allāh who sent down the Book, and He takes care of the righteous.

- S£rah al-A’rāf, 7:196

 

{وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ وَالأَرْضُ جَمِيعًا قَبْضَتُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَالسَّماوَاتُ مَطْوِيَّاتٌ بِيَمِينِهِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ}

They do not regard Allāh with the regard due to Him, yet the entire earth will be in His fist on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens, scrolled, in His right hand. Immaculate is He and exalted above [having] any partners that they ascribe [to Him].

- S£rah az-Zumar, 39:67

 

A Cure for Insomnia

 

1.      The Messenger of Allāh (¥) taught the following supplication to cure insomnia:[98]

 

اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ السَمَاوَاتِ وَمَا أظَلَّتْ، وَرَبَّ الأرْضِيْنَ وَمَا أَقَلَّتْ، وَرَبَّ الشَيَاطِيْنِ وَمَا أَضَلَّتْ، كُنْ حِرْزِي مِنْ خَلْقِكَ جَمِْيعاً أَنْ يَفْرُطَ عَلَيَّ أَحَدُهُمْ أَوْ أَنْ يَطْغَى‏ عَزَّ جَارُكَ وَلا إلَهَ غَيْرُكَ

O Allāh, Lord of the heavens and what they shade; and Lord of the earths and what they carry; and Lord of the devils and what they misguide; be my protector from all Your creation, lest any of them should cross boundaries with me or rebel; Mighty is Your protection and there is no god besides You.

 

 

2.      It is related from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯¡diq (‘a) that, ‘when you suffer from insomnia then recite:’[99]

 

سُبْحَانَ اللَّه ذِي الشَأنِ، دَائِمِ السُلْطَانِ، عَظِيمِ البُرْهَانِ، كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ

Glory by to Allāh, Master of the affairs; the Ever-subsisting King; the mighty Proof, every day He is engaged in some work!

 

 

3.      In another report, M£sa b. Ism¡’¢l b. M£sa (‘a) b. Ja’far (‘a) reported that his father narrated from his father from Imām ‘Al¢ (‘a) that F¡§ima (‘a) complained to the Messenger of Allāh (¥) of sleeplessness and he said, ‘recite, my dear daughter:’

 

يَا مُشْبِعَ البُطُونِ الجَائِعَةِ، وَيَا كَاسِيَ الجُسُومِ العَارِيَةِ، وَيَا سَاكِنَ العُرُوقِ الضَارِبَة، وَيَا مُنَوَّم الْعُيُونِ السَاهِرَةِ، سَكِّنْ عُرُوقِي الضَارِبَة وَاْذَنْ لِعَيْنِي نَوْمَاً عَاجِلاً

O Satiator of hungry stomachs, O Clother of naked bodies; O Calmer of restless veins; O Sleeper of wakeful eyes; calm my restless veins and permit my eye to sleep swiftly.

 

So she recited this and it (the sleeplessness) went away.[100]

 

 

4.      From Mu’āwiya b. Wahb from Imām Ja’far a¥-¯ādiq (‘a) that one of his sons came to him one night and said, ‘father, I wish to sleep (but cannot).’ So he (the Imām (‘a)) said, ‘my son, recite:’[101]

 

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَعُوذُ بِعَظَمَةِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِعِزَّةِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِقُدْرَةِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِجَلاَلِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِسُلْطَانِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَ أَعُوذُ بِعَفْوِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِغُفْرَانِ اللَّهِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِرَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ مِنْ شَرِّ السَّامَّةِ وَ الْهَامَّةِ وَ مِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ صَغِيرَةٍ أَوْ كَبِيرَةٍ بِلَيْلٍ أَوْ نَهَارٍ وَ مِنْ شَرِّ فَسَقَةِ الْجِنِّ وَ الإِنْسِ وَ مِنْ شَرِّ فَسَقَةِ الْعَرَبِ وَ الْعَجَمِ وَ مِنْ شَرِّ الصَّوَاعِقِ وَ الْبَرَدِ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدِكَ وَ رَسُولِكَ

I bear witness that there is no god but Allāh and that Mu¦ammad (¥) is His servant and messenger. I seek refuge with the greatness of Allāh and I seek refuge with the might of Allāh and I seek refuge with the power of Allāh and I seek refuge with the majesty of Allāh, and I seek refuge with the authority of Allāh; Allāh has power over all things; and I seek refuge with the pardon of Allāh and I seek refuge with Allāh’s forgiveness, and I seek refuge with Allāh’s mercy from the evil of the vermin and the venomous creature and from the evil of every creature, small or big, by night or day, and from the evil of sinful jinn and men and from the evil of the sinful Arab and non-Arab and from the evil of lightning and hail. O Allāh bless Mu¦ammad, Your servant and messenger.

 

 

To See Ras£l Allāh (¥) in One’s Sleep

 

1.      From Imām Ja’far a¥-¯¡diq (‘a), ‘one who wishes to see our master the Messenger of Allāh (¥) in his sleep should, after praying the last ‘Ish¡ prayer, perform a bath (ghusl) to clean himself. Then pray four rak’ahs with four hundred ªyat al-Kursi (100 in each rak’ah). Then send blessings (recite ¥alawāt) on Mu¦ammad and ªl-i Mu¦ammad a thousand times. Then sleep (with clean clothes and) on clean sheets that have never been used for even lawful sexual relations. And he should place his right palm under his right cheek and recite a hundred times:

 

سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَالحَمْدُ للَّهِ‏ِ وَلا إلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ أكْبَرُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ

Glory be to Allāh and All-praise is for Allāh. And there is no god but Allāh and Allāh is the greatest and there is no power or strength except Allāh’s

Then he should recite a hundred times:

 

مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ

Whatever Allāh wishes!

 

And he shall see the Prophet (¥) in his dream.’[102]

 

 

2.      And if you wish to send greetings to the Prophet (¥) as if you did it in person and he replied you, then it is reported from the Prophet (¥) that he said, ‘one who goes to bed and then recites S£rah Tab¡rak al-ladh¢ bi yadihil mulk (i.e. S£rah al-Mulk – chapter 67) and then recites the following four times:

 

اللَّهُمَّ رَبِّ الحِلِّ وَالحَرَام وَالْبَلَدِ الحَرَامِ بَلِّغْ رُوْحَ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِّي تَحِيَّةً وَسَلاماً

O Allāh, Lord of the Sacred Mosque and the area around it and the Sacred Town (i.e. Makkah), convey to the soul of Mu¦ammad, on my behalf, salutations and greetings.

 

Then Allāh appoints for him two angels who come to the Prophet (¥) and say to him, ‘O Mu¦ammad! So-and-so sends on you peace and mercy and blessings of Allāh (alaykas sal¡m wa ra¦matullāhi wa barakātuhu).’[103]

 

 

3.      And if you wish to see Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n ‘Al¢ b. Ab¢ ±ālib (‘a) in your dream then recite when you sleep:[104]

‏ اللَّهُمَّ إنَّي أسْأَلُكَ يا مَنْ لَه لُطْفُهُ خَفِيٌّ وَأَيَادِيهِ بَاسِطَةٌ لاتَنْقَضِي، أَسْأَلُكَ بِلُطْفِكَ الْخَفِيِّ الَّذي مَا لَطُفْتَ بِهِ لِعَبْدٍ إِلاَّ كُفِيَ أَنْ تُرِيَني مَوْلايَ أمِيرَ المُؤمِنينَ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أبِي طَالِبٍ فِي مَنَامِي‏

O Allāh, I ask You, O One Whose grace is delicate and subtle and His support is widespread and never ending; I ask You by Your subtle and delicate grace, which no servant is graced with except it suffices him, that You show me my master, Am¢r al-Mu’min¢n, ‘Al¢ b. Ab¢ Tālib, in my sleep.

 

 

To see a Deceased during Sleep

 

When you wish to see a deceased relative then sleep with purity (§ah¡rah) (i.e. wu¤£) and lie on your right side and recite the Tasb¢¦ of F¡§ima az-Zahrā (‘a). Then say:

 

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الحَيُّ الَّذِي لا يُوصَفُ وَالإيمَانُ يُعْرَفُ مِنْهُ، مِنْكَ بَدَتِ الأشْيَاءُ وَإلَيْكَ تَعُوْدُ، فَمَا أَقْبَلَ مِنْهَا كُنْتَ مَلْجَأَهُ وَمَنْجَاهُ، وَمَا أَدْبَرَ مِنْهَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَلْجَأ وَلا مَنْجَا مِنْكَ إِلاَّ إِلَيْكَ، فَأَسْأَلُكَ بِلا إلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ، وَأَسْأَلُكَ بِبِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَحْمَنِ الرَحِيمِ، بِحَقِّ مُحَمَّدٍ(ص) سَيِّدِ النَبِيِّينَ، وَبحَقِّ عَلِيٍّ خَيْرِ الوَصِيِّينَ، وَبِحَقِّ فَاطِمَةَ سَيِّدَةِ نسَاءِ العَالَمِينَ، وَبِحَقّ الحَسَنِ وَالحُسَينِ اللَّذَينِ جَعَلْتَهُمَا سَيِّدَي شَبَابِ أهْلِ الجَنَّةِ عَلَيْهِم أجْمَعِينَ السَلام، أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى‏ مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَأنْ تُرِيَني مَيِّتِي فِي الحَالِ الَتِي هُوَ فِيْهَا

O Allāh, You are the Ever-living who cannot be described; and faith is only known from it. From You commenced all things and to You they return. Whatever advanced from it, You were its refuge and safety and whatever retreated from it had no refuge; and there is no safety except with You. So I ask you for the sake of ‘there is no god by You’ and I ask You for the sake of ‘In the Name of Allāh, the Beneficent, the Merciful’; for the sake of Mu¦ammad (¥), the master of the prophets and for the sake of ‘Al¢ (‘a), the best of trustees (to the Prophet (¥)) and for the sake of Fā§ima (‘a), the leader of the women of the world, and for the sake of al-°asan (‘a) and al-°usayn (‘a), whom You have made the masters of the youth of the inhabitants of Paradise, on them all be peace; that You bless Mu¦ammad (¥) and his household (‘a) and that you show me my deceased in the condition that he or she is.

 

And you will, Allāh willing, see him.[105]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- End of Book One -

wal ¦amdu lillāh



[1] The sequence in Miftā¦ al-Falā¦ starts with the ‘Acts of Devotion from Dawn to Sunrise’ as its first chapter. We have started with the ‘Acts of Devotion from Bedtime’ because in our experience, it is an easier sequence to follow if one is attempting to perform all the acts of devotions within one complete day whilst fasting.

[2] S£rah an-Nabā, 78:9

[3] Ghurar al-°ikam, ¦. 1461

[4] Al-Faq¢h, 4/402 ¦. 5865

[5] S£rah al-Baqarah, 2:255

[6] S£rah az-Zumar, 39:42

[7] S£rah adh-Dhāriyāt, 51:17-18

[8] S£rah as-Sajdah, 32:16-17

[9] Al-Ikhti¥ā¥, 218

[10] Al-Kāf¢, 5/84 ¦. 1-2

[11] ‘Ilal ash-Sharā’i, 1/295

[12] Al-Kāf¢, 8/213/259

[13] ¯ad£q, Āmāli, 2/452

[14] ¯ad£q, Āmāli, 1/345; ‘Uy£n Akhbār ar-Ri¤ā (‘a), 2/69/320

[15] Al-Khi¥āl, 67/229

[16] Bi¦ār, 76/183/7

[17] Thawāb al-A’māl, 1/35

[18] Al-Faq¢h, 1/64/469 ¦. 1353; Bi¦ār, 76/182/6

[19] The only exception is Sayyid ad-D¡m¡d who said that for sleep, tayammum is preferred instead of wu¤£ but the first opinion is more reliable according to Shaykh Bahā ad-Din al-‘ªmil¢ (Miftā¦ al-Falā¦).

[20] S£rah al-An’ām, 6:160

[21] Ma’āni al-Akhbār, 1/234; ¯ad£q, ªm¡li, 37 ¦. 5

[22] Bi¦ār, 76/190/21

[23] Al-Khi¥āl, 140/613

[24] Al-Kāf¢, 1/513-514, ¦. 27

[25] Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢, Bāqiyāt a¥-¯āli¦āt, chp. 1, section 3, on “The Etiquette of Sleeping”

[26] In countries like the Middle-East where summer nights are very warm, it is common for people without air-conditioning to go up to the terrace and sleep under the open sky seeking cooler breeze.

[27] Bi¦ār, 76/210, ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, v. 5, p. 116, ¦. 5468

[28] Ibn ±āw£s, Falā¦ as-Sā’il, chp. 30

[29] Al-Khi¥āl, 631

[30] Al-K¡f¢, 2/49/539 ¦. 15

[31] ¯ad£q, ªmāli, 3/22

[32] Al-Faq¢h, v. 1 ¦. 1356

[33] Al-K¡f¢, 2/623 ¦. 14; Thawāb al-A’m¡l, p. 153, ¦. 2; ‘Uddat ad-D¡’i, p. 279. Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 121. Majm’a al-Bay¡n, v.. 10, p. 810; al-Kaf’ami, al-Mi¥b¡¦, p. 47. In ad-Da’aw¡t p. 218 ¦. 591 it also adds, ‘... and Allāh will suffice for him with Munkar and Nak¢r.’

[34] Bi¦ār, 76/210, ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, 4/292 ¦. 4719; al-Balad al-Am¢n, p. 33

[35] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536 ¦. 4

[36] Some have said the verse of Sakhra is only 7:54 and others have said it is 7:54-56, so we have included all three verses.

[37] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/539-540 ¦. 16

[38] Or ‘until it becomes clear to them that it [i.e. the Qur’¡n, or Islām] (or he) [i.e. the Apostle] is the truth.’

[39] At-Tahdh¢b, 2/175, ¦. 699; al-Faq¢h, v. 1 ¦. 1355; ‘Uddat ad-D¡’i p. 282; Thawāb al-A’m¡l, p. 134 ¦. 1

[40] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536 ¦. 6

[41] Or ‘by those who restrain preventively,’ that is, deter people from committing sins.

[42] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/539-540 ¦. 16; al-Faq¢h, 1/480

[43] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/539 ¦. 14; ‘Ilal ash-Sharā’i, 2/589

[44] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/535, ¦. 1; al-Faq¢h v. 1, ¦. 1357; al-Kaf’am¢, al-Mi¥b¡¦, p. 45

[45] The last part of this supplication: ‘...whom You are holding by its forlock.... on a right path’ is drawn from the Qur’an, S£rah H£d, 11:56.

[46] Ibn ±āw£s, Falā¦ as-Sā’il, chp. 30 quoting from Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 120

[47] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/537-8 ¦. 9

[48] Ibn ±āw£s, Falā¦ as-Sā’il, chp. 30; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, 5/44 ¦. 5326

[49] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536 ¦. 2

[50] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536 ¦. 3

[51] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536 ¦. 4

[52] Al-Kāf¢ 2/49/538 ¦. 10

[53] Al-Faq¢h, v. 1 ¦. 1352

[54] Ibn ±āw£s, Falā¦ as-Sā’il from Al-Balad al-Am¢n, p. 33; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, 5/44 ¦. 5325

[55] Al-Faq¢h, v. 1 ¦. 1351; At-Tahdh¢b v. 2 ¦. 435; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, v. 5 ¦. 5324

[56] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536 ¦. 6

[57] Bih¡r, 76/217, ¦. 24

[58] At-Tahdh¢b, 2/335 ¦. 1384

[59] Misbā¦ al-Mutahajjid p. 127

[60] The entire prescription from Imām ‘Al¢ (‘a) is reported in al-Khi¥āl, 140/625

[61] Al-Kāf¢ 2/49/538 ¦. 11

[62] Al-Faq¢h 1/479 ¦. 1384

[63] Al-Kāf¢, 2/540, ¦. 17; 2/632 ¦. 21; al-Faq¢h v. 1 ¦. 1359 ‘Uddat ad-D¡’i, p. 280

[64] Al-K¡fi, 2/49/540 ¦. 18

[65] Bih¡r, 76/216, ¦. 23; Misbā¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 133; Kanz al-’Ummāl, 15/348 ¦. 41326

[66] Mi¥b¡¦ al-Muta¦ajjid, p. 123; Bi¦¡r, 76/217 ¦. 24

[67] Bi¦ār, 76/210 ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, 1/146, ¦. 221 and 5/40 ¦. 5314

[68] Al-Kāf¢, 6/493, ¦. 1

[69] Ibn al-Ath¢r, Nih¡ya, 2/275

[70] Khawanju¢’s Commentary of Miftā¦ al-Falā¦, p. 611

[71] At-Tahdh¢b, 3/66

[72] At-Tahdh¢b, 2/105-106

[73] Al-K¡fi, 2/536 ¦. 6

[74] The word khādim in Arabic can represent a male servant (ghulām) or a female servant i.e. maid (jāriya) and is applicable for both – Miftā¦ al-Falā¦, p. 592.

[75] Al-Faq¢h, 1/320-321

[76] Al-K¡fi, 2/536-7, ¦. 7

[77] Some have opposed this notion that the Arabic conjunction particle wa does not enforce the order in which acts are done. They have argued that the verse “irka’u wa ‘sjudu” (‘bow and prostrate’) in Qur’ān 22:77 proves that wa does in fact restrict order otherwise it would be permissible to do suj£d before ruku’. But such an argument is flawed because the restriction to perform ruku’ before suj£d does not come from the wa particle in this Qur’ān verse – it comes from other primary sources such as the ¦ad¢th of the Prophet (¥), ‘pray as you see me pray’ allu kam¡ ra’aytum£ni u¥alli) (Aw¡li al-La¡li, 1/198 ¦. 8) or for example, when the verse ‘Indeed Safa and Marwa are among Allāh’s sacraments’ (Qur’ān, 2:158) was revealed, the Prophet (¥) said, ‘start with that which Allāh has started with’ (ibda’u bi m¡ badaAll¡hu bihi) (Kanz al-‘Umm¡l, ¦. 26137) meaning start the Sa’i from Safa because it is mentioned first. It would not have been necessary for the Prophet (¥) to point this out if it was obvious from the conjunction particle ‘wa’ in the verse.

[78] Al-K¡fi, 3/342 ¦. 9

[79] Shaykh ‘Abbās al-Qumm¢, Bāqiyāt a¥-¯āli¦āt, chp. 1, section 1, on “Tasb¢¦ Fā§ima az-Zahrā (‘a)”

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Also called miswāk; a teeth-cleaning twig made from branches of the Salvadora persica tree (known as arak in Arabic and peelu in Urdu). Its bristles are sometimes softened in rose water. It has a long well-documented history and is reputed for its medicinal benefits. It also features prominently in Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.

[83] Al-K¡fi, 8/142 ¦. 106; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, 5/111 ¦. 5456

[84] Al-K¡fi, 8/142, ¦. 107; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, 5/111 ¦. 5457

[85] Tafs¢r al-Qumm¢, 2/355-6

[86] Misbā¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 127; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il 5/112 ¦. 5458; Tafs¢r al-Qumm¢, 2/356

[87] Bi¦ār, 76/211 ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, 4/292 ¦. 4718; Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 121

[88] Bi¦ār, 76/211 ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, 5/45 ¦. 5328

[89] Al-Kāf¢, 2/49/536-7 ¦. 7

[90] Al-K¡fi, 2/624 ¦. 21; Bi¦ār, 76/212 ¦. 23

[91] Al-Am¡n, p. 131; ad-Da’aw¡t, p. 160 ¦. 443. In other traditions, the word ‘sword’ occurs instead of ‘theft’.

[92] Al-Faqīh, v. 1 ¦. 1360

[93] Bih¡r, 76/214, ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, 5/45, ¦. 5327

[94] Cf. Qur’ān, 11:56

[95] Al-K¡fi, 2/49/536, ¦. 5; al-Faqīh, v.1 ¦. 1361; Misbā¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 122; Misbā¦ al-Kaf’am¢, p. 47

[96] At-Tahdh¢b, 2/117 ¦. 240; al-Faq¢h v. 1, ¦. 1362; Thawāb al-‘Am¡l, p. 183, ¦. 1

[97] Sayyid Mus§afa al-M£saw¢, Fawāid al-Qur’ān

[98] Bih¡r, 76/213 ¦. 23; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, 5/126 ¦. 5488

[99] Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 121; Mustadrak al-Was¡’il, 5/26, ¦. 5487

[100] Al-Ash’ith¢y¡t, p. 248; Bi¦ār, 76/213 ¦. 23

[101] Al-Kāf¢ 2/49/537 ¦. 8

[102] Bi¦ār, 76/214, ¦. 23

[103] Kanz al-’Ummāl, 15/346, ¦. 41320

[104] Bi¦ār, 76/215, ¦. 23 and 53/330

[105] Mi¥b¡¦ al-Mutahajjid, p. 22; Bi¦¡r, 76/215, ¦. 23